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Author: Geoff Berridge

Radio Free Europe: An insider’s view

2014

James F. Brown, who held joint British-American citizenship and died in 2009, spent 27 years at the Munich home of Radio Free Europe (RFE), rising to the post of director in 1978. However, uncomfortable with the aggressive tone he was under pressure to adopt from ultra-conservatives in the Reagan administration, a tone he believed signalled a return to the bad old days of the radio preceding the Hungarian uprising in 1956, five years later he resigned and took up instead a university teaching career.
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In this book, Brown begins by describing how RFE was brought to its ‘lowest ebb’ by its inept handling of the Hungarian uprising and then recovered during the 1960s with the help of more measured, professional broadcasting. Despite this, he reports, in the 1970s tensions between the radio (focused on societies) and the administration at home (more worried about states) became marked. At this juncture, Kissinger and the State Department (plus Willy Brandt and then Helmut Schmidt in Bonn) came to regard RFE’s basic hostility to the East European Communist governments as at odds with the policy of détente – and would like to have seen the radio’s demise. When, following exposure of the CIA link in 1971, RFE was placed under the supervision of the newly created Board for International Broadcasting, it was even proposed that its name be changed to ‘Radio Dialogue’ and the right of reply given to the East European governments – in RFE airtime – to any broadcasts to which they took exception. Now this would have been a venture in what later came to be known as ‘public diplomacy’ (a term which mercifully never once passes Brown’s lips in this book although ‘propaganda’ slips out on p. 97), and the suggestion ‘caused much concern, incredulity, and fury’; fortunately it was ‘soon forgotten’ (p. 50). The author then nimbly knits into his narrative illuminating discussions of such subjects as the radio’s different target audiences, why it was so important to show its listeners what it was for (democracy) as well as what it was against, and the importance of grabbing their attention (for example by broadcasting rock music) and cultivating credibility in quiet times so it would be believed in a crisis. A particularly interesting section of the book is Brown’s 1977 memo reproduced between pages 58 and 68 in which, among other things, he expands on RFE’s ‘influence’, defined here well as ‘an ability to take part in the course of political development’ – so much for the alleged indistinctness of the concept of influence and the need for its replacement by the silly term ‘soft power’. In an epilogue Brown laments that, with the Cold War in Eastern Europe over by 1989, Radio Free Europe was not re-launched as ‘Radio New Europe’, a station that could have been devoted to the more difficult task of winning the peace, that is, attempting to forestall the rise of a demokratura (a facade of democracy without its spirit or substance) in too much of post-Communist Eastern Europe. This book is another valuable contribution to the ADST-DACOR Diplomats and Diplomacy series so ably edited by Margery Boichel Thompson. How much is new in it I cannot say because a good number of books on RFE (and Radio Liberty) with which I am not familiar, both by other insiders and academics, have already been published. Nevertheless, there is bound to be something of interest here even to those specializing in ‘public diplomacy’; and to those without prior knowledge of US Cold War broadcasting to Eastern Europe this is an excellent introduction. In fact, it’s just the kind to fire the interest. It is fairly short and crisply written and is enlivened by sharp and sometimes entertaining personality portraits, together with first-hand accounts of the circumstances attending incidents such as the bombing in 1981 of RFE’s Munich headquarters, believed to have been inspired by Ceauşescu. I found it quite absorbing and read it in just two sittings. It’s a pity about its rather odd index, which lists only proper names plus three topics, thereby giving the reader no help in finding discussion of such interesting subjects as jamming, cross-reporting, two source rule, influence, and so on. But this is a minor blemish on a valuable and accessible book.

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Evaluating Public Diplomacy Programmes

The new operational environment generated by the mass media revolution and the advent of the global information society lays the ground for a generalized re-emergence of public diplomacy (PD). After having been dismantled during the 1990s, this branch of foreign policy is undergoing a redevelopment phase within the chancelleries of many states around the globe. The growing salience of public opinion and the exponential development of the new information and communication technologies predispose this diplomacy of persuasion to play an increasing role at the forefront of twenty-first century int...

The challenge of regionalism

The challenge of regionalism is to balance the benefits of local autonomy with the need for cooperation and unity on broader issues. It seeks to foster collaboration among neighboring areas while respecting their unique identities and interests. Regionalism aims to address common challenges and opportunities through shared goals and strategies, promoting sustainable development and collective well-being. It requires finding a delicate equilibrium between fostering regional cohesion and preserving individual identities, all while working towards common objectives for the greater good of the reg...

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Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law

This is the eighth edition of Sir Ian Brownlie's classic distillation of public international law. Serving as a single volume introduction to the field as a whole, the book seeks to present international law as a system that is based on, and helps structure, relations among states and other entities at the international level. It aims to identify the constituent elements of that system in a clear and accessible fashion. This edition, fully updated by James Crawford, Whewell Professor of International Law at the University of Cambridge, continues to provide the balance, clarity and expertise ex...

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The MIKTA Way Forward (Briefing Paper #2)

Ms Rosen Jacobson assesses the potential, risk, and future of MIKTA, a cooperation scheme comprising Mexico, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Turkey, and Australia, which was officially launched in September 2013.

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An African Analysis of the War in Iraq

English translation of the book published in French under title: Une lecture Africaine de la guerre en Irak.

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Diplomatic Security under a Comparative Lens – Or Not?

“Diplomatic security” is the term now usually preferred to “diplomatic protection” for the steps taken by states to safeguard the fabric of their diplomatic and consular missions, the lives of their diplomatic and consular officers, and the integrity of their communications; it has the advantage of avoiding confusion with the controversial legal doctrine of diplomatic protection.

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Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War on Terror

All memoirs are incomplete; instant ones even more so; and memoirs about security matters are the worst, in this respect. The book, however, manages to disappoint in an unusual way.

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Portraying the religions of the Mediterranean

There is hardly any need to stress that the relations between the adherents of the three great religions of the Mediterranean, as indeed of all other religions, are more affected by the images that each group has of the other than by the precise content of the theological beliefs held by the spiritual leaders of each religious community. This paper discusses the “the politics of representation” that has garnered much interest since the publication by Edward Said of a trilogy on the subject.

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Digital Opportunities for All: Meeting the Challenge

The text is about embracing digital opportunities to overcome challenges and ensure access for all.

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The post-modern state and the world order

1989 marked a break in European history. What happened in 1989 went beyond the events of 1789, 1815 or 1919. These dates, like 1989, stand for revolutions, the break-up of empires and the re-ordering of spheres of influence. But these changes took place within the established framework of the balance of power and the sovereign independent state. 1989 was different. In addition to the dramatic changes of that year – the revolutions and the re-ordering of alliances – it marked an underlying change in the European state system itself. To put it crudely, what happened in 1989 was not jus...

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The Expansion of International Society

The text discusses the expansion of international society, highlighting the growth and interconnectedness of nations, cultures, and people globally. It emphasizes the importance of understanding and embracing diversity in order to foster cooperation and mutual respect on a global scale.

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Satow’s Diplomatic Practice, 6th ed

Satow's Diplomatic Practice, 6th ed., is a vital resource for diplomats with updated information on diplomacy history, diplomatic and international law, and the effect of modern changes on diplomatic work, including terrorism. This edition covers the evolution of diplomacy since the Cold War, the rise of new diplomatic practices, and the increased number of states and international organizations. The book details diplomatic privileges, missions, and consular matters, making it essential for those involved in diplomacy.

When may senior state officials be tried for international crimes? Some comments on the Congo v. Belgium case

The recent judgment of the ICJ has indubitably shed light on a rather obscure area of international law, that is, the legal regulation of the personal immunities of foreign ministers.

