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author: Vladimir Petrovsky

Diplomacy as an instrument of good governance


The functioning of diplomacy is influenced by a complicated combination of different interrelated factors. This paper briefly analyses their impact on the evolution of diplomacy and discusses how diplomacy as an instrument of good governance should adjust itself to meet the new challenges, to become more relevant, open and agile, to modify its methods and to fully utilise opportunities offered by the technological revolution.


I wish to begin my statement be expressing my deep gratitude to the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic studies for convening this Conference on Modern Diplomacy. For the first time top specialists from different countries are gathered to discuss, in all aspects, diplomacy as an instrument of international communication and negotiation. It is not by chance that Malta has initiated this meeting. For all who are involved in international politics, this country has been associated with very successful diplomacy since the first days of its independence in 1964. The handwriting of Maltese diplomacy can be clearly seen in the activities of the United Nations and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, in promoting regional co-operation in the Mediterranean.

Our conference is a most timely event. Each time a major transformation in the international system occurs, the role of diplomacy in world politics is revised. This issue was on the international agenda at the beginning of the twentieth century, and now, on the threshold of the new millennium, the debate reoccurs. The exchange of views among the participants will help to better understand what should be the purpose and the method of diplomacy in the age of global transformation.

The efforts of the international community to find diplomatic solutions to the present Iraqi crisis adjoin a supplementary flavour to our conference.

New Challenges

One hundred years ago the question of the future of diplomacy was raised as a result of technological progress – the invention of the radio and telegraph and the intervention of public into the domain of foreign policy. The first factor brought the apprehension that diplomats would become “honorary mailmen” and the second raised the issue of open diplomacy. However, the role of diplomacy in the twentieth century has not been restricted by these two factors.

The functioning of diplomacy is influenced by a complicated combination of different interrelated factors and I would like to start with a brief analysis of their impact on the evolution of diplomacy.

To begin with, there is a set of political factors. During most of the twentieth century, two world wars, the Cold War, the rivalry of two super powers, the ideologization of international affairs and military confrontation have made diplomacy a subsidiary instrument of power politics and ideology. As a result, diplomacy has very often executed the “dance of death.” The end of the Cold War has radically changed the international political scene. Moreover, today we are facing the shift of the civilizational paradigm, which affects not only the major units of world polities – the states – but which also brings new actors into the forefront of international relations.

The major political factor influencing diplomacy is the relative decline of the role of the national governments. Today governments are facing stern competition from other actors. Private sector, religious groups, immigrants, media and other entities of the civil society are demanding from the government that their interests be taken into consideration and that they have a say in making and implementing foreign policy. People want to travel freely, to conduct business abroad or to be involved in various types of cultural exchange.

Perhaps the most active “intruders” into the modern diplomacy from outside are non-governmental organisations (NGOs). This is particularly well seen from the UN viewpoint. For example, in Geneva there are currently about 1,400 NGOs officially registered with the UN Office. All of them are international, and have branches in at least two or more countries. Although their status is different from that of the diplomats, in practice they often participate in the diplomatic process, in particular in the promotion and discussion of such issues as human rights and environmental protection. Nowadays, international decisions are more often shaped according to the opinions of the NGOs. Gradually they are expanding the sphere of their influence. Last year NGOs prevented the adoption of the Convention on the Copyright Law in Electronic Media which was prepared by the International Telecommunications Union. Perhaps the most vivid example of their influence is the world-wide campaign to ban anti-personnel land-mines which led to the signature in Ottawa last December of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines.

Curiously, not only NGOs but legislative branches of the states themselves are contributing to this diplomatic process. The parliamentarians of the world have successfully set up a structure of global and regional interaction and are now claiming a role in diplomatic meetings which was traditionally reserved for the executive branch.

An important aspect of the “degovernmentalization” of foreign affairs is the growing involvement in the international interactions of local or provincial authorities. I had an opportunity to observe this phenomenon on numerous occasions. For example, it is not uncommon for the heads of a local government to visit a UN agency because they wish to participate in its programmes directly rather than through the national government. A few years ago this was difficult to imagine. During the conference of the mayors of the Mediterranean cities in Barcelona, many recognised that they often have more close economic or cultural ties with their partners across the sea than with their national capitals. Many big cities and provinces have enough resources not just to influence the national governments but also to actually maintain their own “diplomatic” agencies.

The immediate implication of this development for the diplomatic practitioners is that now, in addition to their colleagues representing formally recognised states, they also have to deal with numerous other non-state counterparts who conduct their own “foreign policy.”

On the macro level, one of the major developments is the proliferation of multinational institutions and regional and subregional organisations. The EU, APEC, ASEAN, CIS, NAFTA, – this is just a short list of the most well known transnational structures which claim part of their member’s sovereignty. The major motive behind their creation is the same as in the case of the increased activity of the local authorities – to facilitate cross-border co-operation and to weaken or eliminate restrictions imposed by the national states, such as customs tariffs.

The second set of factors that makes the life of a modern diplomat increasingly difficult is of an economic nature. In general I would say that economic diplomacy is gradually taking over the traditional politics-oriented diplomacy. A lot has been written in recent years about the phenomenal growth of transnational economic interactions. Indeed, with the huge expansion of international trade, the power of private companies and the electronic transfer of money, private entrepreneurs and fund managers are eclipsing central bankers and finance ministers.

Meanwhile the international economy is becoming more and more competitive. With the rapid development of the Pacific Rim countries, and the opening to the outside world of the economies of such huge states as China and Russia, the world market has expanded dramatically, but so has the number of economic actors. Governments everywhere are primarily concerned with maintaining the competitiveness of their economies. Accordingly, private economic decisions are now largely controlling political choices of the governments, and diplomats have to devote more time and energy than ever before to the creation of a favourable environment for trade and commerce.

Last but not least, an important factor influencing modern diplomacy is the revolution in telecommunications. This is a big issue that deserves special attention. Of particular relevance to the diplomatic services are two technological developments – satellite broadcasting and digital networks including the Internet. I will not go into detail on the technological problem, as this afternoon we will have a special session on this issue. I would like just to give you a few examples of the use of modern technology at the United Nations.

One of the functions of the diplomatic missions accredited to UNOG is to collect UN documents and send them to their Foreign Ministries or other government agencies in their capitals. A few years ago UNOG introduced an electronic system of document distribution. It is no longer necessary for the missions’ staff to collect documents from the Palais des Nations – they can obtain them via computer connection without leaving their offices. Now we are about to introduce another innovation. Soon the documents database will be connected to the Internet. Accordingly, the Foreign Ministries will be able to retrieve the documents they need, directly bypassing the missions. In fact, some Foreign Ministries have already subscribed to this new service and we have started to receive requests for particular documents. This could mean in particular that the missions are losing one of their functions.

To take a further example, currently the senior managers at the UN are being provided with video-conferencing equipment. This technology is already widely used in many large companies. The cabinet meetings of the Secretary-General are held with the participation of Geneva, Vienna and Nairobi senior managers using video equipment. I understand that national foreign services are also experimenting with this kind of facility. In future we could easily imagine a situation where presidents, prime ministers or foreign ministers would be able to hold direct instantaneous face-to-face communication with each other, in addition to simultaneous data transfer. The consequences of this technological development for the diplomatic services could be quite significant. How should the role of the embassies or the missions change in this environment?

All this testifies to the increasing interdependence in the world. Now, problems which affect one part of the world’s population can spread very rapidly to the entire planet. Like passengers of Leonardo da Vinci’s ship, all of us – rich and poor, women and men, young and old, white and black – share a common destiny. In the words of Albert Einstein “the world is one or nothing.”

The process of globalisation, which strengthens the “oneness” of the world is, at the same time, accompanied by the fragmentation and localisation by the growing gap between rich and poor nations. Moreover, this process is characterised by the acceleration of the pace of events. Time has become “compressed.”

All these transformations bring new challenges for diplomacy on a global level: the maintenance of positive peace and comprehensive security, democratisation, the promotion of human rights, economic co-operation and sustainable development, facilitation of humanitarian actions, prevention of terrorism and criminal activity.

Today diplomacy is called upon to help political and economic leaders to channel the global changes in an evolutionary, non-violent, democratic rule-based manner. One of its top priorities is facilitation of good governance, both on national and international levels. The prospect of good governance provides an opportunity for the renaissance of diplomacy which, throughout the centuries, played the role of an intermediary between governments and acquired a unique experience in this field. Now it has a chance to become an instrument of international governance. How can diplomacy cope with this new challenge?

