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author: Milan Jazbec

OK Corral 140 Years Later: Between Frontier Violence and the Emerging Rule of Law

2021

It was a hundred and forty years ago today that Wyatt Earp took his group to fight the outlaws of the Clanton gang. It was a bright, windy and chilly day of October 26, 1881 that – without its actors being exactly aware of – paved the way for the rule of law to become an irreversible fact.

Justice, Rule of Law and European Integration Process

There is a telling, primary and basic articulation in the Bible of what we understand today as a rule of law: “treat others as you want to be treated”. The Ancient Roman law puts this more precisely and it is still relevant nowadays, both among lawyers and among the societies: let there be justice so that the world will not collapse (as a part of Habeas Corpus). The French Revolution of 1789 defined it with a timeless slogan Equality, Brotherhood, Liberty (and with the French Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen). Magna Carta Libertatum from the year 1215 [2], as the legal and political foundation, as well as the Universal Declaration on Human Rights from 1948, as a political and policy derivate, confirmed it. One could find numerous, more or less exact principles and anchors to understand as well as to comprehend justice. People do want justice to rule their lives; they want everybody to be just and fair, doing nothing on the account of the others.

Generally speaking, this originates from the eternal question of good and bad, and how to provide the former and to prevent the latter. Closely related to this is the issue of honour and duty as well: Doc Holliday, a controversial figure of the Western frontier, “saw what he did on the street fight and afterwards as a duty”, since “honor mattered to him at a level few realized”; he believed “that he was doing something right and good”. [3]  

Justice could be defined as a result of a process, through which formal authorities try to find out or to judge fairly what is right and what is wrong and to punish those who do not stick to defined rules or disrespect and disobey them. Commonly, the popular notion of justice and fairness overlaps with the formal expression, with the codified legal systems. Therefore, law must be just and fair, doing and enabling to do right.   

Referring to this, the principle of the rule of law is a value and a value system by itself, stemming from justice. It means that only law and nothing else should govern people. There should not be any place for tyranny or arbitrary behavior, but only for righteousness. The rule of law (access to law by everybody, free and fair trial, and equality under the law for everybody) is a cornerstone of any contemporary democratic society, meaning it is an internationally accepted doctrine. It is the basic principle of the European Union, but also of the whole web of international governmental and nongovernmental organizations, movements and groups, including the United Nations Organization and its system of specialized and other institutions. One could easily claim that the European integration process stands up for its production of values, where rule of law is in the forefront.[4] Around this cornerstone, democracy, independent courts, human rights, market economy, free and fair elections, and freedom of media, to name the most outstanding ones, form a huge cluster of articulating, expressing and above all implementing of what is just. 

This set of values is directly bound to an individual. Individuality, as an emanation of a human being that is free in its original position, derives directly and clearly from the heritage of the French Revolution. In the 21st century, an individual is characterized by emancipation and protection. Hence, a person is universally free and protected by a set of legal instruments that shall guarantee his or her rights at both national and international levels. An individual has a political right and a legal possibility to seek protection by international institutions when being oppressed by national institutions of his or her own state. When speaking of the EU, everybody has a legal possibility to seek protection and justice from one’s own state before the European Court of Human Rights, when legal venues in one’s own state are procedurally exhausted. 

Together with the abolition of the death penalty and the right to a clean and healthy environment, this presents the most far-reaching advancement of the European integration process.

Booming Western Frontier and the Need for Rule of Law

In the second part of the 19th century, the American West, meaning western from St. Louis, across the Mississippi river all the way to the Rocky Mountains, to Mexico and Canada, was a huge, borderless territory, where no law was known, apart from violence. What was right was defined by a stronger rifle, muscles and a bigger number of members of the group, gang or similar: “… in those days [when] the pistol instead of law determined issues”.[5] Wild West was a mixture of everything that people, moving to that part of the continent, in a search for a new and better life, were bringing with them. Along moved groups of outlaws, smugglers, killers, adventurers, seeking wealth and power. Formal structures of law, though slowly growing, were thin and weak in number of personnel and executive power (i.e. capability of shooting and fighting skills to face the outlaw forms of all possible kinds). From one point of view, the lawmen were under huge expectations of populations to protect them, and from another, they were under contradicting huge pressure from outlaws of all possible kinds.   