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A clash of professional cultures: The David Kelly affair

The Hutton inquiry into the death of Dr David Kelly, the senior British arms inspector in the UN inspection mission to Iraq who was found dead in an English wood in July 2003, offers revealing insights into the contrasting professional cultures of journalists, politicians and scientists. This paper focuses both on the language and on the transgressions associated with each of the three professional cultures under investigation.

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Manuel de droit diplomatique

This text is the first chapter of the "Manuel de droit diplomatique," a comprehensive guide on diplomatic law.

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A Diplomat’s Handbook of International Law and Practice

The following text outlines guidelines for diplomats on international law and practice.

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Mediation in the Yugoslav Wars: The Critical Years, 1990-95

The book "Mediation in the Yugoslav Wars: The Critical Years, 1990-95" explores the role of mediation in the Yugoslav Wars during the crucial period from 1990 to 1995. It delves into the efforts made by various individuals and organizations to mediate the conflicts that arose during this time. Through a detailed examination of mediation attempts, the book sheds light on the complexities and challenges faced in trying to bring about peace in the region.

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Cybersecurity competence building trends

Report on cybersecurity competence building trends in OECD countries.

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The Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross: Commentary

The Fundamental Principles are the result of a century of experience. Proclaimed in Vienna in 1965, they bond together the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the International Committee of the Red Cross and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, and guarantee the continuity of the Movement and its humanitarian work. In this succinct commentary intended for the general public, Jean Pictet explains the meaning of each of the seven Fundamental Principles; he analyses them on the basis of different criteria and presents all their various aspects, thus mak...

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The Peace Brokers: Mediators in the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948-79

The text discusses the role of mediators in the Arab-Israeli conflict from 1948 to 1979.

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Governance Challenges in Global Health

Global health is at the threshold of a new era. Few times in history has the world faced challenges as complex as those now posed by a trio of threats: first, the unfinished agenda of infections, undernutrition, and reproductive health problems; second, the rising global burden of noncommunicable diseases and their associated risk factors, such as smoking and obesity; and third, the challenges arising from globalization itself, such as the health effects of climate change and trade policies, which demand engagement outside the traditional health sector.1 These threats are evolving within a...

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World on Fire: How Exporting Free-Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability

Markets only function optimally when there is perfect information. Joseph Stiglitz received the Nobel Prize in economics for proving that when there are asymmetries of information markets fail. Information economics, with its better analyses of labour, capital, and product markets, enables the construction of macroeconomic models that provide deeper insights into unemployment, recessions and depressions, and other problems that have marked capitalism since its beginnings.

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Unvanquished: A U.S.-U.N. Saga

In November 1996, the U.S. wielded its veto power in the U.N. Security Council to prevent Boutros Boutros-Ghali from securing a second term as Secretary-General, despite overwhelming support. The U.S. had attempted various tactics, including disinformation and pressure on other council members, to oust him. Boutros-Ghali's memoir sheds light on the U.S.'s dismissal of diplomacy in this instance, emphasizing the power dynamics at play. The event underscored the potential weakening of the U.N. diplomatic system.

The Global Health System: Actors, Norms, and Expectations in Transition

The global health system is undergoing significant changes as various actors, norms, and expectations are in transition.

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Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in multistakeholder diplomacy

In his paper, Chris Lamb reflects on the role of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in Multistakeholder Diplomacy. He traces the IFRC's main developments since 1994, including its strategy document, and its obtaining of the status of observer with the UN General Assembly. The paper also looks at the future of IFRC in the light of its main objectives.

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The Power of Nations: The Political Economy of International Relations

The Power of Nations: The Political Economy of International Relations" discusses how countries use their economic resources and political strengths to navigate international relationships effectively.

Convention on the prevention and punishment of crimes against internationally protected persons, including diplomatic agents

The Convention defines internationally protected persons and outlines crimes against them, emphasizing the need for preventive measures and cooperation among States for the punishment of such crimes. Jurisdiction, extradition, fair treatment of offenders, and mutual assistance in criminal proceedings are also addressed within the Convention.

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Small Economies in the Face of Globalisation

The text discusses the challenges faced by small economies in the era of globalization, highlighting the need for strategies to navigate and thrive in this interconnected world.

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Economic Statecraft

The text is about economic statecraft.

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Intercultural competence and its relevance for international diplomacy

The changing nature of international diplomacy requires new knowledge and awareness of intercultural and other skills needed to perform effectively in the role of diplomat. The research presented in this paper serves to inform current and future planning for the selection, training, and evaluation of international diplomats.

The Responsibility to Protect

The Responsibility to Protect doctrine asserts that states have the responsibility to protect their populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity. When a state fails to do so, the international community must intervene responsibly to prevent and protect populations from mass atrocities. This principle emphasizes the importance of upholding human rights and promoting peace and security globally.

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The Internet and diplomats of the 20th century

The Internet and diplomats of the twenty century: how new information technologies affect the ordinary work of diplomats.

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Foreign ministries and the management of the past

In his paper, Keith Hamilton looks at Foreign Ministries’ treatment of historical diplomacy, and specifically, the publication of diplomatic documents. Through his historical analyses, the author examines the various aims of these documents, such as, to shed light on past developments and help in current and future negotiations; to influence parliamentarians and a wider public; and to further international relations’ studies.

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Don’t Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate

In "Don't Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate," the author emphasizes the importance of understanding values and framing in shaping debates effectively.

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United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran (United States of America v. Iran)

The United States took Iran to the International Court of Justice over the 1979 hostage crisis. The US argued Iran violated international law by holding American embassy staff captive. Iran countered with claims of US intervention in Iranian affairs. The Court ruled in favor of the US, directing Iran to release the hostages and provide reparations. Ultimately, the situation strained US-Iran relations and remains a key diplomatic precedent.

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Evaluation du statut de l’E-Gouvernement en Union des Comores

L’e-gouvernement consiste à l’utilisation des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (TIC) par un gouvernement pour transformer sa façon d’administrer, de produire et de délivrer efficacement des services publics aux citoyens.

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Barriers to conflict resolution in Africa: Mediating beyond power and ethnicity in the EAC and SADC countries through a Kenyan case study

This paper assesses the relevance of ethnicity and power in conflicts occurring in the EAC and SADC regions through a case study of Kenya. It engages with elites’ power contestation and the manner in which power has historically caused violence and instability in Kenya. Further, an account of researches on ethnicity and its inducing of violence is made. Through this, one discovers the importance of ethnicity beyond that of being a channel for the upsurge of violence.

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Influence of Economic Relations on Bilateral Relations

The title of the master thesis is "Influence of economic relations on bilateral relations". Firstly, three thesis statements concerning the influence of economic relations on non-economic bilateral relations have been developed. In order to validate the thesis statements a methodology was chosen that is mainly data driven and based on two case studies and a data comparison procedure, as opposed to a "theoretical approach".

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The Diplomatic Kidnappings: A Revolutionary Tactic of Urban Terrorism

The article discusses how diplomatic kidnappings have become a tactic of urban terrorism within revolutions, targeting diplomats to exert pressure on governments. Diplomats are seen as valuable assets by their home countries, making their abduction a powerful tool to achieve political objectives.

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War and the Private Investor: A Study in the Relations of International Politics and International Private Investment

The text is about the impact of war on private investors in the context of international politics and private investment.

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Kosovo Crossing: American Ideals meet Reality on the Balkan Battlefields

The author of this review compares Noam Chomsky's A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West and David Fromkin's Kosovo Crossing: American Ideals meet Reality on the Balkan Battlefields.

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace

The message emphasizes the autonomy of cyberspace from governmental control and promotes self-governance by its users. It calls for a declaration of independence for cyberspace, asserting that traditional governments have no authority over this virtual realm. The author believes that cyberspace should be free from external regulation and should be governed by the individuals who inhabit it.