Diplomacy as an Instrument of Good Governance

To begin with I should like to stress that for modern diplomacy, whose only asset is the software, it is important to maintain a balance between traditional innovations. Despite all the changes in the international environment the past experience of diplomacy is of great value and it is ultimately important to keep links in time. The classical texts on diplomacy of François De Calliers, Harold Nicolson, Ernest Sato and Jules Cambon are as useful reading for a diplomat today as they were a century ago.

One of the major lessons in the history of diplomacy is that the personal factors continue to play a key role. As far back as in seventeenth century, a great Frenchman in diplomacy, François De Calliers wrote: “The good diplomat must have an observant mind, a gift of application which rejects being diverted by pleasures or frivolous amusements, a sound judgement which takes the measure of things as they are and which goes straight to the goal by the shortest and most natural paths without wandering into meaningless and endless refinements and subtleties. The diplomat must be quick, resourceful, a good listener, courteous and agreeable. Above all, the good negotiator must possess enough self-control to resist the longing to speak before he has thought out what he actually intends to say. He must have a calm nature, be able to suffer fools gladly, which is not always easy, and should not be given to drinking, gambling or any other fantasies. He should also have some knowledge of literature, science, mathematics, and law.”

At the threshold of the twentieth century, another famous author, the British diplomat Ernest Sato, described diplomacy as an application of intellect and tact to conduct foreign affairs. In my view, a modern diplomat is discreet, practical, careful, and with a sense of responsibility. I also think that in modern diplomacy the feeling of momentum is of crucial importance. As a whole, diplomats are very good at preserving the traditions of their profession. However, there is a lot in the legacy of the past that diplomacy has to abandon. Unfortunately, despite changes of huge significance to diplomacy that have taken place in recent years, the mechanisms of traditional diplomacy have barely begun to adjust. The Cold War has gone out of diplomacy, but in many cases diplomatic behaviour remains loyal to it. This includes, among other things, thinking only in terms of power equilibrium. Methods of diplomacy are still strongly influenced by military thinking – diplomacy as the war by other means, or as a zero-sum game.

To become an efficient tool of good global governance diplomacy needs first to overcome the stereotypes of ideology and military confrontation. Its task today is to search not for the balance of power, but for the balance of interest. The top priority today is to reinvigorate in full scope traditional methods of diplomacy – the search for compromise solutions. The all or nothing mentality no longer works. A partial and balanced approach is an answer to the new geopolitical and economic realities.

According to the political stereotypes of the Cold War, diplomats of different countries are considered to be opponents, each trying to reach his goal at the expense of the other. No doubt, the primary mission of a diplomat is to protect the national interests of his country. However, we all have a common aim – good governance both on global and national levels. We all strive for a better world, a world without violence and poverty, a world that provides security and justice for all. Thus, diplomats must learn to co-operate without sacrificing the national interests of their countries. In many other professions one can witness the existence of a corporate spirit. Unfortunately it does not happen often among diplomats. However, such club relations could be of great help to each and all of them.

The corporate spirit of the diplomatic community does not mean that corporatism should prevail over the national interest of the country which a diplomat represents. By articulating the national interests of his country the diplomat provides the possibility to better understand its position. This makes the country predictable in its international behaviour which is of supreme importance in our time of change. Attempts to please both a foreign government and his own government renders disservice to the diplomat.

The international diplomatic partnership is now more feasible than before, in particular because of the gradual unification of the national styles of diplomacy. International organisations and multilateral diplomacy are effective “melting pots” of cultural differences. Diplomatic methods are becoming universal. However, national styles still exist and should be studied and taken into consideration in the practical diplomatic work. National style is difficult to define though it is an important ingredient of the art of diplomacy. But of course a national style should not be mixed up with an inappropriate behaviour when a so-called diplomat disregards local cultural, religious and specific features of other nations.

Another stereotype concerns confidentiality in diplomacy. Diplomacy is often accused of too much secrecy and indeed, for centuries diplomacy was conducted entirely in private. The Cold War has tremendously strengthened this pattern of behaviour. However, in the world of openness and free information flows, the cult of diplomatic confidentiality looks rather archaic. Though every professional diplomat knows that in certain situations confidentiality is unavoidable, it does not mean that the profession requires him to keep quiet. Lack of openness and in particular misconstruing the truth is incompatible with modern diplomacy. This leads to the important problem of interaction between diplomacy and mass media which deserves particular attention nowadays.

Multilateral Diplomacy

All these observations are applicable to both bilateral and multilateral diplomacy. However, the latter has some specific problems. For me multilateral diplomacy is of particular interest and concern since I am involved in it on a daily basis. I would like to share with you some of these concerns and ideas on how multilateral diplomatic interaction can be improved. Multilateral diplomacy is often considered to be a type of superstructure over bilateral diplomacy. I think these are two sides of the same coin and none excludes the other. Interaction between bilateral and multilateral diplomacy creates a new pattern of political behaviour. A good example is the negotiation of a nuclear test ban. In the past test ban treaties were the result of bilateral Soviet-American negotiations. Only CTBT has been worked out at the Conference on Disarmament. Multilateralism has not excluded bilateralism or other types of negotiation. To use a modern technical analogy, I would say that bilateral negotiations are similar to using a mobile telephone, whilst multilateral negotiations resemble using the Internet. They can naturally complement each other.

More than that, multilateral negotiations, despite their being time-consuming, are a very effective safeguard against hegemonistic and similar intentions. This has become more evident at the dawn of multilateral diplomacy. When the series of congresses which followed the treaty of Vienna of 1815 at last came to an end, the British Foreign Secretary, Canning, returning from conferences, was said to have praised a state of normal bilateral diplomacy which he summed up as “each for himself and God for us all.” Undoubtedly multilateral diplomacy drastically limits the egoistical aspirations of the states.

Although multilateral negotiations are basically similar to bilateral, a number of sophisticated methods and techniques have been developed in multilateralism to cope with extensive diplomatic interactions. In the United Nations and other multilateral fora there is an official hierarchy of committees and sub-committees and a semi-official system of groups of states formed on the basis of geographic or economic proximity. For example, there are the groups of African, Latin American and Arab States, the EU States or the Group of 77 developing countries which actually comprises more than one hundred states.

Perhaps, the major peculiarity of the multilateral talks is the importance of the rules of procedure. When, as in the case of the United Nations, 185 delegations have to communicate with each other at the same time, there must be some rather clear and strict rules to maintain orderly interactions. As the well-known British historian, Harold Nicolson, once noted during a large international conference – the matters of organisation and procedure become no less important than the political issues. If poorly handled they can become a major disintegrating factor.

The post-Cold War multilateralism is characterised by more complex agendas of conferences and negotiations with larger numbers of issues and the growing involvement of experts, citizens groups and NGOs. Multilateral diplomacy is trying to adapt to these new conditions. However, this process is painfully slow, Many aspects of multilateral diplomacy still need to be revised, starting with procedural and methodological issues.

First of all there should be a clear line of distinction between negotiations and treaty-making. The process of multilateral negotiations consists of two stages: exploratory, as the initial stage, and treaty-making as the highest stage. The latter could be subdivided into the definition of parameters of a future agreement and the working out of it. Of course, the division is conditional. There is no Berlin Wall between the different stages. Bearing in mind this simple structure, it is not difficult to build the negotiations process in such a way that the result is achieved quickly and minimal resources are used. Unfortunately in some negotiation fora, the participants confuse the different stages and throw the whole process into disorder. Such negotiations may last for years and consist of endless positional statements.

One of the favourite negotiation methods during the Cold War was the linkage of unrelated issues. This was a rough way of forcing the counterpart to make concessions. Though the international environment has drastically changed, this method is still in use today. Modern diplomacy needs the opposite approach. Compromise requires what I call constructive parallelism in all areas of negotiation, which presupposes that progress in one area creates the opportunity for advancement in other directions. Compromise is neither a capitulation nor a sign of weakness. The art of compromise is a concession in secondary matters, not in principles. It should be noted, however, that not everything depends on the negotiators. If there is no political will even the best negotiator cannot do much.

There are a lot of debates on the expansion of the conferences. In my view, the principal failures come not so much from the enlargement of fora, which sometimes provides positive results in the creation of open-ended structures, as from the nature of issues themselves and the absence of political will to find compromise solutions.

In the field of structured multilateral diplomacy there is surprising resistance to innovation. The lack of flexibility on the part of the member states is a major problem with the UN reform. The reform programme announced recently by the United Nations’ Secretary-General, Mr. Kofi Annan, is quite radical and includes significant changes in the structure of the organisation, its functions and priorities. However, the changes adopted by the General Assembly concern only one UN body – the Secretariat. As far as the restructuring of other major bodies is concerned, the proposals of the Secretary-General are still under consideration.

