author: Geoff Berridge
Spies in Uniform: British Military and Naval Intelligence on the Eve of the First World War
Focusing on the work of British military and naval attachés in Berlin in the decade and a half before the First World War, Seligmann then fires at this target some hefty broadsides and scores some damaging hits. His long and detailed book will have to be taken very seriously by historians of the origins of this war. It will also be of great interest to historians of diplomacy since the role of service attachés in embassies has been surprisingly neglected. (The only full-length scholarly work on the subject – and that rather ponderous and something of a scissors and paste job – was written by Alfred Vagts back in the 1960s.)
Seligman has long chapters on the social role of the service attachés at the British Embassy in Berlin (a role not to be sneered at, not least because it gave them easy access to Wilhelm II), how they obtained their intelligence and what it contained. His archival research is exhaustive and his analysis lucid and exceptionally systematic. He concludes at the end of these chapters that, though there were naturally some differences of view between the attachés, collectively they were nevertheless ‘harbingers of the German menace’ – arguing, moreover, that it would loom largest in the years from 1913 to 1915. But what can be said of the influence of their reports on government policy? This is the subject of the final and most important chapter, which is as methodical as ever. Here Seligman demonstrates first that the reports of the service attachés were widely distributed at home, surfacing in officer training manuals as well on the desks of senior members of the government. He then documents the evidence to show that they were generally received with great respect, though less so on the relatively rare occasions when they did not support existing preconceptions. And finally he provides a lengthy analysis of two examples of British reactions clearly shaped by the reports of the service attachés: airship development, and naval policy in the context of ‘the alleged “German acceleration” of 1908-9’. His overall conclusion, therefore, is that the service attachés not only warned repeatedly of the German menace but had a receptive audience in government.
There is no doubt that this is an impressive argument, though at the end I felt that the author was not altogether convincing on his third and critical measure of attaché influence – direct evidence of cause and effect. Of course, Seligmann confronted huge problems in this regard because of the massive weeding of War Office and Admiralty files of this period. (He laments this so often and uses the word ‘sadly’ with such frequency that I shall ever afterwards think of him as ‘the mournful Dr Seligmann’!) The research on which his book is based is also so thorough that it is difficult to know what else he could have done. Nevertheless, I thought that the author had slipped a little from his own high standards by providing two examples of attaché influence that the evidence does permit, and then suggesting that these are ‘illustrative of the role of attachés in the decision-making process’ (p. 253). And again: ‘In relation to our third test of attaché influence – impact on government – it can, therefore, be concluded that the service attachés made their mark’ (p. 260). The last sentence is carefully worded but it is clear nevertheless that on this point Seligmann is straining to make a case. The give-away is the word ‘illustrative’ in the previously quoted line. Illustrations, of course, are not proof; they are instances of a general principle proved by some other means. I have some other niggles, among them that the structure leads to some repetition and that the index is not much more than one of proper names (no entry on ‘weeding’, for example, which would have been very useful).
Despite my few reservations, I have no hesitation in saying that this is a very important book. It is also a good read. The detail is rich and interesting and, mournful though Dr Seligmann may be, this does not mean that he lacks a sense of humour. I loved the story about the naval attaché who went to Danzig to meet the British consul, Colonel Brookfield, and was greeted at the station by his ‘sort of an ADC’ – his 12-year old daughter. ‘Baby Brookfield’, as she introduced herself, at once secured the attaché’s luggage and within five minutes they were driving off in a cab. Furthermore, it subsequently transpired that – in the view of the naval attaché – she was the source of the only news of real interest provided by her father. It would be interesting to know if the Colonel supported votes for women.
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Central Eurasia refers to the countries in the Caucasus and to the five countries of Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. These countries that had once been part of the Russian and Soviet Empire were broken off and set adrift when the Soviet Union self-destructed at the end of 1991. They belatedly joined Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, three countries that also emerged from the sphere of influence of an empire, the British one, to become – in the words of Charles De Gaulle speaking of the newly independent African states – the dust of empire.
Heart Work: Stories of How EDB Steered the Singapore Economy from 1961 to the 21st Century
Cyprus: the search for a solution
Lord Hannay, a senior British diplomat with great experience of multilateral diplomacy, retired in 1995 but was then persuaded to accept the position of Britain’s Special Representative for Cyprus. In this role he played an influential part in the UN-led effort to broker a settlement to the Cyprus conflict until the negotiations temporarily foundered in May 2003, when, with a mixture of relief and regret, he stepped down. (There is a postscript on the referendums held on the island in 2004 on the fifth version of Kofi Annan’s settlement plan.) He has written a brilliant account of the cour...