It was usually a discovery of gold, silver or a similar mineral that brought crowds from everywhere to a single place, forming a booming town. Such a town grew practically overnight, with stores, magazines, saloons, hotels, churches, courts, jails and schools. It is not difficult to imagine how dynamic, chaotic and ruthless those places were. Consequently, law and order was something that came on the agenda later on. Working, drinking, gambling, all that was in the forefront of social behaviour. The end of the American Civil War (1861 – 1865) added to that mess numerous groups of disillusioned soldiers, jobless adventurers and criminals that spread across the West, and with them violence in various forms. However, it consequently also resulted in slow, but steady, rise of law and order.    

Tombstone, a small frontier booming silver mine town in the southwest Arizona Territory, not far away from the Mexican border, was a typical example of such place. It was founded in only 1879 with just around 100 citizens, but growing rapidly in two years to more than 7,000, becoming the most booming frontier town of its wider area. Consequently, all kinds of people were coming there and all aspects of life were present: “…by 1881 the town boasted fancy restaurants, a bowling alley, four churches, an ice house, a school, an opera house, two banks, three newspapers, and an ice cream parlor, along with 110 saloons, 14 gambling halls, and numerous brothels, all situated among a number of dirty, hardscrabble mines”.[6] A rather picturesque, but highly realistic description of what a romantic western scenery was supposed to look like in those pioneer days.

Too many challenges for justice to be cemented, but at the same time also enough opportunities for heading firmly that way.

The Gunfight at OK Corral

The shootout by itself was a result of tensions and conflicts between the local authorities with Virgil Earp as the City Marshall, and various outlaw gangs, the Clanton one as one of the most exposed. They were dealing with smuggling from Mexico different minerals on which the US Government imposed high taxes, stealing and reselling cattle, and demonstrating violence of any possible kind.

A chain of events led to the countdown. During the last few days prior to it, mostly by Ike Clanton provoking the Earps and swearing how he was going to kill them. City people were provoked and disturbed by this, not least the Earp brothers, whom people kept on reporting about those threats. Gambling and drinking were just adding to the heating atmosphere. A dialogue between the bartender Clem and Wyatt minutes before the fight is very clear: “Is there gonna be a fight, Wyatt?” – “I think there must be.”[7] It was all not exactly planned, but primarily produced by highly unavoidable stream of events that inevitably led to the fight. 

It happened on the Fremont Street, close to the OK Corral, however the latter became a symbol of the countdown and the whole truth as well as myth around it. Formally, the City Marshall Virgil Earp tried to disarm the group, since it was forbidden by a decree to carry guns within the city limits. Out of that unsuccessful effort, the fight erupted. Nine persons were involved all together, four lawmen: Wyatt, Morgan and Virgil Earp as well as Doc Holliday, and five outlaws on the other side: Ike and Billy Clanton, Tom and Frank McLaury, with Billy Claiborne as well.

Now let us try to imagine it: Less than a minute of heavy shooting from the closest vicinity, between two to three meters only, took place in an area of approximately 10 x 10 meters. A heavily crowded small place, with two groups of nine people standing and facing each other. Shooting, shouting and killing filled the place when men with guns fired about 30 shots in a bit more than 30 seconds, (“The fight was hardly started before it was over.”)[8]. Bullets were flying all around in the air and created hell on Earth. Smoke, powder, smell, heavy, hot air, hot blood marked the small lot, full of destiny, past and future. A mess, chaos, and a countdown was how the cradle of the rule of law must have looked like in brutal reality. 

Two shots followed Virgil’s demand to hand over the guns, and then the cannonade erupted. The first two shots were almost indistinguishable, but logically: Billy Clanton most probably drew first and Wyatt immediately after. However, since he was so incredibly fast with the gun, it happened practically at the same time. The result of the gunfire was clear: three dead (Tom and Frank McLaury, and Billy Clanton), three wounded (Morgan and Virgil Earp, and Doc Holliday touched by a bullet) and two escaped (Ike Clanton and Billy Claiborne ran away).