Meanwhile, changes in the major United Nations bodies are of critical importance. Multilateral fora, including the UN, are frequently criticised for being too slow, in particular when dealing with conflict situations. When one speaks of a multifaceted, multidimensional, broad approach to security, conflict threats, and the need for preventive actions, one implies that diplomacy comes cheaper than infantry battalions. Diplomats can be more effective, not in stopping aggression once it has occurred, but earlier, in coping with civil combat, frontier disputes and the danger which we see when people who are condemned by geography to live together are instructed by their leaders that it is their duty to hate and kill others. But it is true, if there is a role for international diplomacy, it has to move earlier and be better organised for preventive actions which undoubtedly strengthen the new role of multilateral institutions as a safety net for crisis and conflict.

As for the role of multilateral institutions with regard to consensus building on policy issues, and setting norms and standards, it should be strengthened through increased attention to monitoring in all fields. Take for example, human rights. The commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration needs a greater emphasis on practical implementation, which requires us all to be even more penetrating about the legal obligations.

At the same time, diplomacy should not monopolise conflict prevention and solution. For example, the legal tools could be used more extensively. The International Court of Justice which was created precisely to help to resolve conflict situations is currently considering only nine cases, mainly territorial or commercial disputes. However, the court has a considerable potential in conflict settlement. Let’s take for example, the settlement by the court of the dispute between Hungary and Slovakia concerning the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project. At the beginning the conflict had obvious and dangerous ethnic overtones with heated polemic in the media. After the involvement of the court it was quickly transformed into a purely technical matter.

My last observation concerns the interaction between global and regional structures. When international organisations are mushrooming and multilateralism is invading all walks of life, there is a need to set up a mutually supportive and reinforcing system of international organisation to develop complementarily among them. The UN can and should play a more active role as a facilitator among the regional structures; the time has come for the Security Council to read anew Chapter VIII of the UN Charter, written when only two regional structures, the OAS and the LAS existed.

The United States Deputy Secretary of State, S. Talbott, was absolutely right when he stated that “regional co-operation is a positive force if and only if it enhances the positive aspect of global interdependence and combats the negative ones.”

The UN is doing a lot to achieve this aim. The annual meeting of the Secretary-General with heads of regional organisations, tripartite meetings between the Director-General of UNOG, the Secretary-General of the OSCE and the Council of Europe are good examples. The United Nations has developed several forms of co-operation with regional structures. However, it is not enough. Everyone would agree that we are only at the beginning of the process. We have some way to go before establishing a coherent pattern of mutually beneficial co-operation between the United Nations and the panoply of institutions involved with regional affairs.


A few conclusions can be drawn from this overview. Firstly, since diplomacy is an instrument of good governance it should adjust itself to meet the new challenges, to become more relevant, open and agile, to modify its methods and to fully utilise opportunities offered by the technological revolution. So far the pace of its transformation has not always been adequate.

Nevertheless, modern diplomacy, which requires a variety of skills, in particular familiarity with the art and science of negotiations, proves its ability to work in a new multicultural environment with different actors, including the civil society.

I deeply believe that the flexibility, which was always the trademark of diplomacy, provides the hope that diplomacy will not only adapt to new challenges but will also be helpful both for states and other new actors on the international scene, in their efforts to create a better world for the twenty-first century.

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Matthew Seligman, who is a Senior Lecturer in History at the University of Northampton, sets as his target the claim - recently revived by Niall Ferguson - that the British decision for war in August 1914 was made despite the absence of any compelling evidence that Germany was prompted by a 'Napoleonic' design.


Manual on Compliance with and Enforcement of Multilateral Environmental Agreements


Politics Among Nations


Virtual Reality and the Future of Peacemaking (Briefing Paper #14)


Foreign ministries and the management of the past

In his paper, Keith Hamilton looks at Foreign Ministries’ treatment of historical diplomacy, and specifically, the publication of diplomatic documents. Through his historical analyses, the author examines the various aims of these documents, such as, to shed light on past developments and help in current and future negotiations; to influence parliamentarians and a wider public; and to further international relations’ studies.


How safe are we? Security risks of the social networks

We are witnessing an extreme proliferation of the social networks, which can be seen in two ways: an expansion of social network websites, and an increase in the number of people who are starting to use them. The author describes the risks associated with social networks, mostly associated with user's privacy, and the responsibility for those risks. This paper also analyses whether the rules proscribed so that social network providers can distance themselves from possible abuses are really designed to help the users be safe.


Cybersecurity competence building trends

Report on cybersecurity competence building trends in OECD countries.


Mediation in International Relations


Evaluation of the status of the e-government in Comoros

Comoros has an e-government development index (EGDI) of 0.2327*, with a country online presence estimated at 286. This study evaluates the country online presence by counting the governmental web sites, commenting on the figures published compared to the online availability of governmental information, and examining the interaction with citizens.

About E-participation

This one-page document aims to explain the origins and needs of the usage of ICT in global participation, as well as to mention some good practices and potential for the future.


UN conferences on the spot – voices from civil society

In the fourth chapter of the book, Britta Sadou, focuses on non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Sadou introduces this particular group as civil society actors and continues by discussing possibilities provided to NGOs by various UN summits. The author highlights some of the main world conferences during the 1990s and early 2000s and poses two important questions - Has the time of those huge events come to an end? What could be the alternatives?


Diplomatic Immunity: Principles, Practices, Problems


Palestinian statehood diplomacy: The Palestinian UN bids of 2011-2012

The Palestinian Authority (PA) launched an intense diplomatic campaign to garner a supporting vote in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), which was finally realized in 2012 by an upgrade to a 'non member observer state', granting Palestine a set of new privileges. It represents a victory for Palestinian diplomacy and presents a model of statehood diplomacy that received support as much as criticism. It stirred discussions about statehood and state recognition, and exposed the limited success of international interventions in post-conflict state building efforts.


Governance and conflict in the Mano River Union States: Sierra Leone a case study

The MRU states (Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone) experienced more than two decades of bitter conflicts. With the exception of Guinea which was spared a full-scale civil war, the other three neighbouring MRU states went through violent civil conflicts which resulted in massive human suffering, social dislocation and the destruction of the region's economy.

Diplomacy and domestic politics: The logic of two-level games


Evaluating Public Diplomacy Programmes

The new operational environment generated by the mass media revolution and the advent of the global information society lays the ground for a generalized re-emergence of public diplomacy (PD). After having been dismantled during the 1990s, this branch of foreign policy is undergoing a redevelopment phase within the chancelleries of many states around the globe. The growing salience of public opinion and the exponential development of the new information and communication technologies predispose this diplomacy of persuasion to play an increasing role at the forefront of twenty-first century int...


The role of the new media in the electioneering process of developing nations, a case study of Nigeria 2015

Abstract: This dissertation examined the roles new media technologies play in the electioneering process of developing nations. The chosen case study was the Nigeria 2015 presidential elections. For this study, the electioneering period was accepted to commence with from the campaign period and to conclude a year after swearing in. This allowed for the study of critical milestones of the electoral cycle.


Evaluation du statut de l’E-Gouvernement en Union des Comores

L’e-gouvernement consiste à l’utilisation des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (TIC) par un gouvernement pour transformer sa façon d’administrer, de produire et de délivrer efficacement des services publics aux citoyens.


International Politics: States, Power and Conflict since 1945, Third Edition

This textbook is designed to support a general undergraduate course on International Relations. It is based on the second year course which I taught at the University of Leicester in the late 1970s and 1980s. The book was first published in 1987 and was brought out in a second, fully revised edition in 1992. The third edition was published by Prentice-Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf in paperback in 1997 and is now available in a Pearson Education ‘Print on Demand’ edition (ISBN 0-13-230327-2).


Knowledge and Diplomacy

Knowledge and Diplomacy presents papers on knowledge and knowledge management from the January 1999 Conference on Knowledge and Diplomacy in Malta. The papers in this book, examining the topic from a variety of backgrounds, academic interests and orientations, reflect the multidisciplinary character of knowledge management. This publication is only available online.


A diplomatic analogy: International functionaries and their privileges

Although many have grappled with the question of what privileges and immunities international officials should enjoy, no satisfactory theoretical framework has evolved. This paper discusses how the issue evolved over time, how extensive the problem is and why the response been so ineffectual and the resolution been so intractable.


Propaganda in International Politics


The Yugoslav diplomatic service under sanctions

Sanctions adversely affect all the structures of the state and society, and render difficult, if not impossible, the normal operation of services, including the Foreign Service.This paper discusses the challenges faced by the Yugoslav diplomatic service when the country was under sanction.