Exploring the Relevance of Engagement and Containment Approaches in the European Union’s Management of Relations with Russia
Since 2006, Russia has grown more assertive and even hawkish in its approach to the European Union (EU), even seen as attempting to divide the large EU membership so as to consolidate its influence in Europe.
Public diplomacy and soft power
Meeting the needs of microstate security
This article examines the pressing security concerns of microstates, particularly against the backdrop of recurring themes of vulnerability in the literature. It reviews those arguments in the early years of decolonization which expressed scepticism about the prospects for independence in such very small dependencies given their lack of defensive capacity and the geopolitical risks which they face in a potentially dangerous external milieu. The article argues that these doubts and concerns have not been realised in the actual experience of microstates particularly in terms of conventional thre...
Diplomatic Interference and the Law
Q: ‘Why will there never be a coup d’état in Washington? A: Because there’s no American Embassy there.’ This old joke serves to highlight the belief – entrenched deeply in poor, weak states – that diplomatic missions too often meddle in the ‘internal’ or ‘domestic’ affairs of the countries in which they are located, sometimes with dramatic consequences. It is a view that was held in the years following the Second World War by the former Yugoslavia, then struggling to extricate itself from the Soviet orbit, and prompted it to press successfully for the codification of dipl...
The role of the new media in the electioneering process of developing nations, a case study of Nigeria 2015
Abstract: This dissertation examined the roles new media technologies play in the electioneering process of developing nations. The chosen case study was the Nigeria 2015 presidential elections. For this study, the electioneering period was accepted to commence with from the campaign period and to conclude a year after swearing in. This allowed for the study of critical milestones of the electoral cycle.
John le Carré: The Biography
I thought to review this book because I had enjoyed the spy novels of John le Carré and, having introduced a chapter on secret intelligence into the latest edition of my textbook and mentioned him in it (p. 155), was keen to see if Adam Sisman had turned up anything new about the novelist’s own short career as an intelligence officer in what was then West Germany.
Preventive Diplomacy: Stopping Wars Before they Start
From U Thant to Kofi Annan: UN Peacemaking in Cyprus, 1964-2004
2004 marked the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations presence in Cyprus. Since March 1964, the UN has been responsible for addressing and managing both peacekeeping and peacemaking efforts on the island.
Strengthening Regional Management: A Review of the Architecture for Regional Co-operation in the Pacific
Managing Global Chaos
Decision-Making in the UN Security Council: The case of Haiti, 1990-1997
Question: 'When is a "Foreword" not a "Foreword"? Answer: When it is written by Adam Roberts. This book started life as an Oxford doctoral thesis under the supervision of Professor Roberts, and the former supervisor has done both the former student and readers of this book a great service by prefacing it with a seven-page essay in which he underlines its importance in convincing detail. So this, unlike ninety-nine per cent of examples of the same genre, is a Foreword that should not be ignored.
Governing global health: Is Europe ready?
Roma Diplomacy is a collection of papers written or inspired through Diplo’s 2005/2006 Roma Diplomacy project.
Diplomacy as an instrument of good governance
The functioning of diplomacy is influenced by a complicated combination of different interrelated factors. This paper briefly analyses their impact on the evolution of diplomacy and discusses how diplomacy as an instrument of good governance should adjust itself to meet the new challenges, to become more relevant, open and agile, to modify its methods and to fully utilise opportunities offered by the technological revolution.
The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many are Smarter than the Few
Worldly wisdom teaches that it is better for reputation to fail conventionally than to succeed unconventionally. John Maynard Keynes
Persuasion, trust, and personal credibility
Ambassador Kishan Rana indicates the cultivation of relations and the credibility of diplomats as the basis for persuasion in diplomacy. He provides an initial taxonomy of the type of relations that diplomats should cultivate. When it comes to credibility, Ambassador Rana presents the main ways of developing and maintaining credibility in diplomatic relations. The more credible the diplomat, the more likely it is that their persuasion with local interlocutors will be successful.
World on Fire: How Exporting Free-Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability
Markets only function optimally when there is perfect information. Joseph Stiglitz received the Nobel Prize in economics for proving that when there are asymmetries of information markets fail. Information economics, with its better analyses of labour, capital, and product markets, enables the construction of macroeconomic models that provide deeper insights into unemployment, recessions and depressions, and other problems that have marked capitalism since its beginnings.
The National Security of Small States in a Changing World
The Italian Public Administration: Ideas for Innovation
The ongoing rapid process of modernization makes people largely more aware of the social and civic dynamics in which they are involved so that they demand increasing satisfaction of their higher expectations. But, Public Administrations of many countries in the world currently suffer from dysfunctions and inefficiencies, due to their inner bureaucratic inertia, which in turn causes distrust among citizens and slowdown in social and economic development.
Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time
In this classic text, an eminent historian of international affairs and a distinguished political scientist survey the evolution of the international system, from the emergence of the modern state in the 17th century to the present. Craig and George pay particular attention to the nineteenth century's "balance-of-power" system, the basic tenets of which still determine many applications of modern diplomacy. The authors also focus on the ways in which the 20th century diplomatic revolution--a complex of military, political, economic and ideological factors--has destroyed the homogeneity of th...
Small States and Alliances
The MIKTA Way Forward (Briefing Paper #2)
Ms Rosen Jacobson assesses the potential, risk, and future of MIKTA, a cooperation scheme comprising Mexico, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Turkey, and Australia, which was officially launched in September 2013.
The History of Diplomatic Immunity
This is a massive book in more than one sense. It is over 700 pages long, including an invaluable bibliography which itself stretches over 70 pages. While dwelling chiefly on the Western tradition, it also takes in the Ottoman Empire and the Far East.
High Noon in Southern Africa: Making Peace in a Rough Neighbourhood
Carry on, Excellencies!
The latest piece of EU legislation on air transport security seems at first sight to contradict a wellestablished principle of diplomatic law, the freedom of diplomatic communication.
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations
DC Confidential: The controversial memoirs of Britain’s ambassador to the U.S. at the time of 9/11 and the Iraq War
The publication of these memoirs in autumn 2005 caused a public furore in Britain so I shall not waste time giving any background on Sir Christopher Meyer. (Just punch his name into Google, which will enable you in the blink of an eye even to find out from the BBC website which records he chose when he appeared on Desert Island Discs.)
FDR’s Ambassadors and the Diplomacy of Crisis: From the rise of Hitler to the end of World War II
What effect did personality and circumstance have on US foreign policy during World War II? This incisive account of US envoys residing in the major belligerent countries – Japan, Germany, Italy, China, France, Great Britain, USSR – highlights the fascinating role played by such diplomats as Joseph Grew, William Dodd, William Bullitt, Joseph Kennedy and W. Averell Harriman. Between Hitler's 1933 ascent to power and the 1945 bombing of Nagasaki, US ambassadors sculpted formal policy – occasionally deliberately, other times inadvertently – giving shape and meaning not always intended by ...
A kind of diplomatic incantation: Exchanging British and Japanese diplomats in the Second World War
The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary
Foreign ministries and the management of the past
In his paper, Keith Hamilton looks at Foreign Ministries’ treatment of historical diplomacy, and specifically, the publication of diplomatic documents. Through his historical analyses, the author examines the various aims of these documents, such as, to shed light on past developments and help in current and future negotiations; to influence parliamentarians and a wider public; and to further international relations’ studies.
Evaluating Public Diplomacy Programmes
The new operational environment generated by the mass media revolution and the advent of the global information society lays the ground for a generalized re-emergence of public diplomacy (PD). After having been dismantled during the 1990s, this branch of foreign policy is undergoing a redevelopment phase within the chancelleries of many states around the globe. The growing salience of public opinion and the exponential development of the new information and communication technologies predispose this diplomacy of persuasion to play an increasing role at the forefront of twenty-first century int...
Diplomacy of tomorrow
The time of diplomacy is far from over. This paper discusses how its role will become ever more central as most important affairs will have to be handled at global, regional and sub-regional levels.
Wilton Park: sui generis knowledge organisation
In his paper, Colin Jennings describes the way Wilton Park – an executive agency of the British FCO – operates. He highlights some of the key reasons for its success, and identifies some specific outcomes of the conferences organised by Wilton Park. The author also offers a few reflection on knowledge management based on his many years of experience.
The Diplomatic Corps as an Institution of International Society
Intergovernmental organisations sharing and linking open and real-time data for inclusive governance
The rapid rise of the Internet has encouraged the use of open, real-time, and linked data to help understand and improve development processes.The advancement of data use for development without an Internet governance framework, however, raises the importance of inclusion of the most marginalized, as well as privacy and security. This paper will examine such issues, as well as the role inter-governmental organisations can play in helping to encourage the use of data while supporting the protection of privacy and security.
International cyber security diplomatic negotiations: Role of Africa in inter-regional cooperation for a global approach on the security and stability of cyberspace
This research paper examines African countries cybersecurity readiness and how Africa can play a role in shaping international negotiations and discussions on global cybersecurity governance.