In addition, it was the figure of Wyatt Earp standing up, decisive and determined, coldblooded, full of courage, without any scratch. He was never touched by a single bullet in his 80 years long life, although being involved in many fights and situations on the very edge. His previous work as a sheriff in Dodge City earned him an image and steeled him. As Bat Masterson claims, the top shooter has to be armed with courage, experience and deliberation.[9] Only this combination makes him the best. Briefly, “Wyatt Earp was a hard man who lived in troubled times”.[10] All that earned him a status of a legend.

The Countdown and its Aftermath

There are at least two sorts of ground-breaking consequences of the fight, namely immediate and long-term.

After an initial shock and recovery, things began to clear down. There were instantaneous newspaper reports, both the Tombstone ones as well as those around the US. The former covered everything in details, the latter more generally and in an Aesopian way, but the majority favoured the lawmen. A one-month long court hearing let Earp’s company off the hook, although disputes about who started the shooting did not settle down for decades. However, a careful and abrupt examination of the dead bodies showed that they could not have their hands up as some witnesses, including Ike Clanton, who sued the file for murder, claimed it. 

Wyatt Earp became the centre of the OK Corral legend ever since. Not only was he quiet and rather introverted, but also known for the fact that “he never, at any time in his career, resorted to the pistol excepting in cases where such a course was absolutely necessary.” meaning that “he always arrayed himself on the side of law and order”.[11] Perhaps a brief evening discussion between young Wyatt and his father Nicholas on their way towards West, best explains the gunman’s attitude towards the rule of law: “I got to tell you something, Wyatt. You know I’m a man that believes in the law. After your family, it’s about the only thing you got to believe in”.[12] The latter becomes clearly visible in Wyatt’s brisk reply to the friends remark that he has to stick to the law: “I won’t let them use law to kill me and my family, John.”[13]   

A triangular matrix best defines Wyatt Earp from this point of view: family, law and friendship. The three Earp brothers present a unique case in the history of the Wild West. Combined with Wyatt’s relation and friendship with Doc Holliday (being all in one: dentist, sporting man, adventurer, and gambler, drunk and above all a scrupulous, unachievable gunman) shows, how difficult is the way towards creating and cementing what are indispensable values.

In the long run, the event in Tombstone, close to the Fly’s shop, became known as the most famous shootout in the history of the American Wild West. Controversies about what was right and what wrong at the broader scenery remained alive for more than a century. It showed that a strive for the rule of law is a process and not a one-time achievement. Each generation has to contribute to it with its deeds and above all with the universal spread of its validity and acceptance, showing that the rule of law shall remain the fundamental criteria for a just and lasting humane society. 

The Epilogue

The gunfight at OK Corral with its main figure is an archetype image of the West, its protagonists, contradictions and solutions: violence, justice, gunfight, saloons, drinks, poker and women, cattle, marshals/sheriffs and outlaws, Cowboys, local newspapers, court hearings, political backgrounds, jealousy, murders, revenge, just name it. But at the end of the day it all comes down to the issue of ensuring justice for innocent people and their families. It could be fairly claimed that this awareness was initiated in Tombstone on that very afternoon. 

This epitome codified the rule of law as a value, a norm and a benchmark as we know it today, although it was perhaps less noticeable on the spot. The historical process would have led to this anyway, but much later, being less dramatic, spectacular and impressive, and much less decisive, too. 

The real dimension of the most famous shooting of the West is sliding into the past, but it is its symbolic value that is, on the contrary, gaining on importance. Not directly, though, but as a cornerstone of the European integration process that has made Europe the most attractive place to live in. This is the result of a long, complicated and heavy political and diplomatic process that has one of its strong roots in a bright, long gone early Wednesday afternoon in the frontier town of Tombstone. It would be quite enough if this was remembered for the next period.

About the author

Milan Jazbec is a Slovene diplomat, professor of diplomacy, poet and writer, employed at the Slovene Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and member of the first generation of Slovene diplomats. He was Ambassador to North Macedonia (2016-2020) and to Turkey (2010-2015, accredited also to Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Syria). He published over sixty books and is the author of more than 130 articles on diplomacy and related topics, all in fourteen languages. From 2009 he is the founding editor of the international scientific journal European Perspectives. Views, presented in this article are solely of his own and do not represent those of his employer.