Common African Position on the Post-2015 Development Agenda

The participatory approach that led to the elaboration of the Common African Position (CAP) on the post-2015 Development Agenda involving stakeholders at the national, regional and continental levels among the public and private sectors, parliamentarians, civil society organizations (CSOs), including women and youth associations, and academia. This approach has helped address the consultation gap in the initial preparation and formulation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).


East Asian Regionalism


Diplomats at War: British and Commonwealth diplomacy in wartime

In their Preface, the editors of Diplomats at War say that the two world wars in the twentieth century had a “catalytic impact upon the practice of diplomacy”; among other things, they continue, this produced “an unprecedented revolution” in the way heads of mission conducted their business.

The study of regional integration


The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict


International Negotiation in a Complex World


An Introduction to International Politics


Developing Countries: Victims or Participants? Their Changing Role in International Negotiations


The role of the super powers

In John D. Brewer (ed.), Can South Africa Survive? (Macmillan, London, 1989), pp. 9-34.


Roma Diplomacy

Roma Diplomacy is a collection of papers written or inspired through Diplo’s 2005/2006 Roma Diplomacy project.


Multilateralism under Challenge? Power, International Order, and Structural Change

The values and institutions of multilateralism are not ahistorical phenomena. They are created and maintained in the context of specific demands and challenges, and through specific forms of leadership, norms, and international power configurations. All of these factors evolve and change; there is little reason to believe that multilateral values or institutions could or should remain static in form and nature. The relationship between the distribution of power, the nature of challenges and problems, and the international institutions that emerge to deal with collective challenges is const...


DC Confidential: The controversial memoirs of Britain’s ambassador to the U.S. at the time of 9/11 and the Iraq War

DC Confidential: The controversial memoirs of Britain's ambassador to the U.S. at the time of 9/11 and the Iraq War.


South Africa

In R. Allison and P. Williams (eds), Superpower Competition and Crisis Prevention in the Third World (Cambridge UP, 1989), pp. 206-16.


Education and Conflict: Complexity and Chaos

The emergence of international public opinion and the origins of public diplomacy in Japan in the inter-war period

The emergence of international public opinion and the origins of public diplomacy in Japan in the inter-war period.


Post Cold War diplomatic training

Victor Shale's paper refers to a specific time period: the post-Cold War period which brought about new forms of conflicts, and high levels of terrorism. In the light of the change in traditional diplomacy, his paper examines multistakeholder diplomatic training and its importance as an approach in penetrating different cultures, and examines whether this approach could be used to minimise intractable conflicts.

OK Corral 140 Years Later: Between Frontier Violence and the Emerging Rule of Law

It was a hundred and forty years ago today that Wyatt Earp took his group to fight the outlaws of the Clanton gang. It was a bright, windy and chilly day of October 26, 1881 that – without its actors being exactly aware of – paved the way for the rule of law to become an irreversible fact.


Culture and Conflict: Challenges for Europe’s Foreign Policy


The role of diplomatic missions in Open Government

The purpose of this research paper is to assess the degree to which Open Government values and principles are being implemented by the diplomatic missions of Moldova and Malta, particularly in regards to their work with civil society and citizens' participation in policy-making.


The National Security of Small States in a Changing World


The New Diplomacy


Draft Articles on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property

Text adopted by the Commission at its forty-third session, in 1991, and submitted to the General Assembly as a part of the Commission’s report covering the work of that session. The report, which also contains commentaries on the draft articles, appears in Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1991, vol. II

The Responsibility to Protect


Don’t Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate


Kosovo’s Final Status Negotiation Process: A Way Out or Cul de Sac

Kosovo's path towards independence proved to be a difficult, elongated and complex process that entailed political as well as legal implications that are argued by many scholars, and analysts nowadays.

Intractable Syria? Insights from the Scholarly Literature on the Failure of Mediation


Language: Setting the stage

Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Benoit Girardin takes a philosophical approach to rhetoric - along with the issues of interpretation and ethics. He examines each of these three fields and its relation to diplomatic practice and negotiations, showing with examples how diplomatic language exhibiting either a lack or an excess of any of these qualities may lead to problems.


International Regimes


Unvanquished: A U.S.-U.N. Saga

Question: When is a diplomatic victory not a diplomatic victory? Answer: When it is achieved by means of a veto in the Security Council of the United Nations. Nowhere is this maxim more tellingly illustrated than in the Council’s meeting in New York in November 1996 which voted on the issue of whether or not […]


Convention on Diplomatic Asylum


An African Analysis of the War in Iraq

English translation of the book published in French under title: Une lecture Africaine de la guerre en Irak.


A New Wave for the Reform of the Security Council of the United Nations: Great Expectations but Little Results

The reform of the Security Council of the United Nations (UNSC) has been an elusive issue at the United Nations (UN). While practically all Member States agree on the need to change the structure of the most powerful body of the world organization, so far there has been no agreement about what elements of that reform or about the substance of the reform itself.


United Nations, Divided World, 2nd ed


Emerging Leaders for a Digital World (2011): Dalsie Greenrose Kalna Baniala from Vanuatu

‘With the number of training courses I have attended, including attending the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), I have learnt a lot.’


Diplomacy under a Foreign Flag: When nations break relations


The Diplomatic Corps as an Institution of International Society


Convention on Diplomatic Officers


Wilton Park: sui generis knowledge organisation

In his paper, Colin Jennings describes the way Wilton Park – an executive agency of the British FCO – operates. He highlights some of the key reasons for its success, and identifies some specific outcomes of the conferences organised by Wilton Park. The author also offers a few reflection on knowledge management based on his many years of experience.


Social Power in International Politics


Social media and networks: What potential is there for policy engagement by citizens in West Africa?

The paper takes a look at concrete case studies in Nigeria, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire and looks at different levels of citizens’ engagement in public policy and how social media and networks are being used. Interviews, questions, consultations, discussions, and surveys were conducted, which led to the discovery that things are happening in strange places and that the potential of social media and networks in citizen policy engagement can only be likened to a pregnancy whose term is already here.


The Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross: Commentary

The Fundamental Principles are the result of a century of experience. Proclaimed in Vienna in 1965, they bond together the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the International Committee of the Red Cross and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, and guarantee the continuity of the Movement and its humanitarian work. In this succinct commentary intended for the general public, Jean Pictet explains the meaning of each of the seven Fundamental Principles; he analyses them on the basis of different criteria and presents all their various aspects, thus mak...

When may senior state officials be tried for international crimes? Some comments on the Congo v. Belgium case

The recent judgment of the ICJ has indubitably shed light on a rather obscure area of international law, that is, the legal regulation of the personal immunities of foreign ministers.


Embassies as Command Posts in Anti-Terror Campaign


Commercial Diplomacy and the National Interest

This short and lively book lays out the why and the how of promoting US business abroad. America's place in the world depends more than is usually acknowledged on the vigor and global reach of American business. The United States is the world's leading exporter, the world's leading importer, and the world's primary source and destination of funds for foreign investment. Our position as the best place in the world to do business-the most reliable in which to buy, the most lucrative in which to sell, and the safest and surest in which to invest or to raise capital-is a cause, not an effect, of A...


Searching for Meaningful Human Control. The April 2018 Meeting on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (Briefing Paper #10)

In this briefing paper, Ms Barbara Rosen Jacobson analyses the debate of the April 2018 meeting of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The group was established to discuss emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS).


Cybersecurity in the Republic of Fiji

This paper discusses cybersecurity in Fiji and offers recommendations to challenges such as the vulnerability of systems due to lack of a cybersecurity framework. The poorly framed laws and lack of appropriate policies.


Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law

This is the eighth edition of Sir Ian Brownlie's classic distillation of public international law. Serving as a single volume introduction to the field as a whole, the book seeks to present international law as a system that is based on, and helps structure, relations among states and other entities at the international level. It aims to identify the constituent elements of that system in a clear and accessible fashion. This edition, fully updated by James Crawford, Whewell Professor of International Law at the University of Cambridge, continues to provide the balance, clarity and expertise ex...


Small States and Alliances

The challenge of regionalism

U.S. Propaganda in the Middle East – The Early Cold War Version


Keeping the Peace in the Cyprus Crisis of 1963-64

After some difficulties, a UN force was established in Cyprus (UNFICYP) following the collapse of the bicommunal independence constitution of this former British colony - a constitution which the Greek Cypriots had always felt too favourable to the Turkish minority - at Christmas 1963. In this book, Alan James, Professor Emeritus of Keele University and leading authority on peacekeeping, provides what is likely to be regarded as the definitive history of the creation of this force.


The Role of Religion in Shaping Saudi Arabia’s Foreign Policy Towards Sub Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Uganda

Cultural and geographical proximity between Saudi Arabia and Sub-Sahara African region makes the relations between the two sides an interesting and wanting area of study. It was against this backdrop that this researcher decided to investigate into this important area.