Enhancing Global Governance: Towards a New Diplomacy
United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran (United States of America v. Iran)
Experiences of China
An African Analysis of the War in Iraq
English translation of the book published in French under title: Une lecture Africaine de la guerre en Irak.
Broadening the diplomatic bandwidth
‘I believe whistle-blowing websites have a greater role to play in the future of the humankind. These are a few of the issues that I became aware of through DiploFoundation, on whose blogosphere these issues continue to be debated.’ - Felix Samakande from Zimbabwe
The Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross: Commentary
The Fundamental Principles are the result of a century of experience. Proclaimed in Vienna in 1965, they bond together the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the International Committee of the Red Cross and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, and guarantee the continuity of the Movement and its humanitarian work. In this succinct commentary intended for the general public, Jean Pictet explains the meaning of each of the seven Fundamental Principles; he analyses them on the basis of different criteria and presents all their various aspects, thus mak...
Paradiplomatic’ Relations between the United States and Kosova: A Friendship between an Elephant and a Mouse
Naim Dedushaj's thesis 'Paradiplomatic relations between the United States and Kosova' studies the relations between the Albanian nation and America that date way back in history. The first Albanian immigrants moved to the United States in the second half of the 19th century. The major migration flows from Kosova and other parts in ex-Yugoslavia took place in the 20th century.
The Abuse of Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities: Recent United Kingdom Experience
Intermediaries: impartiality, multiple mediation and other questions
The Year of Europe: America, Europe and the Energy Crisis, 1972-1974
This is the latest volume in the DBPO series, which has proved so invaluable to diplomatic historians over the years. It comes as a package consisting of two CDs, a slim hardback volume, and an A4-size booklet, and is described in detail on the FCO website.
How do you know what you think you know?
In his paper, J. Thomas Converse focuses on four records-related areas where the issues of knowledge management and diplomacy come together and provide the greatest challenges to archivists, diplomats, historians and technology providers: validation, trustworthiness, context and longevity. He also explores some of the changes and challenges brought about by technology, and urges for a continued embrace of technology, while at the same time demanding the validating and relational functions which give archives their trustworthiness.
Small States in International Relations
Adoption and adaptation of e-health systems for developing nations: The case of Botswana (Research by Benson Ncube)
This paper seeks appropriate solutions to improve the access and capability of the health delivery systems in Botswana. The research reveals that many countries are now using information-based services to assist in the administration and delivery of medical services via telecommunication infrastructures.
Diplomacy on a south-south dimension
Building international diplomacy requires understanding ourselves, others, and how we relate together. It also involves understanding how others relate among themselves. In efforts to internationalise and build a truly global future, the consideration of contacts among all parts of the world becomes critical. The sustained diplomatic cooperation that has taken place in the last 50 years between China and African nations is an instructive example. This major phenomenon is the focus of this paper.
Globalism and the New Regionalism
Lilliputians in Gulliver’s World? Small States in International Relations
A social science that is worthy of its name must study the universe of its cases in its entirety. If the states system remains a key component of world politics, then the study of small states is simply part and parcel of what the discipline of International Relations (IR) is about. In this piece, we want to demonstrate the importance of studying small states in some detail. We start, in this Introduction, with an outline of justifications for small states’ studies and with some historical and conceptual observations on what “smallness” entails. In Section 2 we show how small states...
Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations
Persuasion: importance of trust, relevance for small states, and limitations of computers
Dr George Vella, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Malta, argues that persuasion is central not only to diplomacy but also to society in general. He highlights three aspects of persuasion. First is the high importance of trust for persuasion: trust creates the context in which persuasion can be used.
Knowledge management and diplomacy
In this paper we aim to provide a comprehensive introduction to the topic of knowledge management in diplomacy. First we provide working definitions of knowledge and knowledge management, and examine the evolution of the concepts. Next, we consider specific features of diplomacy that affect and limit the way knowledge management can be implemented. Then we look at specific techniques which diplomacy can adapt from the business sector in the field of knowledge management. Finally, we consider some important questions related to human resources and knowledge management.
A New Wave for the Reform of the Security Council of the United Nations: Great Expectations but Little Results
The reform of the Security Council of the United Nations (UNSC) has been an elusive issue at the United Nations (UN). While practically all Member States agree on the need to change the structure of the most powerful body of the world organization, so far there has been no agreement about what elements of that reform or about the substance of the reform itself.
Diplomats at War: British and Commonwealth diplomacy in wartime
In their Preface, the editors of Diplomats at War say that the two world wars in the twentieth century had a “catalytic impact upon the practice of diplomacy”; among other things, they continue, this produced “an unprecedented revolution” in the way heads of mission conducted their business.