The views expressed in this explanatory note are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect IFIMES official position.

Ljubljana/Tombstone/Brussels, October 26, 2021

Note: The analysis was first published on IFIMES’ website

 

1 IFIMES – International Institute for Middle East and Balkan Studies, based in Ljubljana, Slovenia, has Special Consultative status at ECOSOC/UN, New York, since 2018.

2 Comp. The_Influence_Of_Magna_Carta_Libertatum… (October 12, 2021) as well as The Rule of Law by Tom Bingham (Book Review) (October 12, 2021).

3 Roberts, G. L. 2006. Doc Holliday: The Life and the Legend. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. P. 319.

4 Jazbec, M. 2019. European Integration Process Thirty Years after the End of the Cold War. European Perspectives, October 2019. Vol. 10, No. 2 (18), pp. 127 – 152.

5 Masterson, W. B. (Bat). 2017. Famous Gunfighters of the Western Frontier. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, p. 35.

6 Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (October 12, 2021)

7 Wyatt Earp, the movie, 1994, 2hs 17 min.

8 Masterson, ibid., p. 61.

9 Ibid., p. 25.

10 Roberts, G. L. 2019. Wyatt Earp: The Search for Order on the Last Frontier. In: Young, B. R., Roberts, G. L., Tefertiller (Eds.). 2019. Wyatt Earp Anthology: Long May His Story Be Told. Denton: University of North Texas Press. P. 25.

11 Masterson, ibid., p. 56.

12 Wyatt Earp, the movie, 1994, the 17th minute.

13 Wyatt Earp, the movie, 1994, 2hs 28 min.

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'After returning to my home city from the Hyderabad IGF, I talked with the executives of Smart Communications, a stakeholder in ICT here, to take part, if not the lead, in convening an Internet Governance Forum in the country...' - Elias Laurente Espinoza from the Philippines

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Diplomacy and the American Democracy

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World Economic Forum: A Multi-stakeholder Approach to Global Governance

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Diplomacy as an instrument of good governance

The functioning of diplomacy is influenced by a complicated combination of different interrelated factors. This paper briefly analyses their impact on the evolution of diplomacy and discusses how diplomacy as an instrument of good governance should adjust itself to meet the new challenges, to become more relevant, open and agile, to modify its methods and to fully utilise opportunities offered by the technological revolution.

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The Italian Public Administration: Ideas for Innovation

The ongoing rapid process of modernization makes people largely more aware of the social and civic dynamics in which they are involved so that they demand increasing satisfaction of their higher expectations. But, Public Administrations of many countries in the world currently suffer from dysfunctions and inefficiencies, due to their inner bureaucratic inertia, which in turn causes distrust among citizens and slowdown in social and economic development.

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High Noon in Southern Africa: Making Peace in a Rough Neighbourhood

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United Nations, Divided World, 2nd ed

Track 2 diplomacy and Pakistan

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace

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East Asian Regionalism

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Broadening the diplomatic bandwidth

‘I believe whistle-blowing websites have a greater role to play in the future of the humankind. These are a few of the issues that I became aware of through DiploFoundation, on whose blogosphere these issues continue to be debated.’ - Felix Samakande from Zimbabwe

The challenge of regionalism

The security of small nations: Challenges and defences

The 'essentially contested concept' of security is analysed, and some main kinds of ambiguity and dimensions outlined: level, kind of threat and kind of defence. Discourses on security, particularly of small nations, must avoid being trapped into dealing only with one level (national, which in practice normally means state), one kind of threat (military) and one kind of defence (again military). There is no clear relation between kind of alignment and military expenditures, but non-aligned states are overrepresented both among the very high armers and among the very low armers. Increasing gaps...

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The United Nations and Israel

This dissertation studies the relationship between the United Nations and Israel. Similar to most relationships, the one under review keeps evolving due to changing internal realities and emerging external factors.

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Keeping the Peace in the Cyprus Crisis of 1963-64

After some difficulties, a UN force was established in Cyprus (UNFICYP) following the collapse of the bicommunal independence constitution of this former British colony - a constitution which the Greek Cypriots had always felt too favourable to the Turkish minority - at Christmas 1963. In this book, Alan James, Professor Emeritus of Keele University and leading authority on peacekeeping, provides what is likely to be regarded as the definitive history of the creation of this force.