Metaphor and War: The Metaphor System Used to Justify War in the Gulf

The text discusses how metaphors are used to justify war in the Gulf.

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Dealing with cybersecurity challenges

'Various governments have come up with different interventions to address these challenges, like cybersecurity which is on the rise. The development of human resource and capacity building has been identified as one of the stumbling blocks.' - Godfrey Ahuma from Ghana

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Diaspora Diplomacy: Philippine Migration and its Soft Power Influences

Diaspora Diplomacy: Philippine Migration and its Soft Power Influences is about the remarkable and untapped soft power that international migrants possess and how various sectors-from governments, NGOs, business, and international organizations- could tap this valuable resource to enhance global cooperation and development. With compelling stories from Filipina and Filipino migrants in San Francisco, London, Dubai, Dhaka, and Singapore comprising the large Philippine diaspora, this book illustrates how this widespread community performs numerous acts of public diplomacy, bridging the cultural ...

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Enhancing Global Governance: Towards a New Diplomacy

The text is about the importance of improving global governance through a new approach to diplomacy.

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The Foreign Policies of the Global South: Rethinking Conceptual Frameworks

The text provides an analysis of foreign policies in the Global South and suggests reconsidering existing conceptual frameworks.

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The role of the new media in the electioneering process of developing nations, a case study of Nigeria 2015

Abstract: This dissertation examined the roles new media technologies play in the electioneering process of developing nations. The chosen case study was the Nigeria 2015 presidential elections. For this study, the electioneering period was accepted to commence with from the campaign period and to conclude a year after swearing in. This allowed for the study of critical milestones of the electoral cycle.

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Introducing child safety in Romanian schools: Does the existing primary and secondary curriculum address online safety?

This paper examines the idea of an online child safety policy for Romania, which would provide an initiative to encourage smart online behavior in young children, prepare them to surf the Internet, and educate them to avoid its dangers. As technology develops and more and more children spend time online, they are exposed to numerous threats, dangers and potential abuse. Children need to learn how to behave online, how to critically assess their activities online and act accordingly.

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How is trust defined in Internet governance organisations? (applied ethics in not-for-profit Internet organisations, managing critical Internet resources – a case study on trust)

The message addresses the definition of trust within Internet governance organizations, focusing on applied ethics in not-for-profit Internet entities managing critical Internet resources. Trust is a central component explored through a case study, examining the dynamics and importance of trust within these specialized organizations.

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Manual on Compliance with and Enforcement of Multilateral Environmental Agreements

The text provides comprehensive guidance on compliance with and enforcement of multilateral environmental agreements, offering practical strategies and tools for enhancing global environmental governance.

Intractable Syria? Insights from the Scholarly Literature on the Failure of Mediation

The article discusses the challenges and reasons behind the failure of mediation efforts in Syria based on scholarly literature.

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The United Nations and Israel

This dissertation studies the relationship between the United Nations and Israel. Similar to most relationships, the one under review keeps evolving due to changing internal realities and emerging external factors.

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Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time

In this classic text, an eminent historian of international affairs and a distinguished political scientist survey the evolution of the international system, from the emergence of the modern state in the 17th century to the present. Craig and George pay particular attention to the nineteenth century's "balance-of-power" system, the basic tenets of which still determine many applications of modern diplomacy. The authors also focus on the ways in which the 20th century diplomatic revolution--a complex of military, political, economic and ideological factors--has destroyed the homogeneity of th...

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Regional water cooperation in the Arab – Israeli Conflict: A case study of the West Bank

The conflict between Israel and Arab countries, with several devastating wars, is about territory and land, and maybe just as crucially on the water that flows through that land. This dissertation, an analysis of the management of water in the West Bank, as a case study, seeks to underline the possibility of using soft power diplomacy, in addition to mediation and water cooperation, for a more collaborative kind of approach to the conflict.

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Return to the UN: United Nations diplomacy in regional conflicts

‘… lively … persuasive … careful analysis… This is a very readable study, combining narrative strength with political acuity, and informative on the years of disappointment … Much has changed since the UN’s annus mirabilis, but Berridge’s conclusions still stand’, Nicholas Sims, London School of Economics, Millenium.

The Dayton Agreements and International Law

The Dayton Agreements marked an important milestone in international law, serving as a framework for peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina after the Balkan Wars. This agreement established the entities of Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, outlining a power-sharing structure to end the conflict. The implementation of the agreement was overseen by international organizations, demonstrating the significance of international law in resolving conflicts and promoting peace.

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High Noon in Southern Africa: Making Peace in a Rough Neighbourhood

The text is about the challenges of achieving peace in Southern Africa amid regional conflicts and political instability.

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Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations

The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations outlines the standard practices and principles governing diplomatic missions and their personnel, aiming to foster effective communication and cooperation among nations. Key aspects include the immunity of diplomats from the host country's jurisdiction, the inviolability of diplomatic missions, and the duty to respect the laws and customs of the host country. Compliance with these regulations is crucial for maintaining international peace and stability.

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The Politics of the South Africa Run: European Shipping and Pretoria

Some time after this book went out of print, now many years ago, I found a message on my answer-phone from a London businessman involved in South African shipping. He asked if I were ‘the G. R. Berridge who had written the book on the politics of South African shipping’ and, if so, could I help him find more copies. On admitting to authorship when I returned his call, he said that he had managed to secure a copy for himself but was constantly in danger of losing it to other members of the South African shipping community, who had discovered its manifold virtues too late.

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The Role of Religion in Shaping Saudi Arabia’s Foreign Policy Towards Sub Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Uganda

Cultural and geographical proximity between Saudi Arabia and Sub-Sahara African region makes the relations between the two sides an interesting and wanting area of study. It was against this backdrop that this researcher decided to investigate into this important area.

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DiploDialogue – Metaphors for Diplomats

On Diplo’s blog, in Diplo’s classrooms, and at Diplo’s events, dialogues stretch over a series of entries, comments, and exchanges and may even linger. DiploDialogue summarises. It’s like in sports events: DiploDialogue aims to bring focus by deleting what, in hindsight, is less relevant. In this first DiploDialogue, Katharina Höne and Aldo Matteucci discuss the usefulness of analogies and metaphors for understanding international relations and diplomacy.

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World Economic Forum: A Multi-stakeholder Approach to Global Governance

The World Economic Forum advocates for a multi-stakeholder approach to global governance, emphasizing the importance of collaboration between various sectors to address global challenges effectively. This inclusive method allows for diverse perspectives and expertise to be considered in decision-making processes, fostering innovative solutions and sustainable outcomes for a rapidly changing world.

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South Africa, the Colonial Powers and ‘African Defence’: The rise and fall of the white entente, 1948-60

This book describes the fate of South Africa's drive, which began in 1949, to associate itself with Britain, France, Portugal and Belgium in an African Defence Pact. It describes how South Africa had to settle for an entente rather than an alliance, and how even this had been greatly emasculated by 1960. In light of this case, the book considers the argument that ententes have the advantages of alliances without their disadvantages, and concludes that this is exaggerated.

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The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century

The message is a summary of the book "The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century.

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Developing Community-level Capacity Assessment Tools: Perspectives and Practical Applications in the Context of Rural Africa (Briefing Paper #11)

The message provides an overview of developing community-level capacity assessment tools relevant to rural Africa to improve local development strategies.

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International cyber security diplomatic negotiations: Role of Africa in inter-regional cooperation for a global approach on the security and stability of cyberspace

This research paper examines African countries cybersecurity readiness and how Africa can play a role in shaping international negotiations and discussions on global cybersecurity governance.