The Expansion of International Society
Embassies under Siege
Contemporary Diplomacy: Representation and Communication in a Globalized World
Introducing child safety in Romanian schools: Does the existing primary and secondary curriculum address online safety?
This paper examines the idea of an online child safety policy for Romania, which would provide an initiative to encourage smart online behavior in young children, prepare them to surf the Internet, and educate them to avoid its dangers. As technology develops and more and more children spend time online, they are exposed to numerous threats, dangers and potential abuse. Children need to learn how to behave online, how to critically assess their activities online and act accordingly.
Effectiveness of U.S. Economic Sanctions with Respect to Sudan
The Falkland Islands War: Diplomatic Failure in April 1982
International Politics: States, Power and Conflict since 1945
This textbook is designed to support a general undergraduate course on International Relations. It is based on the second year course which I taught at the University of Leicester in the late 1970s and 1980s. The book was first published in 1987 and was brought out in a second, fully revised edition in 1992. The third edition was published by Prentice-Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf in paperback in 1997 and is now available in a Pearson Education ‘Print on Demand’ edition
The Law of Nations or Principles of the Law of Nature Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns
Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: Mapping the GGE Debate (Briefing Paper #8)
Diplomacy Before and After Conflict
The Role of Religion in Shaping Saudi Arabia’s Foreign Policy Towards Sub Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Uganda
Cultural and geographical proximity between Saudi Arabia and Sub-Sahara African region makes the relations between the two sides an interesting and wanting area of study. It was against this backdrop that this researcher decided to investigate into this important area.
The post-modern state and the world order
1989 marked a break in European history. What happened in 1989 went beyond the events of 1789, 1815 or 1919. These dates, like 1989, stand for revolutions, the break-up of empires and the re-ordering of spheres of influence. But these changes took place within the established framework of the balance of power and the sovereign independent state. 1989 was different. In addition to the dramatic changes of that year – the revolutions and the re-ordering of alliances – it marked an underlying change in the European state system itself. To put it crudely, what happened in 1989 was not jus...
For an effective taxation of electronic commerce in Madagascar
This research paper focuses on the taxation of electronic commerce (or e-commerce) in Madagascar. The objectives of this project are to offer insight and help the fiscal administration for future governmental programmes focusing on the taxation of e-commerce in Madagascar.
Politics and Culture in International History, 2nd ed
The Clash of Civilizations
The History of Diplomatic Immunity
This is a massive book in more than one sense. It is over 700 pages long, including an invaluable bibliography which itself stretches over 70 pages. While dwelling chiefly on the Western tradition, it also takes in the Ottoman Empire and the Far East. It begins in ancient times (though having less on the second […]
Developing Community-level Capacity Assessment Tools: Perspectives and Practical Applications in the Context of Rural Africa (Briefing Paper #11)
A Tipping Point for the Internet: Predictions for 2018 (Briefing Paper #9)
OK Corral 140 Years Later: Between Frontier Violence and the Emerging Rule of Law
It was a hundred and forty years ago today that Wyatt Earp took his group to fight the outlaws of the Clanton gang. It was a bright, windy and chilly day of October 26, 1881 that – without its actors being exactly aware of – paved the way for the rule of law to become an irreversible fact.
Vienna Convention on Consular Relations
World Economic Forum: A Multi-stakeholder Approach to Global Governance
Developing Countries: Victims or Participants? Their Changing Role in International Negotiations
The Power of Nations: The Political Economy of International Relations
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Regionalism versus Multilateralism
The literature on regionalism versus multilateralism is growing as economists and political scientists grapple with the question of whether regional integration arrangements are good or bad for the multilateral system. Are regional integration arrangements "building * blocks or stumbling blocks," in Jagdish Bhagwati's phrase, or stepping stones toward multilateralism?
The Internet and diplomats of the 20th century
The Internet and diplomats of the twenty century: how new information technologies affect the ordinary work of diplomats.
Searching for Meaningful Human Control. The April 2018 Meeting on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (Briefing Paper #10)
In this briefing paper, Ms Barbara Rosen Jacobson analyses the debate of the April 2018 meeting of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The group was established to discuss emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS).