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Decision-Making in the UN Security Council: The case of Haiti, 1990-1997

Question: 'When is a "Foreword" not a "Foreword"? Answer: When it is written by Adam Roberts. This book started life as an Oxford doctoral thesis under the supervision of Professor Roberts, and the former supervisor has done both the former student and readers of this book a great service by prefacing it with a seven-page essay in which he underlines its importance in convincing detail. So this, unlike ninety-nine per cent of examples of the same genre, is a Foreword that should not be ignored.

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Developing Countries: Victims or Participants? Their Changing Role in International Negotiations

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The Abuse of Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities: Recent United Kingdom Experience

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Social Power in International Politics

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Radio Free Europe: An insider’s view

James F. Brown, who held joint British-American citizenship and died in 2009, spent 27 years at the Munich home of Radio Free Europe (RFE), rising to the post of director in 1978. However, uncomfortable with the aggressive tone he was under pressure to adopt from ultra-conservatives in the Reagan administration, a tone he believed signalled a return to the bad old days of the radio preceding the Hungarian uprising in 1956, five years later he resigned and took up instead a university teaching career.

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Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in multistakeholder diplomacy

In his paper, Chris Lamb reflects on the role of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in Multistakeholder Diplomacy. He traces the IFRC's main developments since 1994, including its strategy document, and its obtaining of the status of observer with the UN General Assembly. The paper also looks at the future of IFRC in the light of its main objectives.

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Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law

This is the eighth edition of Sir Ian Brownlie's classic distillation of public international law. Serving as a single volume introduction to the field as a whole, the book seeks to present international law as a system that is based on, and helps structure, relations among states and other entities at the international level. It aims to identify the constituent elements of that system in a clear and accessible fashion. This edition, fully updated by James Crawford, Whewell Professor of International Law at the University of Cambridge, continues to provide the balance, clarity and expertise ex...

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Blundering Into Disaster: Surviving the First Century of the Nuclear Age

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The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary

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Public diplomacy and soft power

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The Power of Nations: The Political Economy of International Relations

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Diplomacy on a south-south dimension

Building international diplomacy requires understanding ourselves, others, and how we relate together. It also involves understanding how others relate among themselves. In efforts to internationalise and build a truly global future, the consideration of contacts among all parts of the world becomes critical. The sustained diplomatic cooperation that has taken place in the last 50 years between China and African nations is an instructive example. This major phenomenon is the focus of this paper.

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The Diplomatic Corps as an Institution of International Society

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Strengthening the region’s participation

‘Witnessing the open community policy development process at the AfriNIC community led me to further appreciate the importance of the Policy Research Phase of the Diplo IGCBP. AfriNIC-13 was an eye opener...’ - Maduka Attamah from Nigeria

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Regionalism in the Post-Cold War World

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Electronic government equals sustainable development for Guyana

Electronic government (e-government) equals sustainable development for Guyana. This is the thesis illustrated by this paper along with the possible constraints involved in implementing e-government.

The rhetoric of public diplomacy and propaganda wars: A view from self-presentation theory

Efforts by governments to affect foreign public opinion through direct communication – and in competition with rival governments – have been a stable and consistent feature of international diplomacy since the turn of the twentieth century.

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Lilliputians in Gulliver’s World? Small States in International Relations

A social science that is worthy of its name must study the universe of its cases in its entirety. If the states system remains a key component of world politics, then the study of small states is simply part and parcel of what the discipline of International Relations (IR) is about. In this piece, we want to demonstrate the importance of studying small states in some detail. We start, in this Introduction, with an outline of justifications for small states’ studies and with some historical and conceptual observations on what “smallness” entails. In Section 2 we show how small states...

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Adoption and adaptation of e-health systems for developing nations: The case of Botswana (Research by Benson Ncube)

This paper seeks appropriate solutions to improve the access and capability of the health delivery systems in Botswana. The research reveals that many countries are now using information-based services to assist in the administration and delivery of medical services via telecommunication infrastructures.

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Introducing child safety in Romanian schools: Does the existing primary and secondary curriculum address online safety?