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Knowledge management and diplomacy

In this paper we aim to provide a comprehensive introduction to the topic of knowledge management in diplomacy. First we provide working definitions of knowledge and knowledge management, and examine the evolution of the concepts. Next, we consider specific features of diplomacy that affect and limit the way knowledge management can be implemented. Then we look at specific techniques which diplomacy can adapt from the business sector in the field of knowledge management. Finally, we consider some important questions related to human resources and knowledge management.

Journal of Moral Theology, Vol. 11, Special Issue no. 1, Spring 2022, “Artificial Intelligence”

Journal of Moral Theology dedicated special issue on 'artificial intelligence'.

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The Diplomatic Corps as an Institution of International Society

The Diplomatic Corps is an institution that plays a crucial role in international society by facilitating communication and negotiation between different countries. It serves as a bridge between nations, fostering peaceful resolutions to conflicts and promoting cooperation on global issues. Diplomats are trained professionals who represent their countries' interests abroad and work to build relationships based on mutual respect and understanding. Through their diplomatic efforts, the Diplomatic Corps helps maintain stability and promote diplomacy in the international arena.

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The Positive Branding of Islam: A Case Study of Islamic Countries, their Public Diplomacy Efforts and Effectiveness

Abstract: This thesis examines if any attempts are made by the Muslim world to address the current negative image of Islam using public diplomacy (PD) and if these efforts are effective and successful. It is the aim of this research to show that the correct use of PD can result in a positive improvement of the image of Islam.

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Embassies under Siege

The article discusses recent attacks on embassies around the world, highlighting the increasing frequency of such incidents and the challenges faced by diplomats in maintaining security. Diplomatic missions have become targets for various groups due to political tensions and conflicts, putting staff and facilities at risk. Governments are working to enhance security measures and protect their embassies in response to these threats.

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Kosovo’s Final Status Negotiation Process: A Way Out or Cul de Sac

Kosovo's path towards independence proved to be a difficult, elongated and complex process that entailed political as well as legal implications that are argued by many scholars, and analysts nowadays.

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Meeting the needs of microstate security

This article examines the pressing security concerns of microstates, particularly against the backdrop of recurring themes of vulnerability in the literature. It reviews those arguments in the early years of decolonization which expressed scepticism about the prospects for independence in such very small dependencies given their lack of defensive capacity and the geopolitical risks which they face in a potentially dangerous external milieu. The article argues that these doubts and concerns have not been realised in the actual experience of microstates particularly in terms of conventional thre...

Regionalism versus Multilateralism

The literature on regionalism versus multilateralism is growing as economists and political scientists grapple with the question of whether regional integration arrangements are good or bad for the multilateral system. Are regional integration arrangements "building * blocks or stumbling blocks," in Jagdish Bhagwati's phrase, or stepping stones toward multilateralism?

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The Role of the Beijing Olympics in China’s Public Diplomacy and its Impact on Politics, Economics and Environment

The 2008 Beijing Olympics were ardently sought, lavishly staged and hugely successful, despite intense scrutiny, speculation and setbacks. Amplified by modern media, most controversies revolved around China's political repression, epitomised by Tibet brutality. Resultant protests threatened boycott and terror, putting internal cohesion, national image and Olympic dream at stake.

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The Clash of Globalizations: Essays on the Political Economy of Trade and Development Policy

The Clash of Globalizations: Essays on the Political Economy of Trade and Development Policy explores the tensions between different approaches to globalization, examining how they impact trade and development policy.

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Embassies in Armed Conflict

Apologies for the oversight, please provide the content that you would like summarized.

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Diplomacy and the American Democracy

The text discusses the connection between diplomacy and American democracy. Diplomacy is essential for promoting American values, interests, and security worldwide. It highlights the importance of diplomacy in advancing democracy, human rights, and peace. Diplomatic efforts help address global challenges and conflicts, contributing to a more stable and prosperous world. Diplomacy is a key tool in shaping international relations and ensuring America's leadership on the global stage. It emphasizes the need for strategic and effective diplomacy in advancing American interests and promoting democr...

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Post Cold War diplomatic training

Victor Shale's paper refers to a specific time period: the post-Cold War period which brought about new forms of conflicts, and high levels of terrorism. In the light of the change in traditional diplomacy, his paper examines multistakeholder diplomatic training and its importance as an approach in penetrating different cultures, and examines whether this approach could be used to minimise intractable conflicts.

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Lilliputians in Gulliver’s World? Small States in International Relations

A social science that is worthy of its name must study the universe of its cases in its entirety. If the states system remains a key component of world politics, then the study of small states is simply part and parcel of what the discipline of International Relations (IR) is about. In this piece, we want to demonstrate the importance of studying small states in some detail. We start, in this Introduction, with an outline of justifications for small states’ studies and with some historical and conceptual observations on what “smallness” entails. In Section 2 we show how small states...

From U Thant to Kofi Annan: UN Peacemaking in Cyprus, 1964-2004

2004 marked the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations presence in Cyprus. Since March 1964, the UN has been responsible for addressing and managing both peacekeeping and peacemaking efforts on the island.

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John le Carré: The Biography

I thought to review this book because I had enjoyed the spy novels of John le Carré and, having introduced a chapter on secret intelligence into the latest edition of my textbook and mentioned him in it (p. 155), was keen to see if Adam Sisman had turned up anything new about the novelist’s own short career as an intelligence officer in what was then West Germany.

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Knowledge and Diplomacy

Knowledge and Diplomacy presents papers on knowledge and knowledge management from the January 1999 Conference on Knowledge and Diplomacy in Malta. The papers in this book, examining the topic from a variety of backgrounds, academic interests and orientations, reflect the multidisciplinary character of knowledge management. This publication is only available online.

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The power of personal contributions

‘Some of the major issues in the African region that we, as individuals, have to face are infrastructure implementation, awareness, and education. Luckily, there have been encouraging steps by several stakeholders and the younger generations...’ - Duksh Koonjoobeeharry from Mauritius

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The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many are Smarter than the Few

Worldly wisdom teaches that it is better for reputation to fail conventionally than to succeed unconventionally. John Maynard Keynes

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International Regimes

The text analyzes the formation, function, and effectiveness of international regimes in regulating global issues and facilitating cooperation among states.

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Diplomacy Before and After Conflict

The importance of diplomacy in preventing conflicts is highlighted in this text. Diplomatic efforts both before and after conflicts are crucial for resolving disputes peacefully. Diplomacy plays a key role in preventing escalation of tensions, promoting understanding, and finding mutually acceptable solutions. It emphasizes the need for respectful communication, negotiation, and compromise to maintain peace and stability in the international arena. Diplomatic channels must be utilized effectively to address grievances, build trust, and foster cooperation among nations. Diplomacy is a vital too...

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Keeping the Peace in the Cyprus Crisis of 1963-64

After some difficulties, a UN force was established in Cyprus (UNFICYP) following the collapse of the bicommunal independence constitution of this former British colony - a constitution which the Greek Cypriots had always felt too favourable to the Turkish minority - at Christmas 1963. In this book, Alan James, Professor Emeritus of Keele University and leading authority on peacekeeping, provides what is likely to be regarded as the definitive history of the creation of this force.

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How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance

The book "How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance" presents a blueprint for solving global problems by leveraging networks of individuals and organizations. It explores the potential for a new era of collaboration and innovation to address pressing issues on a global scale, highlighting the power of interconnectedness and collective action in shaping a better future for all.

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Paradiplomatic’ Relations between the United States and Kosova: A Friendship between an Elephant and a Mouse

Naim Dedushaj's thesis 'Paradiplomatic relations between the United States and Kosova' studies the relations between the Albanian nation and America that date way back in history. The first Albanian immigrants moved to the United States in the second half of the 19th century. The major migration flows from Kosova and other parts in ex-Yugoslavia took place in the 20th century.

