As economists worry about the ability of the World Trade Organization to maintain the GATT’s unsteady yet distinct momentum toward liberalism, and as they * contemplate the emergence of world-scale regional integration arrangements (the EU, NAFTA, FTAA, APEC, and, possibly, TAFTA), the question has never been more pressing. * Winters switches the focus from the immediate consequences of regionalism for the economic welfare of the integrating partners to the question of whether it sets * up forces that encourage or discourage evolution toward globally freer trade. The answer is, “We don’t know yet.” One can build models that suggest either conclusion, but these models are still so abstract that they should be viewed as parables rather than sources of testable predictions. Winters offers conclusions about research strategy as well as about the world we live in. Among the conclusions he reaches: * Since we value multilateralism, we had better work out what it means and, if it means different things to different people, make sure to identify the sense in which we are using the term. Sector-specific lobbies are a danger if regionalism is permitted because they tend to stop blocs from moving all the way to global free trade. In the presence of lobbies, trade diversion is good politics even if it is bad economics. Regionalism’s direct effect on multilateralism is important, but possibly more so is the indirect effect it has by changing the ways in which groups of countries interact and respond to shocks in the world economy. Regionalism, by allowing stronger internalization of the gains from trade liberalization, seems likely to facilitate freer trade when it is initially highly restricted. The possibility of regionalism probably increases the risks of catastrophe in the trading system. The insurance incentives for joining regional arrangements and the existence of “shiftable externalities” both lead to such a conclusion. So too does the view that regionalism is a means to bring trade partners to the multilateral negotiating table because it is essentially coercive. Using regionalism for this purpose may have been an effective strategy, but it is also risky.
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‘… lively … persuasive … careful analysis… This is a very readable study, combining narrative strength with political acuity, and informative on the years of disappointment … Much has changed since the UN’s annus mirabilis, but Berridge’s conclusions still stand’, Nicholas Sims, London School of Economics, Millenium.
A New Wave for the Reform of the Security Council of the United Nations: Great Expectations but Little Results
The reform of the Security Council of the United Nations (UNSC) has been an elusive issue at the United Nations (UN). While practically all Member States agree on the need to change the structure of the most powerful body of the world organization, so far there has been no agreement about what elements of that reform or about the substance of the reform itself.
Contemporary Diplomacy: Representation and Communication in a Globalized World
The Role of Diplomacy in the Challenges to Maritime Security Cooperation in the Gulf of Guinea: Case Study of Nigeria
There is presently a pervading feeling that the West and Central African states are long overdue to take control of their maritime environment. However, these expectations show no indication of materialising in the short term.
Negotiating Public Health in a Globalized World: Global Health Diplomacy in Action
Tunis Agenda for the Information Society
Mainstreaming Development in the WTO
Ambiguity versus precision: The changing role of terminology in conference diplomacy
Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Of central concern in the field of negotiation is the use of ambiguity to find formulations acceptable to all parties. Professor Norman Scott looks at the contrasting roles of ambiguity and precision in conference diplomacy. He explains that while documents drafters usually try to avoid ambiguity, weaker parties to an agreement may have an interest in inserting ambiguous provisions, while those with a stronger position or more to gain will push for precision.
The complexification of the United Nations system
What is Global Health Diplomacy? A Conceptual Review
Global Health Diplomacy: Concepts, Issues, Actors, Instruments, Fora and Cases
21st century health diplomacy: A new relationship between foreign policy and health
Diplomacy at the UN
The Greening of Machiavelli: The Evolution of International Environmental Policy
The Kyoto Protocol: International Climate Policy for the 21st Century
Ten theoretical clues to understanding United Nations reform (Briefing Paper #6)
International Diplomacy Volume III: The Pluralisation of Diplomacy
The Organization of Global Negotiations: Constructing the Climate Change Regime
Diplo: Effective and inclusive diplomacy
Diplo is a non-profit foundation established by the governments of Malta and Switzerland. Diplo works to increase the role of small and developing states, and to improve global governance and international policy development.
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