This paper examines the idea of an online child safety policy for Romania, which would provide an initiative to encourage smart online behavior in young children, prepare them to surf the Internet, and educate them to avoid its dangers. As technology develops and more and more children spend time online, they are exposed to numerous threats, dangers and potential abuse. Children need to learn how to behave online, how to critically assess their activities online and act accordingly.

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Culture and Conflict: Challenges for Europe’s Foreign Policy

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Conflict resolution and peace building (disseration by Unisa Sahid Kamara)

Unisa Kamara's dissertation seeks to give an account of the Sierra Leone conflict and the different measures and strategies including diplomatic attempts and efforts that were employed by various parties in trying to secure a peaceful and durable solution to it. The paper discusses the peace building measures and activities that were employed in sustaining the Sierra Leone peace process after the attainment of a negotiated settlement.

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Paradiplomatic’ Relations between the United States and Kosova: A Friendship between an Elephant and a Mouse

Naim Dedushaj's thesis 'Paradiplomatic relations between the United States and Kosova' studies the relations between the Albanian nation and America that date way back in history. The first Albanian immigrants moved to the United States in the second half of the 19th century. The major migration flows from Kosova and other parts in ex-Yugoslavia took place in the 20th century.

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Meeting the needs of microstate security

This article examines the pressing security concerns of microstates, particularly against the backdrop of recurring themes of vulnerability in the literature. It reviews those arguments in the early years of decolonization which expressed scepticism about the prospects for independence in such very small dependencies given their lack of defensive capacity and the geopolitical risks which they face in a potentially dangerous external milieu. The article argues that these doubts and concerns have not been realised in the actual experience of microstates particularly in terms of conventional thre...

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Convention on Diplomatic Officers

A Digital DFAT: Joining the 21st Century

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) needs to keep pace with technological advancements that could increase efficiency, improve internal and external communication, and facilitate information exchange and gathering. Without e-diplomacy DFAT will be cut off from important audiences and find it increasingly hard to communicate its messages and coordinate Australian foreign policy across government.

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Cyprus: the search for a solution

Lord Hannay, a senior British diplomat with great experience of multilateral diplomacy, retired in 1995 but was then persuaded to accept the position of Britain’s Special Representative for Cyprus. In this role he played an influential part in the UN-led effort to broker a settlement to the Cyprus conflict until the negotiations temporarily foundered in May 2003, when, with a mixture of relief and regret, he stepped down. (There is a postscript on the referendums held on the island in 2004 on the fifth version of Kofi Annan’s settlement plan.) He has written a brilliant account of the cour...

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For an effective taxation of electronic commerce in Madagascar

This research paper focuses on the taxation of electronic commerce (or e-commerce) in Madagascar. The objectives of this project are to offer insight and help the fiscal administration for future governmental programmes focusing on the taxation of e-commerce in Madagascar.

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International Negotiation in a Complex World

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Female leadership in conflict prevention, diplomacy and UN peacekeeping initiatives

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The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century

One mark of a great book is that it makes you see things in a new way, and Mr. Friedman certainly succeeds in that goal," the Nobel laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz wrote in The New York Times reviewing The World Is Flat in 2005. In this new edition, Thomas L. Friedman includes fresh stories and insights to help us understand the flattening of the world. Weaving new information into his overall thesis, and answering the questions he has been most frequently asked by parents across the country, this third edition also includes two new chapters--on how to be a political activist and social entreprene...

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Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time

In this classic text, an eminent historian of international affairs and a distinguished political scientist survey the evolution of the international system, from the emergence of the modern state in the 17th century to the present. Craig and George pay particular attention to the nineteenth century's "balance-of-power" system, the basic tenets of which still determine many applications of modern diplomacy. The authors also focus on the ways in which the 20th century diplomatic revolution--a complex of military, political, economic and ideological factors--has destroyed the homogeneity of th...

The Falkland Islands War: Diplomatic Failure in April 1982

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The Diplomatic Kidnappings: A Revolutionary Tactic of Urban Terrorism

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Regional water cooperation in the Arab – Israeli Conflict: A case study of the West Bank

The conflict between Israel and Arab countries, with several devastating wars, is about territory and land, and maybe just as crucially on the water that flows through that land. This dissertation, an analysis of the management of water in the West Bank, as a case study, seeks to underline the possibility of using soft power diplomacy, in addition to mediation and water cooperation, for a more collaborative kind of approach to the conflict.