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Modern Diplomacy – Opening address

Opening address of the Honourable Dr. George F. Vella, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Environment of Malta.

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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to address global warming by promoting international cooperation and agreements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change impacts.

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Consular Law and Practice, 2nd edn

The author of this book is a member of the US State Department's Senior Executive Service, Chairman of the International Law Association Committee on the Legal Status of Refugees, and Adjunct Professor of Law at the American University. It is not a new book but is still available on demand from OUP (when you look at the price, though, who is holding the pistols is a moot point). The first edition was published in 1961, shortly before consular law was codified in the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963), and the method of the second edition is correspondingly different in emphasis - d...

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A Tipping Point for the Internet: Predictions for 2018 (Briefing Paper #9)

The briefing paper discusses various predictions for the internet in 2018, focusing on key trends and developments that will shape the digital landscape. Key areas include the rising importance of cybersecurity, the impact of artificial intelligence on online platforms, growing concerns over data privacy, increased regulation of tech giants, and the potential for blockchain technology to revolutionize various industries. These trends are expected to drive significant changes in how we use and interact with the internet in the coming year.

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DC Confidential: The controversial memoirs of Britain’s ambassador to the U.S. at the time of 9/11 and the Iraq War

The publication of these memoirs in autumn 2005 caused a public furore in Britain so I shall not waste time giving any background on Sir Christopher Meyer. (Just punch his name into Google, which will enable you in the blink of an eye even to find out from the BBC website which records he chose when he appeared on Desert Island Discs.)

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The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey

If God ever gave mankind a mission – it was not so much to multiply as to walk. And walk we did, to the farthest corners of the earth. Homo sapiens sapiens is the only mammal to have spread from its place of origin, Africa, to every other continent – before settling down to sedentary life ogling a TV screen or monitor, that is.

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The Embassy: A story of war and diplomacy

This book tells the story of the vital role played by the US Embassy in Monrovia in helping to mediate an end to the brutal, 14-year civil war in Liberia in 2003.

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The role of the super powers

In John D. Brewer (ed.), Can South Africa Survive? (Macmillan, London, 1989), pp. 9-34.

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Perspectives on Africa’s Integration and Cooperation from OAU to AU

The text provides insights on Africa's integration and cooperation from the OAU to the AU.

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A kind of diplomatic incantation: Exchanging British and Japanese diplomats in the Second World War

The content discusses how British and Japanese diplomats were exchanged during World War II in a diplomatic ritual that followed strict protocols to ensure the safety and respect of both parties.

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Regionalism in the Post-Cold War World

Regionalism in the Post-Cold War World emphasizes the shift towards regional cooperation and integration following the end of the Cold War. It discusses how national interests can align with regional cooperation and highlights the importance of regional organizations in addressing common challenges such as security, economic development, and environmental issues. Overall, it examines the evolving nature of regionalism in the contemporary global landscape.

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All Fall Down: America’s fateful encounter with Iran

All Fall Down is the definitive chronicle of Americas experience with the Iranian revolution and the hostage crisis of 1978-81. Drawing on internal government documents, it recounts the controversies, decisions and uncertainties that made this a unique chapter in modern American history. From his personal experiences, the author draws revealing portraits of the people who engaged in this test of wills with an Islamic revolutionary regime.

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The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century

One mark of a great book is that it makes you see things in a new way, and Mr. Friedman certainly succeeds in that goal," the Nobel laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz wrote in The New York Times reviewing The World Is Flat in 2005. In this new edition, Thomas L. Friedman includes fresh stories and insights to help us understand the flattening of the world. Weaving new information into his overall thesis, and answering the questions he has been most frequently asked by parents across the country, this third edition also includes two new chapters--on how to be a political activist and social entreprene...

Governing global health: Is Europe ready?

The text discusses Europe's readiness in governing global health.

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UN conferences on the spot – voices from civil society

In the fourth chapter of the book, Britta Sadou, focuses on non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Sadou introduces this particular group as civil society actors and continues by discussing possibilities provided to NGOs by various UN summits. The author highlights some of the main world conferences during the 1990s and early 2000s and poses two important questions - Has the time of those huge events come to an end? What could be the alternatives?

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Intermediaries: impartiality, multiple mediation and other questions

The topic discusses the role of intermediaries in maintaining impartiality, engaging in multiple mediations, and addressing related queries.

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Multilateralism under Challenge? Power, International Order, and Structural Change

The values and institutions of multilateralism are not ahistorical phenomena. They are created and maintained in the context of specific demands and challenges, and through specific forms of leadership, norms, and international power configurations. All of these factors evolve and change; there is little reason to believe that multilateral values or institutions could or should remain static in form and nature. The relationship between the distribution of power, the nature of challenges and problems, and the international institutions that emerge to deal with collective challenges is const...

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The Year of Europe: America, Europe and the Energy Crisis, 1972-1974

This is the latest volume in the DBPO series, which has proved so invaluable to diplomatic historians over the years. It comes as a package consisting of two CDs, a slim hardback volume, and an A4-size booklet, and is described in detail on the FCO website.

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Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace

The publication covers in a multi-disciplinary approach the technical, legal, policy and diplomacy aspects of State activities in cyberspace during peacetime. It consists of 23 chapters of academic nature, elaborated by 24 authors specialised in the respective areas of expertise. Diplo's Dr Jovan Kurbalija contributed the chapter on E-diplomacy and Diplomatic Law in the Internet Era.

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Consular Law and Practice, 3rd ed

First published in 1961, Consular Law and Practice is a classic work of great interest and practical use to diplomats, consuls, and international lawyers.

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Did diplomatic immunity exist in the ancient Near East?

The text discusses the concept of diplomatic immunity in the ancient Near East.

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Negotiating Public Health in a Globalized World: Global Health Diplomacy in Action

The text is about the challenges and opportunities of negotiating in the global health diplomacy landscape, emphasizing the importance of collaboration and innovation to address public health issues on a global scale.

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Outrage: Diplomatic Immunity

The piece discusses the abuse of diplomatic immunity by foreign officials to evade legal consequences for serious crimes committed in host countries, highlighting the need for accountability and justice in these situations.

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The secret life of a cyber vulnerability

The comic brings a worrying, yet realistic and educative story that follows a life of a cyber vulnerability, from its inception to its deployment for an actual cyberattack.

DDoS – Available Weapon of Mass Disruption

The increasing militarisation of cyber-space comes in response to fears of critical damage caused by digital weapons like Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS). Understanding that the botnets are the key platform behind DDoS, we compared the costs of running a large-scale attack with the approximate downtime loss in a country-scale attack in case of Serbia, showing that DDoS are readily available weapons of possible mass disruption. Taken as a whole, this paper suggests responding to risks by combating cybercrime as the DDoS enabler, rather than by militarisation.

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How do you know what you think you know?

In his paper, J. Thomas Converse focuses on four records-related areas where the issues of knowledge management and diplomacy come together and provide the greatest challenges to archivists, diplomats, historians and technology providers: validation, trustworthiness, context and longevity. He also explores some of the changes and challenges brought about by technology, and urges for a continued embrace of technology, while at the same time demanding the validating and relational functions which give archives their trustworthiness.

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Propaganda in International Politics

The text examines the role and impact of propaganda in shaping international politics, exploring its use as a tool for influencing public opinion and advancing political agendas on the global stage.

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A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West

Note: The author of this review compares Noam Chomsky's A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West and David Fromkin's Kosovo Crossing: American Ideals meet Reality on the Balkan Battlefields.