Strengthening Regional Management: A Review of the Architecture for Regional Co-operation in the Pacific


United Nations Charter

The United Nations Charter, the founding document for the UNs, was signed on 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, following the conclusion of the UN Conference on International Organization. It entered into force on 24 October 1945. The UN Charter codifies international laws, including the principles of the sovereign equality of states and their territorial […]


Carry on, Excellencies!

The latest piece of EU legislation on air transport security seems at first sight to contradict a wellestablished principle of diplomatic law, the freedom of diplomatic communication.


The system of privileges and immunities applicable to the international organisations in Switzerland and to the permanent foreign delegations in Geneva

Amadeo Perez is Legal Adviser to the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva, and this booklet is therefore authoritative. It is a revised edition of an article published in the UNITAR Employment Guide by Jean-Pierre Vettovaglia in 1991. As will thus be clear, it is designed to provide a non-legalistic description of its subject for new members of the Geneva diplomatic corps, specifically, those on the staff of the international organizations headquartered there as well as those attached to the permanent missions accredited to them.


Knowledge management and diplomacy

In this paper we aim to provide a comprehensive introduction to the topic of knowledge management in diplomacy. First we provide working definitions of knowledge and knowledge management, and examine the evolution of the concepts. Next, we consider specific features of diplomacy that affect and limit the way knowledge management can be implemented. Then we look at specific techniques which diplomacy can adapt from the business sector in the field of knowledge management. Finally, we consider some important questions related to human resources and knowledge management.


International cyber security diplomatic negotiations: Role of Africa in inter-regional cooperation for a global approach on the security and stability of cyberspace

This research paper examines African countries cybersecurity readiness and how Africa can play a role in shaping international negotiations and discussions on global cybersecurity governance.


Embassies under Siege


The International and Legal Aspects of the Recognition of States: The Case of Macedonia

International society is a changing entity. The number of international entities continuously grows. New states are created, old states diminish or disappear. Complex states dissolve and simple states sometimes unite. New governments come into power opposite to their national constitutions and insurgency occurs very often. And then it is up to the states to decide whether they will accept the new circumstances and recognize the particular eventuality and additionally, to decide on the time framework for potential recognition.


The secret life of a cyber vulnerability

The comic brings a worrying, yet realistic and educative story that follows a life of a cyber vulnerability, from its inception to its deployment for an actual cyberattack.


Alliances and Small Powers


The Argentine seizure of the Malvinas [Falkland] Islands: History and Diplomacy


Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: Mapping the GGE Debate (Briefing Paper #8)

The Clash of Civilizations


The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century


Intercultural competence and its relevance for international diplomacy

IC and Diplomacy - Intercultural Competence and its Relevance for International DiplomacyThe changing nature of international diplomacy requires new knowledge and awareness of intercultural and other skills needed to perform effectively in the role of diplomat. The research presented in this paper serves to inform current and future planning for the selection, training, and evaluation of international diplomats.


Globalism and the New Regionalism


Economic Statecraft


Diplomacy of tomorrow

The time of diplomacy is far from over. This paper discusses how its role will become ever more central as most important affairs will have to be handled at global, regional and sub-regional levels.


The Power of Nations: The Political Economy of International Relations


Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace

The publication covers in a multi-disciplinary approach the technical, legal, policy and diplomacy aspects of State activities in cyberspace during peacetime. It consists of 23 chapters of academic nature, elaborated by 24 authors specialised in the respective areas of expertise. Diplo's Dr Jovan Kurbalija contributed the chapter on E-diplomacy and Diplomatic Law in the Internet Era.


Diplomatic Interference and the Law

Q: ‘Why will there never be a coup d’état in Washington? A: Because there’s no American Embassy there.’ This old joke serves to highlight the belief – entrenched deeply in poor, weak states – that diplomatic missions too often meddle in the ‘internal’ or ‘domestic’ affairs of the countries in which they are located, sometimes with dramatic consequences. It is a view that was held in the years following the Second World War by the former Yugoslavia, then struggling to extricate itself from the Soviet orbit, and prompted it to press successfully for the codification of dipl...


The Clash of Globalizations: Essays on the Political Economy of Trade and Development Policy


The post-modern state and the world order

1989 marked a break in European history. What happened in 1989 went beyond the events of 1789, 1815 or 1919. These dates, like 1989, stand for revolutions, the break-up of empires and the re-ordering of spheres of influence. But these changes took place within the established framework of the balance of power and the sovereign independent state. 1989 was different. In addition to the dramatic changes of that year – the revolutions and the re-ordering of alliances – it marked an underlying change in the European state system itself. To put it crudely, what happened in 1989 was not jus...


A clash of professional cultures: The David Kelly affair

The Hutton inquiry into the death of Dr David Kelly, the senior British arms inspector in the UN inspection mission to Iraq who was found dead in an English wood in July 2003, offers revealing insights into the contrasting professional cultures of journalists, politicians and scientists. This paper focuses both on the language and on the transgressions associated with each of the three professional cultures under investigation.


Influence of Economic Relations on Bilateral Relations

The title of the master thesis is "Influence of economic relations on bilateral relations". Firstly, three thesis statements concerning the influence of economic relations on non-economic bilateral relations have been developed. In order to validate the thesis statements a methodology was chosen that is mainly data driven and based on two case studies and a data comparison procedure, as opposed to a "theoretical approach".


Contemporary Diplomacy: Representation and Communication in a Globalized World


The Search for Peace


Embassies in Armed Conflict

Governing global health: Is Europe ready?


Effectiveness of U.S. Economic Sanctions with Respect to Sudan


Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time

In this classic text, an eminent historian of international affairs and a distinguished political scientist survey the evolution of the international system, from the emergence of the modern state in the 17th century to the present. Craig and George pay particular attention to the nineteenth century's "balance-of-power" system, the basic tenets of which still determine many applications of modern diplomacy. The authors also focus on the ways in which the 20th century diplomatic revolution--a complex of military, political, economic and ideological factors--has destroyed the homogeneity of th...


Democracy in Ghana: Lessons for Africa

Despite being one of Africa's finest democracies, Ghana's democracy is still a work in progress. What obstacles hinder Ghana's democracy from attaining maturity? Can these obstacles be removed to make Ghana an accomplished democracy or are they too entrenched to be removed? This study, which may serve as a guide to those wishing to improve and strengthen the democracy in Ghana, employs a considerable amount of existing literature on the democracy in Ghana to identify, not only the general challenges to Ghana's democracy, but some of the entrenched ones as well. Indeed, some of the problems fac...


The Expansion of International Society


Electronic government equals sustainable development for Guyana

Electronic government (e-government) equals sustainable development for Guyana. This is the thesis illustrated by this paper along with the possible constraints involved in implementing e-government.

Will WikiLeaks Hobble U.S. Diplomacy?


World on Fire: How Exporting Free-Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability

Markets only function optimally when there is perfect information. Joseph Stiglitz received the Nobel Prize in economics for proving that when there are asymmetries of information markets fail. Information economics, with its better analyses of labour, capital, and product markets, enables the construction of macroeconomic models that provide deeper insights into unemployment, recessions and depressions, and other problems that have marked capitalism since its beginnings.


The United Nations and Israel

This dissertation studies the relationship between the United Nations and Israel. Similar to most relationships, the one under review keeps evolving due to changing internal realities and emerging external factors.


Regionalism in the Post-Cold War World


John le Carré: The Biography

I thought to review this book because I had enjoyed the spy novels of John le Carré and, having introduced a chapter on secret intelligence into the latest edition of my textbook and mentioned him in it (p. 155), was keen to see if Adam Sisman had turned up anything new about the novelist’s own short career as an intelligence officer in what was then West Germany.


The power of personal contributions

‘Some of the major issues in the African region that we, as individuals, have to face are infrastructure implementation, awareness, and education. Luckily, there have been encouraging steps by several stakeholders and the younger generations...’ - Duksh Koonjoobeeharry from Mauritius


The role of knowledge in the cyber-age of globalisation

In his paper, Richard Falk reflects on the application of information technology on diplomacy, and discusses the challenge of converting information technology to ‘knowledge technology’, and subsequently to ‘wisdom technology’. Yet, the ‘crossroads in human experience’ brings many challenges and dangers which the author analyses.


Knowledge management and international development – the role of diplomacy

In this chapter, Walter Fust talks about the role of knowledge management, and knowledge for development, in diplomacy. He describes various methods to assess what knowledge should be stocked, and explains the need for managers who are assigned the task of deciding what should be stocked. These decisions need to be guided by principles, or guidelines - referred to as value management.