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The International Law Commission 1949-1998. Vol. One: The Treaties, Part I

This first volume of a three-volume set is - price apart - a marvellous text for any student of diplomatic and consular law. Four of its seven chapters fall under these heads: ch. 3, the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961; ch. 4, the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963; ch. 5, the Convention on Special Missions, 1969; and ch. 7, the (unratified) Vienna Convention on the Representation of States in their Relations with International Organizations of a Universal Character, 1975.

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A diplomatic analogy: International functionaries and their privileges

Although many have grappled with the question of what privileges and immunities international officials should enjoy, no satisfactory theoretical framework has evolved. This paper discusses how the issue evolved over time, how extensive the problem is and why the response been so ineffectual and the resolution been so intractable.

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United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran (United States of America v. Iran)

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The Search for Peace

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Honey & Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions & Foreign Policy

Buttressed by input from scholars, diplomats, and observers with an intimate knowledge of U.S. foreign policy, Honey and Vinegar examines "engagement"—strategies that primarily involve the use of positive incentives.

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South Africa and the Simonstown Agreements

In John Young (ed.), The Foreign Policy of Churchill’s Peacetime Administration 1951-1955 (Leicester UP, 1988)

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Knowledge and Diplomacy

Knowledge and Diplomacy presents papers on knowledge and knowledge management from the January 1999 Conference on Knowledge and Diplomacy in Malta. The papers in this book, examining the topic from a variety of backgrounds, academic interests and orientations, reflect the multidisciplinary character of knowledge management. This publication is only available online.

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The Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross: Commentary

The Fundamental Principles are the result of a century of experience. Proclaimed in Vienna in 1965, they bond together the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the International Committee of the Red Cross and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, and guarantee the continuity of the Movement and its humanitarian work. In this succinct commentary intended for the general public, Jean Pictet explains the meaning of each of the seven Fundamental Principles; he analyses them on the basis of different criteria and presents all their various aspects, thus mak...

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Intervening in Africa: Superpower Peacemaking in a Troubled Continent

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The Internet and diplomats of the 20th century

The Internet and diplomats of the twenty century: how new information technologies affect the ordinary work of diplomats.

When may senior state officials be tried for international crimes? Some comments on the Congo v. Belgium case

The recent judgment of the ICJ has indubitably shed light on a rather obscure area of international law, that is, the legal regulation of the personal immunities of foreign ministers.

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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

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Post Cold War diplomatic training

Victor Shale's paper refers to a specific time period: the post-Cold War period which brought about new forms of conflicts, and high levels of terrorism. In the light of the change in traditional diplomacy, his paper examines multistakeholder diplomatic training and its importance as an approach in penetrating different cultures, and examines whether this approach could be used to minimise intractable conflicts.

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Evaluation du statut de l’E-Gouvernement en Union des Comores

L’e-gouvernement consiste à l’utilisation des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (TIC) par un gouvernement pour transformer sa façon d’administrer, de produire et de délivrer efficacement des services publics aux citoyens.

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A kind of diplomatic incantation: Exchanging British and Japanese diplomats in the Second World War

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How do you know what you think you know?

In his paper, J. Thomas Converse focuses on four records-related areas where the issues of knowledge management and diplomacy come together and provide the greatest challenges to archivists, diplomats, historians and technology providers: validation, trustworthiness, context and longevity. He also explores some of the changes and challenges brought about by technology, and urges for a continued embrace of technology, while at the same time demanding the validating and relational functions which give archives their trustworthiness.

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Effectiveness of U.S. Economic Sanctions with Respect to Sudan

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The impact of cultural diversity on multilateral diplomacy and relations

Basic concepts mean different things in different cultures. In multilateral relations this means that looking at such a concept is always culturally biased. As a result, an interpretation according to one culture also tends to criticise different interpretations according to other cultures. This paper discusses how important it is that diplomats and politicians pay attention to and accept the fact of cultural diversity. If they do, they will understand the underlying causes of many conflicting attitudes and they may become more inclined to seek compromise and consensual approaches rather than ...