Definition of Aggression | United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3314

The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3314 (XXIX) establishes a Definition of Aggression for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security. It outlines acts that qualify as aggression, condemns war of aggression as a crime against international peace, and emphasizes that no justification can validate aggression. The resolution aims to deter potential aggressors, simplify identifying aggression, and protect the rights of victims.

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The Forgotten French

The text discusses the impact and significance of French immigrants on American history and culture, highlighting their contributions and accomplishments that are often overlooked or forgotten.

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Adoption and adaptation of e-health systems for developing nations: The case of Botswana (Research by Benson Ncube)

This paper seeks appropriate solutions to improve the access and capability of the health delivery systems in Botswana. The research reveals that many countries are now using information-based services to assist in the administration and delivery of medical services via telecommunication infrastructures.

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Vienna Convention on Consular Relations

The Vienna Convention on Consular Relations is an international treaty that governs the treatment of consular relations between states. It ensures that consular officers can perform their duties effectively and provides guidelines for consular notification and access for individuals detained in foreign countries. The convention also outlines the privileges and immunities granted to consular officers to facilitate their work and protect their independence. Overall, the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations aims to promote friendly relations between states and enhance cooperation in consular m...

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A New Governance Space for Health

Global Health Action is an international journal publishing research in the field of global health, addressing transnational health and policy issues.

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Social Power in International Politics

In "Social Power in International Politics," the author explores the impact of social power in shaping international relations. Social power encompasses the ability to influence others' behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes through norms, values, and identities. This form of power is not solely possessed by states but also by non-state actors and international organizations. Understanding social power dynamics is crucial for comprehending the complexities of global politics and how ideas and identities shape international interactions and conflicts.

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Lilliput under threat: The security problems of small island and enclave developing states

The article discusses the security challenges faced by small island and enclave developing states like Lilliput.

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Diplomacy on a south-south dimension

Building international diplomacy requires understanding ourselves, others, and how we relate together. It also involves understanding how others relate among themselves. In efforts to internationalise and build a truly global future, the consideration of contacts among all parts of the world becomes critical. The sustained diplomatic cooperation that has taken place in the last 50 years between China and African nations is an instructive example. This major phenomenon is the focus of this paper.

E-diplomacy and Diplomatic Law in the Internet Era

Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace (ed by Katharine Ziolkowski) covers in a multi-disciplinary approach the technical, legal, policy and diplomacy aspects of State activities in cyberspace during peacetime. It consists of 23 chapters of academic nature, elaborated by 24 authors specialised in the respective areas of expertise. Diplo's Dr Jovan Kurbalija contributed this chapter on E-diplomacy and Diplomatic Law in the Internet Era.

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Experiences of China

The writer shares their experiences in China, including cultural immersion, language challenges, local cuisine exploration, and building friendships. They express admiration for the country's beauty and history, emphasizing the transformative impact of living abroad.

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Persuasion: importance of trust, relevance for small states, and limitations of computers

Dr George Vella, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Malta, argues that persuasion is central not only to diplomacy but also to society in general. He highlights three aspects of persuasion. First is the high importance of trust for persuasion: trust creates the context in which persuasion can be used.

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Politics and Culture in International History, 2nd ed

The message focuses on the interactions between politics and culture in international history, emphasizing its complexities and interconnected nature. It delves into how political decisions and cultural aspects influence each other, shaping the course of international relations.

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Contemporary Diplomacy: Representation and Communication in a Globalized World

The text discusses how diplomacy has evolved in the present globalized world, focusing on representation and communication.

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Heart Work: Stories of How EDB Steered the Singapore Economy from 1961 to the 21st Century

The message provides a detailed account of how the Economic Development Board (EDB) played a crucial role in steering the Singapore economy from 1961 to the 21st century.

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International multistakeholder cyber threat information sharing regimes: Policy considerations for scaling trust and active participation

This paper examines cybersecurity information sharing mechanisms. It looks at the research into public-private partnership (PPP) theory, their application for cybersecurity, and the burgeoning field of international cybersecurity collaboration, and draws conclusions on what policy elements are needed to foster success in architecting a platform for cybersecurity information sharing on a large scale. The paper surveys existing information sharing regimes and the policy objectives they attempt to reach, including capacity building, standardized languages for information sharing, liability prote...

Towards a Single Development Vision and the role of the Single Economy

The text discusses the importance of aligning development goals and the significance of the Single Economy in creating a unified development vision.

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Roma Diplomacy

Roma Diplomacy is a collection of papers written or inspired through Diplo’s 2005/2006 Roma Diplomacy project.

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FDR’s Ambassadors and the Diplomacy of Crisis: From the rise of Hitler to the end of World War II

What effect did personality and circumstance have on US foreign policy during World War II? This incisive account of US envoys residing in the major belligerent countries – Japan, Germany, Italy, China, France, Great Britain, USSR – highlights the fascinating role played by such diplomats as Joseph Grew, William Dodd, William Bullitt, Joseph Kennedy and W. Averell Harriman. Between Hitler's 1933 ascent to power and the 1945 bombing of Nagasaki, US ambassadors sculpted formal policy – occasionally deliberately, other times inadvertently – giving shape and meaning not always intended by ...

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Humanitarian Principles

The text discusses the importance of applying humanitarian principles in aiding vulnerable populations, emphasizing humanity, neutrality, impartiality, and independence. These principles guide humanitarian action, ensuring that assistance is provided solely based on needs and without discrimination. Adhering to these principles helps maintain trust with affected communities and ensures effective and ethical assistance delivery.

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Politics Among Nations

The text "Politics Among Nations" discusses the nature of international relations, emphasizing the importance of power and national interests in shaping diplomatic interactions. It explores the role of diplomacy and military endeavors in maintaining stability and resolving conflicts on a global scale. "Politics Among Nations" delves into the complexities of state behavior and strategic decision-making within the framework of the international system.

A Digital DFAT: Joining the 21st Century

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) needs to keep pace with technological advancements that could increase efficiency, improve internal and external communication, and facilitate information exchange and gathering. Without e-diplomacy DFAT will be cut off from important audiences and find it increasingly hard to communicate its messages and coordinate Australian foreign policy across government.

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The Abuse of Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities: Recent United Kingdom Experience

The abuse of diplomatic privileges and immunities has been an issue in the United Kingdom recently, leading to concerns and consequences.

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The History of Diplomatic Immunity

A thorough and extensive book on diplomatic immunity covering Western tradition, the Ottoman Empire, and the Far East. It provides a comprehensive historical overview, but its heavy reliance on examples and cases sometimes clouds key ideas. The authors occasionally overemphasize reciprocity's role in diplomatic relations, overlooking other significant factors. The book also paints a bleak picture of late 20th-century diplomacy, neglecting positive aspects like the strengthening of the international system. Despite some flaws, the reviewer recommends it to students.

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Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: Mapping the GGE Debate (Briefing Paper #8)

The paper discusses the ongoing debate in the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS) and the varying perspectives on the need for regulation and control of these weapons.

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The Invisible Weapon: Telecommunications and International Politics 1851-1945

The text discusses the impact of telecommunications on international politics from 1851 to 1945.

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Preventive Diplomacy: Stopping Wars Before they Start

The text discusses the concept of preventive diplomacy as a proactive approach to preventing wars before they begin.

Diplomacy and domestic politics: The logic of two-level games

The text discusses the concept of two-level games, which examines how international negotiations are influenced by both domestic and international factors. Diplomats must navigate these complexities to reach agreements that satisfy both international partners and domestic constituencies, balancing the demands of two levels of negotiation.