United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran (United States of America v. Iran)


A Tipping Point for the Internet: Predictions for 2018 (Briefing Paper #9)


DiploDialogue – Metaphors for Diplomats

On Diplo’s blog, in Diplo’s classrooms, and at Diplo’s events, dialogues stretch over a series of entries, comments, and exchanges and may even linger. DiploDialogue summarises. It’s like in sports events: DiploDialogue aims to bring focus by deleting what, in hindsight, is less relevant. In this first DiploDialogue, Katharina Höne and Aldo Matteucci discuss the usefulness of analogies and metaphors for understanding international relations and diplomacy.


All Fall Down: America’s fateful encounter with Iran

All Fall Down is the definitive chronicle of Americas experience with the Iranian revolution and the hostage crisis of 1978-81. Drawing on internal government documents, it recounts the controversies, decisions and uncertainties that made this a unique chapter in modern American history. From his personal experiences, the author draws revealing portraits of the people who engaged in this test of wills with an Islamic revolutionary regime.


A clash of grand strategies between Russia, United States of America and Turkey for greater power and influence in the Middle East

The thesis explores the changing dynamics in the Middle East where the region is witnessing a metamorphosis in its power structure as major regional powers actively pursue their grand strategies to unseat U.S. hegemony. The analysis focuses in particular on the foreign policies of the revisionist powers of Russia and Turkey collaborating in all spheres of statecraft against the resoluteness of the U.S. to maintain the status quo. It recognises that the Syrian civil war has disrupted the equilibrium of the prevailing power structure which, by extension, has provided the enabling environment for...


Globalization and Governance: Essays on the Challenges for Small States


DC Confidential: The controversial memoirs of Britain’s ambassador to the U.S. at the time of 9/11 and the Iraq War

The publication of these memoirs in autumn 2005 caused a public furore in Britain so I shall not waste time giving any background on Sir Christopher Meyer. (Just punch his name into Google, which will enable you in the blink of an eye even to find out from the BBC website which records he chose when he appeared on Desert Island Discs.)


Civilisation and its Enemies: The Next Stage of History

Lee Harris is not an academic – his name would hardly be quoted in obscure learned journals. In the aftermath of 9/11 he has written this book in an attempt to articulate and argue a position that justifies (both retaliatory and precautionary) military intervention while rejecting racism or fundamentalism. A ‘loner’ who shares many ideas with the Straussian school (but without the latter’s undertone of righteous victim), Harris may be giving voice to the worldview underpinning much current U.S. action in international political affairs. He is worth engaging.


Developing Community-level Capacity Assessment Tools: Perspectives and Practical Applications in the Context of Rural Africa (Briefing Paper #11)

The Dayton Agreements and International Law


How is trust defined in Internet governance organisations? (applied ethics in not-for-profit Internet organisations, managing critical Internet resources – a case study on trust)


Intermediaries: impartiality, multiple mediation and other questions


The Italian Public Administration: Ideas for Innovation

The ongoing rapid process of modernization makes people largely more aware of the social and civic dynamics in which they are involved so that they demand increasing satisfaction of their higher expectations. But, Public Administrations of many countries in the world currently suffer from dysfunctions and inefficiencies, due to their inner bureaucratic inertia, which in turn causes distrust among citizens and slowdown in social and economic development.


Barriers to conflict resolution in Africa: Mediating beyond power and ethnicity in the EAC and SADC countries through a Kenyan case study

This paper assesses the relevance of ethnicity and power in conflicts occurring in the EAC and SADC regions through a case study of Kenya. It engages with elites’ power contestation and the manner in which power has historically caused violence and instability in Kenya. Further, an account of researches on ethnicity and its inducing of violence is made. Through this, one discovers the importance of ethnicity beyond that of being a channel for the upsurge of violence.


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace


The International Law Commission 1949-1998. Vol. One: The Treaties, Part I

This first volume of a three-volume set is - price apart - a marvellous text for any student of diplomatic and consular law. Four of its seven chapters fall under these heads: ch. 3, the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961; ch. 4, the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963; ch. 5, the Convention on Special Missions, 1969; and ch. 7, the (unratified) Vienna Convention on the Representation of States in their Relations with International Organizations of a Universal Character, 1975.


Consular Law and Practice, 3rd ed

First published in 1961, Consular Law and Practice is a classic work of great interest and practical use to diplomats, consuls, and international lawyers.


International domain names from a multilingualism and security perspective

From an Internet governance perspective, multilingualism and security have been two of the cornerstone themes since its inception. The security theme addresses topics regarding the Domain Names System (DNS), Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), Internet attacks, security awareness, and policies and legal measures to ensure a safe and secure Internet experience. Security is a very diverse area where multiple topics should be tackled, and ignoring one or more topics while securing other areas would still jeopardise the safety of Internet users.


The Abuse of Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities: Recent United Kingdom Experience


Facing the challenges of an Africa-wide ICT strategy

'There is a need to address these challenges to enhance the capacity of the AU organs, institutions and member states to better respond to instances of ICT policy in Africa. As part of the evolving African governance architecture, there is a need to formulate an ICT strategy...' - Eliot Nsega from Uganda


Did diplomatic immunity exist in the ancient Near East?


The Internet and diplomats of the 20th century

The Internet and diplomats of the twenty century: how new information technologies affect the ordinary work of diplomats.


Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


International Law


Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations


Heart Work: Stories of How EDB Steered the Singapore Economy from 1961 to the 21st Century

Journal of Moral Theology, Vol. 11, Special Issue no. 1, Spring 2022, “Artificial Intelligence”

Journal of Moral Theology dedicated special issue on 'artificial intelligence'.


The Diplomatic Kidnappings: A Revolutionary Tactic of Urban Terrorism


The development of multilateral diplomacy and its fundamental role in global security and progression.

This dissertation is written to present the notion of peace and security to be the direct result of international cooperation through multilateral means


The History of Diplomatic Immunity

This is a massive book in more than one sense. It is over 700 pages long, including an invaluable bibliography which itself stretches over 70 pages. While dwelling chiefly on the Western tradition, it also takes in the Ottoman Empire and the Far East. It begins in ancient times (though having less on the second […]


Mediation in the Yugoslav Wars: The Critical Years, 1990-95

The rhetoric of public diplomacy and propaganda wars: A view from self-presentation theory

Efforts by governments to affect foreign public opinion through direct communication – and in competition with rival governments – have been a stable and consistent feature of international diplomacy since the turn of the twentieth century.


The Role of Nigeria in Restoring Peace in West Africa

Remmy Nweke attempts a search into the rationale behind Nigeria‟s decision to make Africa the cornerstone of her foreign policy.

A Digital DFAT: Joining the 21st Century

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) needs to keep pace with technological advancements that could increase efficiency, improve internal and external communication, and facilitate information exchange and gathering. Without e-diplomacy DFAT will be cut off from important audiences and find it increasingly hard to communicate its messages and coordinate Australian foreign policy across government.


Cyprus: the search for a solution

Lord Hannay, a senior British diplomat with great experience of multilateral diplomacy, retired in 1995 but was then persuaded to accept the position of Britain’s Special Representative for Cyprus. In this role he played an influential part in the UN-led effort to broker a settlement to the Cyprus conflict until the negotiations temporarily foundered in May 2003, when, with a mixture of relief and regret, he stepped down. (There is a postscript on the referendums held on the island in 2004 on the fifth version of Kofi Annan’s settlement plan.) He has written a brilliant account of the cour...


The History of Diplomatic Immunity

This is a massive book in more than one sense. It is over 700 pages long, including an invaluable bibliography which itself stretches over 70 pages. While dwelling chiefly on the Western tradition, it also takes in the Ottoman Empire and the Far East.


A kind of diplomatic incantation: Exchanging British and Japanese diplomats in the Second World War

The Global Health System: Actors, Norms, and Expectations in Transition


The Role of the Beijing Olympics in China’s Public Diplomacy and its Impact on Politics, Economics and Environment

The 2008 Beijing Olympics were ardently sought, lavishly staged and hugely successful, despite intense scrutiny, speculation and setbacks. Amplified by modern media, most controversies revolved around China's political repression, epitomised by Tibet brutality. Resultant protests threatened boycott and terror, putting internal cohesion, national image and Olympic dream at stake.


To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities of the American Founders

When I feel dispirited about the current crop of political leaders in Switzerland or around the world, I like to take refuge in one of the most uplifting political stories of mankind – the American Revolution.