Unvanquished: A U.S.-U.N. Saga
Question: When is a diplomatic victory not a diplomatic victory? Answer: When it is achieved by means of a veto in the Security Council of the United Nations. Nowhere is this maxim more tellingly illustrated than in the Council’s meeting in New York in November 1996 which voted on the issue of whether or not […]
U.S. Propaganda in the Middle East – The Early Cold War Version
DiploDialogue – Metaphors for Diplomats
On Diplo’s blog, in Diplo’s classrooms, and at Diplo’s events, dialogues stretch over a series of entries, comments, and exchanges and may even linger. DiploDialogue summarises. It’s like in sports events: DiploDialogue aims to bring focus by deleting what, in hindsight, is less relevant. In this first DiploDialogue, Katharina Höne and Aldo Matteucci discuss the usefulness of analogies and metaphors for understanding international relations and diplomacy.
The Invisible Weapon: Telecommunications and International Politics 1851-1945
UN conferences on the spot – voices from civil society
In the fourth chapter of the book, Britta Sadou, focuses on non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Sadou introduces this particular group as civil society actors and continues by discussing possibilities provided to NGOs by various UN summits. The author highlights some of the main world conferences during the 1990s and early 2000s and poses two important questions - Has the time of those huge events come to an end? What could be the alternatives?
The Clash of Globalizations: Essays on the Political Economy of Trade and Development Policy
The Dayton Agreements and International Law
International multistakeholder cyber threat information sharing regimes: Policy considerations for scaling trust and active participation
This paper examines cybersecurity information sharing mechanisms. It looks at the research into public-private partnership (PPP) theory, their application for cybersecurity, and the burgeoning field of international cybersecurity collaboration, and draws conclusions on what policy elements are needed to foster success in architecting a platform for cybersecurity information sharing on a large scale. The paper surveys existing information sharing regimes and the policy objectives they attempt to reach, including capacity building, standardized languages for information sharing, liability prote...
Consular Law and Practice, 3rd ed
First published in 1961, Consular Law and Practice is a classic work of great interest and practical use to diplomats, consuls, and international lawyers.
Electronic government equals sustainable development for Guyana
Electronic government (e-government) equals sustainable development for Guyana. This is the thesis illustrated by this paper along with the possible constraints involved in implementing e-government.
The security of small nations: Challenges and defences
The 'essentially contested concept' of security is analysed, and some main kinds of ambiguity and dimensions outlined: level, kind of threat and kind of defence. Discourses on security, particularly of small nations, must avoid being trapped into dealing only with one level (national, which in practice normally means state), one kind of threat (military) and one kind of defence (again military). There is no clear relation between kind of alignment and military expenditures, but non-aligned states are overrepresented both among the very high armers and among the very low armers. Increasing gaps...
Public diplomacy in Croatia: Sharing NATO and EU values with domestic publics
Engagement: Public Diplomacy in a Globalised World
We need a public diplomacy which fits our time. The policy issues which confront us are increasingly global. Systematic engagement with publics both at home and abroad will be required if we are to identify and implement solutions. Policy-makers and diplomats must work with a wider range of constituencies beyond government, moving towards a more open, inclusive style of policy-making and implementation. Understanding of complexity, difference, networks and cultural heritage will be needed, alongside more imaginative use of technology. Engagement, conducted with energy, ambition and cre...
The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century
A Critical Appraisal of the OPCW’s Media and Public Affairs Policy in the Context of Multilateral Disarmament and Non Proliferation Regimes
Multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation treaties such as the CWC, BWC, CTBT and NPT come with verification regimes that must balance confidentiality against transparency. While the CWC regime has achieved a great degree of intergovernmental transparency, civil and private stakeholders, in addition to the news media and the general public, do not enjoy the same level of access to information.
A Digital DFAT: Joining the 21st Century
The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) needs to keep pace with technological advancements that could increase efficiency, improve internal and external communication, and facilitate information exchange and gathering. Without e-diplomacy DFAT will be cut off from important audiences and find it increasingly hard to communicate its messages and coordinate Australian foreign policy across government.
Female leadership in conflict prevention, diplomacy and UN peacekeeping initiatives
Intervening in Africa: Superpower Peacemaking in a Troubled Continent
The Role of Diplomacy in the Challenges to Maritime Security Cooperation in the Gulf of Guinea: Case Study of Nigeria
There is presently a pervading feeling that the West and Central African states are long overdue to take control of their maritime environment. However, these expectations show no indication of materialising in the short term.
Peace Negotiations and Time: Deadline Diplomacy in Territorial Disputes
Towards a Single Development Vision and the role of the Single Economy
The Diplomatic Kidnappings: A Revolutionary Tactic of Urban Terrorism
Blundering Into Disaster: Surviving the First Century of the Nuclear Age
The challenge of regionalism
Social media and networks: What potential is there for policy engagement by citizens in West Africa?