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Virtual Reality and the Future of Peacemaking (Briefing Paper #14)

The briefing paper discusses the potential of virtual reality in fostering peacebuilding efforts worldwide. Through VR technology, individuals can develop empathy, understand different perspectives, and communicate effectively, facilitating conflict resolution. VR applications can simulate real-life scenarios, promote dialogue, and reduce prejudice by experiencing situations from another's point of view. This innovative approach has the potential to enhance peacebuilding initiatives and create a more connected and understanding global community.

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The Role of Diplomacy in the Challenges to Maritime Security Cooperation in the Gulf of Guinea: Case Study of Nigeria

There is presently a pervading feeling that the West and Central African states are long overdue to take control of their maritime environment. However, these expectations show no indication of materialising in the short term.

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Palestinian statehood diplomacy: The Palestinian UN bids of 2011-2012

The Palestinian Authority (PA) launched an intense diplomatic campaign to garner a supporting vote in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), which was finally realized in 2012 by an upgrade to a 'non member observer state', granting Palestine a set of new privileges. It represents a victory for Palestinian diplomacy and presents a model of statehood diplomacy that received support as much as criticism. It stirred discussions about statehood and state recognition, and exposed the limited success of international interventions in post-conflict state building efforts.

The Falkland Islands War: Diplomatic Failure in April 1982

The text discusses how the Falkland Islands War of April 1982 was a diplomatic failure.

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International Negotiation in a Complex World

The field of international negotiation is complex due to various factors such as cultural differences, power dynamics, and political considerations. Negotiators must navigate these complexities to reach successful agreements that benefit all parties involved.

Will WikiLeaks Hobble U.S. Diplomacy?

The message relates to the potential impact of WikiLeaks on U.S. diplomacy.

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Diplomatic Immunity: Principles, Practices, Problems

Diplomatic Immunity: Principles, Practices, Problems" explores the concept of diplomatic immunity, its application, and the challenges it poses.

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Surrender is Not an Option: Defending America at the United Nations and Abroad

In the book "Surrender is Not an Option: Defending America at the United Nations and Abroad," the author emphasizes the importance of standing firm in defense of America's interests, explaining that surrender should never be considered as a viable option in international relations. The book likely offers insights into strategies for navigating diplomatic challenges while maintaining a strong stance on key issues.

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How important is the role of small states security in the maintenance of international peace and security?

The game of International Peace and Security has for a long time been one played only by the great powers, leading to the singling out of small states in its deliberations. These states would create their own rules and be their own referees, whilst the existing small states would conduct themselves as mere spectators. However, following the effects of the end of the two World Wars, the creation of the UN and decolonization, the role of small states in the maintenance of international peace and security has gathered new responsibilities and in consequence it has made them important agents and m...

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International domain names from a multilingualism and security perspective

From an Internet governance perspective, multilingualism and security have been two of the cornerstone themes since its inception. The security theme addresses topics regarding the Domain Names System (DNS), Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), Internet attacks, security awareness, and policies and legal measures to ensure a safe and secure Internet experience. Security is a very diverse area where multiple topics should be tackled, and ignoring one or more topics while securing other areas would still jeopardise the safety of Internet users.

U.S. Propaganda in the Middle East – The Early Cold War Version

The text discusses the use of U.S. propaganda in the Middle East during the early Cold War era.

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A New Wave for the Reform of the Security Council of the United Nations: Great Expectations but Little Results

The reform of the Security Council of the United Nations (UNSC) has been an elusive issue at the United Nations (UN). While practically all Member States agree on the need to change the structure of the most powerful body of the world organization, so far there has been no agreement about what elements of that reform or about the substance of the reform itself.

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Multistakeholder Diplomacy – Challenges and Opportunities

This book is a collection of papers from Diplo’s February 2005 conference in Malta and from research interns involved in our Multistakeholder Diplomacy internship programme.

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To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities of the American Founders

When I feel dispirited about the current crop of political leaders in Switzerland or around the world, I like to take refuge in one of the most uplifting political stories of mankind – the American Revolution.

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Managing Global Chaos

The message deals with strategies for managing global chaos. It discusses the importance of adaptability, resilience, and communication in navigating turbulent international waters. Leaders are advised to anticipate challenges, foster collaboration, and maintain a proactive approach to addressing crises on a global scale. The text emphasizes the need for flexibility and innovation to effectively manage chaos in a rapidly changing world.

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Weapons Overview

The Weapons Overview provides an in-depth analysis of various weapons, including firearms, melee weapons, and explosives, covering their specifications, advantages, and best use scenarios. It aims to assist readers in making informed decisions regarding weapon selection for different situations.

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Globalism and the New Regionalism

The text discusses the impact of globalism on the new regionalism trend, emphasizing how regions are increasingly important economically, politically, and culturally in the global landscape. The author explores how global interconnectedness has led to a rise in regional cooperation and integration as a response to globalization, highlighting the various ways in which regions are shaping international relations and global governance.

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Strengthening Regional Management: A Review of the Architecture for Regional Co-operation in the Pacific

The review focuses on the architecture for regional co-operation in the Pacific and aims to strengthen regional management in the area.

The study of regional integration

The study of regional integration involves examining the process of countries coming together to form agreements, policies, and institutions to promote cooperation and economic growth within a specific geographic area. This can involve various levels of integration, such as free trade agreements, customs unions, and common markets, with the ultimate goal of fostering closer relationships between nations to achieve mutual benefits and common goals.

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Intergovernmental organisations sharing and linking open and real-time data for inclusive governance

The rapid rise of the Internet has encouraged the use of open, real-time, and linked data to help understand and improve development processes.The advancement of data use for development without an Internet governance framework, however, raises the importance of inclusion of the most marginalized, as well as privacy and security. This paper will examine such issues, as well as the role inter-governmental organisations can play in helping to encourage the use of data while supporting the protection of privacy and security.

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A diplomatic analogy: International functionaries and their privileges

Although many have grappled with the question of what privileges and immunities international officials should enjoy, no satisfactory theoretical framework has evolved. This paper discusses how the issue evolved over time, how extensive the problem is and why the response been so ineffectual and the resolution been so intractable.

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Diplomacy under a Foreign Flag: When nations break relations

The text is about diplomatic relations between countries and the implications of breaking these ties.

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Wilton Park: sui generis knowledge organisation

In his paper, Colin Jennings describes the way Wilton Park – an executive agency of the British FCO – operates. He highlights some of the key reasons for its success, and identifies some specific outcomes of the conferences organised by Wilton Park. The author also offers a few reflection on knowledge management based on his many years of experience.

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The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict

The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict offers guidance on effectively resolving conflicts through mediation.

The security of small nations: Challenges and defences

The 'essentially contested concept' of security is analysed, and some main kinds of ambiguity and dimensions outlined: level, kind of threat and kind of defence. Discourses on security, particularly of small nations, must avoid being trapped into dealing only with one level (national, which in practice normally means state), one kind of threat (military) and one kind of defence (again military). There is no clear relation between kind of alignment and military expenditures, but non-aligned states are overrepresented both among the very high armers and among the very low armers. Increasing gaps...

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Civilisation and its Enemies: The Next Stage of History

Lee Harris is not an academic – his name would hardly be quoted in obscure learned journals. In the aftermath of 9/11 he has written this book in an attempt to articulate and argue a position that justifies (both retaliatory and precautionary) military intervention while rejecting racism or fundamentalism. A ‘loner’ who shares many ideas with the Straussian school (but without the latter’s undertone of righteous victim), Harris may be giving voice to the worldview underpinning much current U.S. action in international political affairs. He is worth engaging.