A Critical Appraisal of the OPCW’s Media and Public Affairs Policy in the Context of Multilateral Disarmament and Non Proliferation Regimes

Multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation treaties such as the CWC, BWC, CTBT and NPT come with verification regimes that must balance confidentiality against transparency. While the CWC regime has achieved a great degree of intergovernmental transparency, civil and private stakeholders, in addition to the news media and the general public, do not enjoy the same level of access to information.


Diplomatic Security under a Comparative Lens – Or Not?

“Diplomatic security” is the term now usually preferred to “diplomatic protection” for the steps taken by states to safeguard the fabric of their diplomatic and consular missions, the lives of their diplomatic and consular officers, and the integrity of their communications; it has the advantage of avoiding confusion with the controversial legal doctrine of diplomatic protection.


Intergovernmental organisations sharing and linking open and real-time data for inclusive governance

The rapid rise of the Internet has encouraged the use of open, real-time, and linked data to help understand and improve development processes.The advancement of data use for development without an Internet governance framework, however, raises the importance of inclusion of the most marginalized, as well as privacy and security. This paper will examine such issues, as well as the role inter-governmental organisations can play in helping to encourage the use of data while supporting the protection of privacy and security.


The MIKTA Way Forward (Briefing Paper #2)

Ms Rosen Jacobson assesses the potential, risk, and future of MIKTA, a cooperation scheme comprising Mexico, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Turkey, and Australia, which was officially launched in September 2013.


Health, security and foreign policy

Over the past decade, health has become an increasingly important international issue and one which has engaged the attention of the foreign and security policy community. This article examines the emerging relationship between foreign and security policy, and global public health. It argues that the agenda has been dominated by two issues – the spread of selected infectious diseases (including HIV/AIDS) and bio-terror. It argues that this is a narrow framing of the agenda which could be broadened to include a wider range of issues. We offer two examples: health and internal instability,...


Small Economies in the Face of Globalisation

Track 2 diplomacy and Pakistan


Internet governance and service provision in Zimbabwe

From an Internet governance perspective, multilingualism and security have been two of the cornerstone themes since its inception. The security theme addresses topics regarding the Domain Names System (DNS), Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), Internet attacks, security awareness, and policies and legal measures to ensure a safe and secure Internet experience. Security is a very diverse area where multiple topics should be tackled, and ignoring one or more topics while securing other areas would still jeopardise the safety of Internet users.


Australia’s Diplomatic Deficit: Reinvesting in Our Instruments of International Policy


South Africa and the Simonstown Agreements

In John Young (ed.), The Foreign Policy of Churchill’s Peacetime Administration 1951-1955 (Leicester UP, 1988)


The Imperial Component in Iran’s Foreign Policy: Towards Arab Mashreq and Arab Gulf States

One of the most important developments the Middle East has witnessed in the 20th centaury was the success of the Iranian revolution of Islamist ideology, with ambitions to control.


Persuasion, trust, and personal credibility

Ambassador Kishan Rana indicates the cultivation of relations and the credibility of diplomats as the basis for persuasion in diplomacy. He provides an initial taxonomy of the type of relations that diplomats should cultivate. When it comes to credibility, Ambassador Rana presents the main ways of developing and maintaining credibility in diplomatic relations. The more credible the diplomat, the more likely it is that their persuasion with local interlocutors will be successful.


The Secret History of Dayton: U.S. Diplomacy and the Bosnia Peace Process 1995

DDoS – Available Weapon of Mass Disruption

The increasing militarisation of cyber-space comes in response to fears of critical damage caused by digital weapons like Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS). Understanding that the botnets are the key platform behind DDoS, we compared the costs of running a large-scale attack with the approximate downtime loss in a country-scale attack in case of Serbia, showing that DDoS are readily available weapons of possible mass disruption. Taken as a whole, this paper suggests responding to risks by combating cybercrime as the DDoS enabler, rather than by militarisation.


Diplomacy Before and After Conflict


Portraying the religions of the Mediterranean

There is hardly any need to stress that the relations between the adherents of the three great religions of the Mediterranean, as indeed of all other religions, are more affected by the images that each group has of the other than by the precise content of the theological beliefs held by the spiritual leaders of each religious community. This paper discusses the “the politics of representation” that has garnered much interest since the publication by Edward Said of a trilogy on the subject.


Managing the Cold War: A view from the front line

Michael Alexander, a Russian-speaking senior British diplomat who died in 2002, was a major behind-the-scenes figure in what he calls the ‘management’ of the cold war to a peaceful conclusion.


Experiences of China


The Forgotten French


Broadening the diplomatic bandwidth

‘I believe whistle-blowing websites have a greater role to play in the future of the humankind. These are a few of the issues that I became aware of through DiploFoundation, on whose blogosphere these issues continue to be debated.’ - Felix Samakande from Zimbabwe


Managing Global Chaos


International Politics: States, Power and Conflict since 1945

This textbook is designed to support a general undergraduate course on International Relations. It is based on the second year course which I taught at the University of Leicester in the late 1970s and 1980s. The book was first published in 1987 and was brought out in a second, fully revised edition in 1992. The third edition was published by Prentice-Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf in paperback in 1997 and is now available in a Pearson Education ‘Print on Demand’ edition


Peace Negotiations and Time: Deadline Diplomacy in Territorial Disputes


The Role of Diplomacy in the Challenges to Maritime Security Cooperation in the Gulf of Guinea: Case Study of Nigeria

There is presently a pervading feeling that the West and Central African states are long overdue to take control of their maritime environment. However, these expectations show no indication of materialising in the short term.


Humanitarian Principles


Lilliput under threat: The security problems of small island and enclave developing states


The Demilitarization of American Diplomacy: Two cheers for striped pants

The trenchant contribution to this subject of the outstanding American scholar-diplomat Laurence Pope is published in Palgrave’s ‘Pivot’ series of short books designed to be brought out quickly.


Strengthening the region’s participation

‘Witnessing the open community policy development process at the AfriNIC community led me to further appreciate the importance of the Policy Research Phase of the Diplo IGCBP. AfriNIC-13 was an eye opener...’ - Maduka Attamah from Nigeria


Strengthening of the Coordination of Emergency Humanitarian Assistance of the United Nations


War and the Private Investor: A Study in the Relations of International Politics and International Private Investment


Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in multistakeholder diplomacy

In his paper, Chris Lamb reflects on the role of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in Multistakeholder Diplomacy. He traces the IFRC's main developments since 1994, including its strategy document, and its obtaining of the status of observer with the UN General Assembly. The paper also looks at the future of IFRC in the light of its main objectives.


Perspectives on Africa’s Integration and Cooperation from OAU to AU


The Embassy: A story of war and diplomacy

This book tells the story of the vital role played by the US Embassy in Monrovia in helping to mediate an end to the brutal, 14-year civil war in Liberia in 2003.


Power and Wealth: The Political Economy of International Power


How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance


Governance Challenges in Global Health

Global health is at the threshold of a new era. Few times in history has the world faced challenges as complex as those now posed by a trio of threats: first, the unfinished agenda of infections, undernutrition, and reproductive health problems; second, the rising global burden of noncommunicable diseases and their associated risk factors, such as smoking and obesity; and third, the challenges arising from globalization itself, such as the health effects of climate change and trade policies, which demand engagement outside the traditional health sector.1 These threats are evolving within a...


Adoption and adaptation of e-health systems for developing nations: The case of Botswana (Research by Benson Ncube)

This paper seeks appropriate solutions to improve the access and capability of the health delivery systems in Botswana. The research reveals that many countries are now using information-based services to assist in the administration and delivery of medical services via telecommunication infrastructures.


Diplomacy and Global Governance: The Diplomatic Service in an Age of Worldwide Interdependence


For an effective taxation of electronic commerce in Madagascar

This research paper focuses on the taxation of electronic commerce (or e-commerce) in Madagascar. The objectives of this project are to offer insight and help the fiscal administration for future governmental programmes focusing on the taxation of e-commerce in Madagascar.


The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century

One mark of a great book is that it makes you see things in a new way, and Mr. Friedman certainly succeeds in that goal," the Nobel laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz wrote in The New York Times reviewing The World Is Flat in 2005. In this new edition, Thomas L. Friedman includes fresh stories and insights to help us understand the flattening of the world. Weaving new information into his overall thesis, and answering the questions he has been most frequently asked by parents across the country, this third edition also includes two new chapters--on how to be a political activist and social entreprene...


World Economic Forum: A Multi-stakeholder Approach to Global Governance


Regional water cooperation in the Arab – Israeli Conflict: A case study of the West Bank

The conflict between Israel and Arab countries, with several devastating wars, is about territory and land, and maybe just as crucially on the water that flows through that land. This dissertation, an analysis of the management of water in the West Bank, as a case study, seeks to underline the possibility of using soft power diplomacy, in addition to mediation and water cooperation, for a more collaborative kind of approach to the conflict.