The paper takes a look at concrete case studies in Nigeria, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire and looks at different levels of citizens’ engagement in public policy and how social media and networks are being used. Interviews, questions, consultations, discussions, and surveys were conducted, which led to the discovery that things are happening in strange places and that the potential of social media and networks in citizen policy engagement can only be likened to a pregnancy whose term is already here.
Relations between Cyprus and Germany 1960 to 1968
Antonis Sammoutis attempts an examination of relations between Germany and Cyprus during the years 1960-1968. He starts by examining bilateral relations in the first three years of the Republic of Cyprus and then going into the most crucial year of the conflict in Cyprus - 1964. Sammoutis then examines the years 1965-1968 ending with a summary of the main issues along with the main conclusions drawn from the research.
The Positive Branding of Islam: A Case Study of Islamic Countries, their Public Diplomacy Efforts and Effectiveness
Abstract: This thesis examines if any attempts are made by the Muslim world to address the current negative image of Islam using public diplomacy (PD) and if these efforts are effective and successful. It is the aim of this research to show that the correct use of PD can result in a positive improvement of the image of Islam.
A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West
Note: The author of this review compares Noam Chomsky's A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West and David Fromkin's Kosovo Crossing: American Ideals meet Reality on the Balkan Battlefields.
Engineering Influence: The Subtile Power of Small States in the CSCE/OSCE
Multistakeholder Diplomacy – Challenges and Opportunities
This book is a collection of papers from Diplo’s February 2005 conference in Malta and from research interns involved in our Multistakeholder Diplomacy internship programme.
Manuel de droit diplomatique
Virtual Reality and the Future of Peacemaking (Briefing Paper #14)
The International Law Commission 1949-1998. Vol. One: The Treaties, Part I
This first volume of a three-volume set is - price apart - a marvellous text for any student of diplomatic and consular law. Four of its seven chapters fall under these heads: ch. 3, the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961; ch. 4, the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963; ch. 5, the Convention on Special Missions, 1969; and ch. 7, the (unratified) Vienna Convention on the Representation of States in their Relations with International Organizations of a Universal Character, 1975.
Commercial Diplomacy and the National Interest
This short and lively book lays out the why and the how of promoting US business abroad. America's place in the world depends more than is usually acknowledged on the vigor and global reach of American business. The United States is the world's leading exporter, the world's leading importer, and the world's primary source and destination of funds for foreign investment. Our position as the best place in the world to do business-the most reliable in which to buy, the most lucrative in which to sell, and the safest and surest in which to invest or to raise capital-is a cause, not an effect, of A...
Mediation in International Relations
United Nations, Divided World, 2nd ed
Modern Diplomacy – Opening address
Opening address of the Honourable Dr. George F. Vella, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Environment of Malta.
War and the Private Investor: A Study in the Relations of International Politics and International Private Investment
A clash of professional cultures: The David Kelly affair
The Hutton inquiry into the death of Dr David Kelly, the senior British arms inspector in the UN inspection mission to Iraq who was found dead in an English wood in July 2003, offers revealing insights into the contrasting professional cultures of journalists, politicians and scientists. This paper focuses both on the language and on the transgressions associated with each of the three professional cultures under investigation.
DC Confidential: The controversial memoirs of Britain’s ambassador to the U.S. at the time of 9/11 and the Iraq War
DC Confidential: The controversial memoirs of Britain's ambassador to the U.S. at the time of 9/11 and the Iraq War.
The Role of the Beijing Olympics in China’s Public Diplomacy and its Impact on Politics, Economics and Environment
The 2008 Beijing Olympics were ardently sought, lavishly staged and hugely successful, despite intense scrutiny, speculation and setbacks. Amplified by modern media, most controversies revolved around China's political repression, epitomised by Tibet brutality. Resultant protests threatened boycott and terror, putting internal cohesion, national image and Olympic dream at stake.
In R. Allison and P. Williams (eds), Superpower Competition and Crisis Prevention in the Third World (Cambridge UP, 1989), pp. 206-16.
Diplomacy and Global Governance: The Diplomatic Service in an Age of Worldwide Interdependence
Australia’s Diplomatic Deficit: Reinvesting in Our Instruments of International Policy
Diplomacy and the American Democracy
The Global Health System: Actors, Norms, and Expectations in Transition
The Peace Brokers: Mediators in the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948-79
Dealing with cybersecurity challenges
'Various governments have come up with different interventions to address these challenges, like cybersecurity which is on the rise. The development of human resource and capacity building has been identified as one of the stumbling blocks.' - Godfrey Ahuma from Ghana
Conflict resolution and peace building (disseration by Unisa Sahid Kamara)
Unisa Kamara's dissertation seeks to give an account of the Sierra Leone conflict and the different measures and strategies including diplomatic attempts and efforts that were employed by various parties in trying to secure a peaceful and durable solution to it. The paper discusses the peace building measures and activities that were employed in sustaining the Sierra Leone peace process after the attainment of a negotiated settlement.