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The impact of cultural diversity on multilateral diplomacy and relations

Basic concepts mean different things in different cultures. In multilateral relations this means that looking at such a concept is always culturally biased. As a result, an interpretation according to one culture also tends to criticise different interpretations according to other cultures. This paper discusses how important it is that diplomats and politicians pay attention to and accept the fact of cultural diversity. If they do, they will understand the underlying causes of many conflicting attitudes and they may become more inclined to seek compromise and consensual approaches rather than ...

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Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change outlines international commitments to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change.

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Diplomacy and Global Governance: The Diplomatic Service in an Age of Worldwide Interdependence

The text discusses the role of the diplomatic service in a time of global interdependence. Diplomacy plays a crucial role in ensuring cooperation and effective governance on a global scale, emphasizing the need for diplomatic efforts in maintaining peace and fostering international relations.

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The International Law Commission 1949-1998. Vol. One: The Treaties, Part I

This first volume of a three-volume set is - price apart - a marvellous text for any student of diplomatic and consular law. Four of its seven chapters fall under these heads: ch. 3, the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961; ch. 4, the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963; ch. 5, the Convention on Special Missions, 1969; and ch. 7, the (unratified) Vienna Convention on the Representation of States in their Relations with International Organizations of a Universal Character, 1975.

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Cybersecurity in the Republic of Fiji

This paper discusses cybersecurity in Fiji and offers recommendations to challenges such as the vulnerability of systems due to lack of a cybersecurity framework. The poorly framed laws and lack of appropriate policies.

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Accelerating the legislative process

'After returning to my home city from the Hyderabad IGF, I talked with the executives of Smart Communications, a stakeholder in ICT here, to take part, if not the lead, in convening an Internet Governance Forum in the country...' - Elias Laurente Espinoza from the Philippines

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Knowledge management and international development – the role of diplomacy

In this chapter, Walter Fust talks about the role of knowledge management, and knowledge for development, in diplomacy. He describes various methods to assess what knowledge should be stocked, and explains the need for managers who are assigned the task of deciding what should be stocked. These decisions need to be guided by principles, or guidelines - referred to as value management.

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Public diplomacy and soft power

The text explores the concepts of public diplomacy and soft power, elucidating their significance in shaping international relations and promoting a country's influence through attraction rather than coercion.

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Power and Wealth: The Political Economy of International Power

The text discusses the relationship between power and wealth in the political economy of international power.

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South Africa

In R. Allison and P. Williams (eds), Superpower Competition and Crisis Prevention in the Third World (Cambridge UP, 1989), pp. 206-16.

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Customary International Humanitarian Law

Customary international humanitarian law is a set of unwritten rules derived from a general, or common, practice which is acknowledged as law. It's the basic standard of conduct in armed conflict accepted by the world community. Customary international humanitarian law is applicable universally – independently of the application of treaty law – and is based on extensive and virtually uniform State practice regarded as law.

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Strengthening the region’s participation

‘Witnessing the open community policy development process at the AfriNIC community led me to further appreciate the importance of the Policy Research Phase of the Diplo IGCBP. AfriNIC-13 was an eye opener...’ - Maduka Attamah from Nigeria

About E-participation

This one-page document aims to explain the origins and needs of the usage of ICT in global participation, as well as to mention some good practices and potential for the future.

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Draft Articles on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property

Text adopted by the Commission at its forty-third session, in 1991, and submitted to the General Assembly as a part of the Commission’s report covering the work of that session. The report, which also contains commentaries on the draft articles, appears in Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1991, vol. II

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Facing the challenges of an Africa-wide ICT strategy

'There is a need to address these challenges to enhance the capacity of the AU organs, institutions and member states to better respond to instances of ICT policy in Africa. As part of the evolving African governance architecture, there is a need to formulate an ICT strategy...' - Eliot Nsega from Uganda

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Persuasion, trust, and personal credibility

Ambassador Kishan Rana indicates the cultivation of relations and the credibility of diplomats as the basis for persuasion in diplomacy. He provides an initial taxonomy of the type of relations that diplomats should cultivate. When it comes to credibility, Ambassador Rana presents the main ways of developing and maintaining credibility in diplomatic relations. The more credible the diplomat, the more likely it is that their persuasion with local interlocutors will be successful.

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Convention on Diplomatic Officers

The message will detail about the Convention on Diplomatic Officers.

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Broadening the diplomatic bandwidth

‘I believe whistle-blowing websites have a greater role to play in the future of the humankind. These are a few of the issues that I became aware of through DiploFoundation, on whose blogosphere these issues continue to be debated.’ - Felix Samakande from Zimbabwe

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Language: Setting the stage

Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Benoit Girardin takes a philosophical approach to rhetoric - along with the issues of interpretation and ethics. He examines each of these three fields and its relation to diplomatic practice and negotiations, showing with examples how diplomatic language exhibiting either a lack or an excess of any of these qualities may lead to problems.

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Decision-Making in the UN Security Council: The case of Haiti, 1990-1997

Question: 'When is a "Foreword" not a "Foreword"? Answer: When it is written by Adam Roberts. This book started life as an Oxford doctoral thesis under the supervision of Professor Roberts, and the former supervisor has done both the former student and readers of this book a great service by prefacing it with a seven-page essay in which he underlines its importance in convincing detail. So this, unlike ninety-nine per cent of examples of the same genre, is a Foreword that should not be ignored.

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The Dust of Empire: The Race for Mastery in the Asian Heartland

Central Eurasia refers to the countries in the Caucasus and to the five countries of Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. These countries that had once been part of the Russian and Soviet Empire were broken off and set adrift when the Soviet Union self-destructed at the end of 1991. They belatedly joined Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, three countries that also emerged from the sphere of influence of an empire, the British one, to become – in the words of Charles De Gaulle speaking of the newly independent African states – the dust of empire.

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The Yugoslav diplomatic service under sanctions

Sanctions adversely affect all the structures of the state and society, and render difficult, if not impossible, the normal operation of services, including the Foreign Service.This paper discusses the challenges faced by the Yugoslav diplomatic service when the country was under sanction.

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South Africa and the Simonstown Agreements

In John Young (ed.), The Foreign Policy of Churchill’s Peacetime Administration 1951-1955 (Leicester UP, 1988)

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Engagement: Public Diplomacy in a Globalised World

We need a public diplomacy which fits our time. The policy issues which confront us are increasingly global. Systematic engagement with publics both at home and abroad will be required if we are to identify and implement solutions. Policy-makers and diplomats must work with a wider range of constituencies beyond government, moving towards a more open, inclusive style of policy-making and implementation. Understanding of complexity, difference, networks and cultural heritage will be needed, alongside more imaginative use of technology. Engagement, conducted with energy, ambition and cre...

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Embassies as Command Posts in Anti-Terror Campaign

The use of embassies as command posts in the fight against terrorism is crucial for coordinating efforts and sharing intelligence across borders. Ambassadors play a key role in gathering and disseminating information to help prevent and counter terrorist attacks. This strategy enhances international collaboration, strengthens security measures, and improves the effectiveness of counterterrorism initiatives. By utilizing embassies as command posts, countries can work together more efficiently to combat the global threat of terrorism.

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Trends in Diplomatic Communication: A Case Study of Uganda

The aim of this research was to examine the communication trends in diplomacy with a focus on Uganda.

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East Asian Regionalism

The text examines the dynamics and evolution of East Asian regionalism, analysing the various economic, political, and social factors influencing regional integration efforts in the East Asian context.

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International Politics: States, Power and Conflict since 1945, Third Edition

This textbook is designed to support a general undergraduate course on International Relations. It is based on the second year course which I taught at the University of Leicester in the late 1970s and 1980s. The book was first published in 1987 and was brought out in a second, fully revised edition in 1992. The third edition was published by Prentice-Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf in paperback in 1997 and is now available in a Pearson Education ‘Print on Demand’ edition (ISBN 0-13-230327-2).