Small States and the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the EU: A Comparative Analysis


The Year of Europe: America, Europe and the Energy Crisis, 1972-1974

This is the latest volume in the DBPO series, which has proved so invaluable to diplomatic historians over the years. It comes as a package consisting of two CDs, a slim hardback volume, and an A4-size booklet, and is described in detail on the FCO website.

The security of small nations: Challenges and defences

The 'essentially contested concept' of security is analysed, and some main kinds of ambiguity and dimensions outlined: level, kind of threat and kind of defence. Discourses on security, particularly of small nations, must avoid being trapped into dealing only with one level (national, which in practice normally means state), one kind of threat (military) and one kind of defence (again military). There is no clear relation between kind of alignment and military expenditures, but non-aligned states are overrepresented both among the very high armers and among the very low armers. Increasing gaps...


Relations between Cyprus and Germany 1960 to 1968

Antonis Sammoutis attempts an examination of relations between Germany and Cyprus during the years 1960-1968. He starts by examining bilateral relations in the first three years of the Republic of Cyprus and then going into the most crucial year of the conflict in Cyprus - 1964. Sammoutis then examines the years 1965-1968 ending with a summary of the main issues along with the main conclusions drawn from the research.


Introducing child safety in Romanian schools: Does the existing primary and secondary curriculum address online safety?

This paper examines the idea of an online child safety policy for Romania, which would provide an initiative to encourage smart online behavior in young children, prepare them to surf the Internet, and educate them to avoid its dangers. As technology develops and more and more children spend time online, they are exposed to numerous threats, dangers and potential abuse. Children need to learn how to behave online, how to critically assess their activities online and act accordingly.


Trends in Diplomatic Communication: A Case Study of Uganda

The aim of this research was to examine the communication trends in diplomacy with a focus on Uganda.


High Noon in Southern Africa: Making Peace in a Rough Neighbourhood


Evolution of Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities

Excerpt from the lecture 1: Principles and concepts, evolution and instruments; Online course on Diplomatic Law: Privileges and Immunities.


An Examination of the Role of Women in Conflict Management: Sierra Leone Case Study

This paper examines the role of women in conflict management, using Sierra Leone as a case study.


Preventive Diplomacy: Stopping Wars Before they Start


Customary International Humanitarian Law

Customary international humanitarian law is a set of unwritten rules derived from a general, or common, practice which is acknowledged as law. It's the basic standard of conduct in armed conflict accepted by the world community. Customary international humanitarian law is applicable universally – independently of the application of treaty law – and is based on extensive and virtually uniform State practice regarded as law.


Conflict resolution and peace building (disseration by Unisa Sahid Kamara)

Unisa Kamara's dissertation seeks to give an account of the Sierra Leone conflict and the different measures and strategies including diplomatic attempts and efforts that were employed by various parties in trying to secure a peaceful and durable solution to it. The paper discusses the peace building measures and activities that were employed in sustaining the Sierra Leone peace process after the attainment of a negotiated settlement.


How do you know what you think you know?

In his paper, J. Thomas Converse focuses on four records-related areas where the issues of knowledge management and diplomacy come together and provide the greatest challenges to archivists, diplomats, historians and technology providers: validation, trustworthiness, context and longevity. He also explores some of the changes and challenges brought about by technology, and urges for a continued embrace of technology, while at the same time demanding the validating and relational functions which give archives their trustworthiness.


South Africa, the Colonial Powers and ‘African Defence’: The rise and fall of the white entente, 1948-60

This book describes the fate of South Africa's drive, which began in 1949, to associate itself with Britain, France, Portugal and Belgium in an African Defence Pact. It describes how South Africa had to settle for an entente rather than an alliance, and how even this had been greatly emasculated by 1960. In light of this case, the book considers the argument that ententes have the advantages of alliances without their disadvantages, and concludes that this is exaggerated.


The Revenge of Geography: What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate


Politics and Culture in International History, 2nd ed


Dealing with cybersecurity challenges

'Various governments have come up with different interventions to address these challenges, like cybersecurity which is on the rise. The development of human resource and capacity building has been identified as one of the stumbling blocks.' - Godfrey Ahuma from Ghana


Female leadership in conflict prevention, diplomacy and UN peacekeeping initiatives


The Politics of the South Africa Run: European Shipping and Pretoria

Some time after this book went out of print, now many years ago, I found a message on my answer-phone from a London businessman involved in South African shipping. He asked if I were ‘the G. R. Berridge who had written the book on the politics of South African shipping’ and, if so, could I help him find more copies. On admitting to authorship when I returned his call, he said that he had managed to secure a copy for himself but was constantly in danger of losing it to other members of the South African shipping community, who had discovered its manifold virtues too late.


Weapons Overview


The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey

If God ever gave mankind a mission – it was not so much to multiply as to walk. And walk we did, to the farthest corners of the earth. Homo sapiens sapiens is the only mammal to have spread from its place of origin, Africa, to every other continent – before settling down to sedentary life ogling a TV screen or monitor, that is.


Lilliputians in Gulliver’s World? Small States in International Relations

A social science that is worthy of its name must study the universe of its cases in its entirety. If the states system remains a key component of world politics, then the study of small states is simply part and parcel of what the discipline of International Relations (IR) is about. In this piece, we want to demonstrate the importance of studying small states in some detail. We start, in this Introduction, with an outline of justifications for small states’ studies and with some historical and conceptual observations on what “smallness” entails. In Section 2 we show how small states...


Decision-Making in the UN Security Council: The case of Haiti, 1990-1997

Question: 'When is a "Foreword" not a "Foreword"? Answer: When it is written by Adam Roberts. This book started life as an Oxford doctoral thesis under the supervision of Professor Roberts, and the former supervisor has done both the former student and readers of this book a great service by prefacing it with a seven-page essay in which he underlines its importance in convincing detail. So this, unlike ninety-nine per cent of examples of the same genre, is a Foreword that should not be ignored.

Regionalism versus Multilateralism

The literature on regionalism versus multilateralism is growing as economists and political scientists grapple with the question of whether regional integration arrangements are good or bad for the multilateral system. Are regional integration arrangements "building * blocks or stumbling blocks," in Jagdish Bhagwati's phrase, or stepping stones toward multilateralism?


FDR’s Ambassadors and the Diplomacy of Crisis: From the rise of Hitler to the end of World War II

What effect did personality and circumstance have on US foreign policy during World War II? This incisive account of US envoys residing in the major belligerent countries – Japan, Germany, Italy, China, France, Great Britain, USSR – highlights the fascinating role played by such diplomats as Joseph Grew, William Dodd, William Bullitt, Joseph Kennedy and W. Averell Harriman. Between Hitler's 1933 ascent to power and the 1945 bombing of Nagasaki, US ambassadors sculpted formal policy – occasionally deliberately, other times inadvertently – giving shape and meaning not always intended by ...

The Falkland Islands War: Diplomatic Failure in April 1982


Guerrilla Diplomacy: Rethinking International Relations

In a previous book review for DiploFoundation, Petru Dumitriu described G. R. Berridge’s Diplomacy: Theory and Practice as 'a Robinson Crusoe’s book on diplomacy'. Suppose one is left on a deserted island and allowed only one book to study diplomacy; in that case, Dumitriu recommends Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. Without doubt, I wholeheartedly support this recommendation.


Diplomacy as an instrument of good governance

The functioning of diplomacy is influenced by a complicated combination of different interrelated factors. This paper briefly analyses their impact on the evolution of diplomacy and discusses how diplomacy as an instrument of good governance should adjust itself to meet the new challenges, to become more relevant, open and agile, to modify its methods and to fully utilise opportunities offered by the technological revolution.


The impact of cultural diversity on multilateral diplomacy and relations

Basic concepts mean different things in different cultures. In multilateral relations this means that looking at such a concept is always culturally biased. As a result, an interpretation according to one culture also tends to criticise different interpretations according to other cultures. This paper discusses how important it is that diplomats and politicians pay attention to and accept the fact of cultural diversity. If they do, they will understand the underlying causes of many conflicting attitudes and they may become more inclined to seek compromise and consensual approaches rather than ...

Towards a Single Development Vision and the role of the Single Economy


Outrage: Diplomatic Immunity


A New Governance Space for Health

Global Health Action is an international journal publishing research in the field of global health, addressing transnational health and policy issues.


Kosovo Crossing: American Ideals meet Reality on the Balkan Battlefields

The author of this review compares Noam Chomsky's A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West and David Fromkin's Kosovo Crossing: American Ideals meet Reality on the Balkan Battlefields.