Civilisation and its Enemies: The Next Stage of History
Lee Harris is not an academic – his name would hardly be quoted in obscure learned journals. In the aftermath of 9/11 he has written this book in an attempt to articulate and argue a position that justifies (both retaliatory and precautionary) military intervention while rejecting racism or fundamentalism. A ‘loner’ who shares many ideas with the Straussian school (but without the latter’s undertone of righteous victim), Harris may be giving voice to the worldview underpinning much current U.S. action in international political affairs. He is worth engaging.
To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities of the American Founders
When I feel dispirited about the current crop of political leaders in Switzerland or around the world, I like to take refuge in one of the most uplifting political stories of mankind – the American Revolution.
The Argentine seizure of the Malvinas [Falkland] Islands: History and Diplomacy
The International and Legal Aspects of the Recognition of States: The Case of Macedonia
International society is a changing entity. The number of international entities continuously grows. New states are created, old states diminish or disappear. Complex states dissolve and simple states sometimes unite. New governments come into power opposite to their national constitutions and insurgency occurs very often. And then it is up to the states to decide whether they will accept the new circumstances and recognize the particular eventuality and additionally, to decide on the time framework for potential recognition.
The Revenge of Geography: What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate
Draft Articles on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property
Text adopted by the Commission at its forty-third session, in 1991, and submitted to the General Assembly as a part of the Commission’s report covering the work of that session. The report, which also contains commentaries on the draft articles, appears in Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1991, vol. II
Governance Challenges in Global Health
Global health is at the threshold of a new era. Few times in history has the world faced challenges as complex as those now posed by a trio of threats: first, the unfinished agenda of infections, undernutrition, and reproductive health problems; second, the rising global burden of noncommunicable diseases and their associated risk factors, such as smoking and obesity; and third, the challenges arising from globalization itself, such as the health effects of climate change and trade policies, which demand engagement outside the traditional health sector.1 These threats are evolving within a...
Tested in Times of Transition
How important is the role of small states security in the maintenance of international peace and security?
The game of International Peace and Security has for a long time been one played only by the great powers, leading to the singling out of small states in its deliberations. These states would create their own rules and be their own referees, whilst the existing small states would conduct themselves as mere spectators. However, following the effects of the end of the two World Wars, the creation of the UN and decolonization, the role of small states in the maintenance of international peace and security has gathered new responsibilities and in consequence it has made them important agents and m...
Customary International Humanitarian Law
Customary international humanitarian law is a set of unwritten rules derived from a general, or common, practice which is acknowledged as law. It's the basic standard of conduct in armed conflict accepted by the world community. Customary international humanitarian law is applicable universally – independently of the application of treaty law – and is based on extensive and virtually uniform State practice regarded as law.
The role of knowledge in the cyber-age of globalisation
In his paper, Richard Falk reflects on the application of information technology on diplomacy, and discusses the challenge of converting information technology to ‘knowledge technology’, and subsequently to ‘wisdom technology’. Yet, the ‘crossroads in human experience’ brings many challenges and dangers which the author analyses.
Cybersecurity in the Western Balkans: Policy gaps and cooperation opportunities
Report on cybersecurity cooperation in the Western Balkans.
Education and Conflict: Complexity and Chaos
Will WikiLeaks Hobble U.S. Diplomacy?
Radio Free Europe: An insider’s view
James F. Brown, who held joint British-American citizenship and died in 2009, spent 27 years at the Munich home of Radio Free Europe (RFE), rising to the post of director in 1978. However, uncomfortable with the aggressive tone he was under pressure to adopt from ultra-conservatives in the Reagan administration, a tone he believed signalled a return to the bad old days of the radio preceding the Hungarian uprising in 1956, five years later he resigned and took up instead a university teaching career.
Diplomatic Security under a Comparative Lens – Or Not?
“Diplomatic security” is the term now usually preferred to “diplomatic protection” for the steps taken by states to safeguard the fabric of their diplomatic and consular missions, the lives of their diplomatic and consular officers, and the integrity of their communications; it has the advantage of avoiding confusion with the controversial legal doctrine of diplomatic protection.
The study of regional integration
Diplo: Effective and inclusive diplomacy
Diplo is a non-profit foundation established by the governments of Malta and Switzerland. Diplo works to increase the role of small and developing states, and to improve global governance and international policy development.
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