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Democracy in Ghana: Lessons for Africa

Despite being one of Africa's finest democracies, Ghana's democracy is still a work in progress. What obstacles hinder Ghana's democracy from attaining maturity? Can these obstacles be removed to make Ghana an accomplished democracy or are they too entrenched to be removed? This study, which may serve as a guide to those wishing to improve and strengthen the democracy in Ghana, employs a considerable amount of existing literature on the democracy in Ghana to identify, not only the general challenges to Ghana's democracy, but some of the entrenched ones as well. Indeed, some of the problems fac...

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The Politics of the South Africa Run: European Shipping and Pretoria

Some time after this book went out of print, now many years ago, I found a message on my answer-phone from a London businessman involved in South African shipping. He asked if I were ‘the G. R. Berridge who had written the book on the politics of South African shipping’ and, if so, could I help him find more copies. On admitting to authorship when I returned his call, he said that he had managed to secure a copy for himself but was constantly in danger of losing it to other members of the South African shipping community, who had discovered its manifold virtues too late.

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A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West

Note: The author of this review compares Noam Chomsky's A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West and David Fromkin's Kosovo Crossing: American Ideals meet Reality on the Balkan Battlefields.

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Diplomacy under a Foreign Flag: When nations break relations

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The role of the super powers

In John D. Brewer (ed.), Can South Africa Survive? (Macmillan, London, 1989), pp. 9-34.

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Public diplomacy in Croatia: Sharing NATO and EU values with domestic publics

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International domain names from a multilingualism and security perspective

From an Internet governance perspective, multilingualism and security have been two of the cornerstone themes since its inception. The security theme addresses topics regarding the Domain Names System (DNS), Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), Internet attacks, security awareness, and policies and legal measures to ensure a safe and secure Internet experience. Security is a very diverse area where multiple topics should be tackled, and ignoring one or more topics while securing other areas would still jeopardise the safety of Internet users.

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Wilton Park: sui generis knowledge organisation

In his paper, Colin Jennings describes the way Wilton Park – an executive agency of the British FCO – operates. He highlights some of the key reasons for its success, and identifies some specific outcomes of the conferences organised by Wilton Park. The author also offers a few reflection on knowledge management based on his many years of experience.

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Cybersecurity in the Western Balkans: Policy gaps and cooperation opportunities

Report on cybersecurity cooperation in the Western Balkans.

From U Thant to Kofi Annan: UN Peacemaking in Cyprus, 1964-2004

2004 marked the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations presence in Cyprus. Since March 1964, the UN has been responsible for addressing and managing both peacekeeping and peacemaking efforts on the island.

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South Africa

In R. Allison and P. Williams (eds), Superpower Competition and Crisis Prevention in the Third World (Cambridge UP, 1989), pp. 206-16.

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Tested in Times of Transition

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Don’t Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate

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Diplomatic Interference and the Law

Q: ‘Why will there never be a coup d’état in Washington? A: Because there’s no American Embassy there.’ This old joke serves to highlight the belief – entrenched deeply in poor, weak states – that diplomatic missions too often meddle in the ‘internal’ or ‘domestic’ affairs of the countries in which they are located, sometimes with dramatic consequences. It is a view that was held in the years following the Second World War by the former Yugoslavia, then struggling to extricate itself from the Soviet orbit, and prompted it to press successfully for the codification of dipl...

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Digital Opportunities for All: Meeting the Challenge

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DiploDialogue – Metaphors for Diplomats

On Diplo’s blog, in Diplo’s classrooms, and at Diplo’s events, dialogues stretch over a series of entries, comments, and exchanges and may even linger. DiploDialogue summarises. It’s like in sports events: DiploDialogue aims to bring focus by deleting what, in hindsight, is less relevant. In this first DiploDialogue, Katharina Höne and Aldo Matteucci discuss the usefulness of analogies and metaphors for understanding international relations and diplomacy.

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Managing the Cold War: A view from the front line

Michael Alexander, a Russian-speaking senior British diplomat who died in 2002, was a major behind-the-scenes figure in what he calls the ‘management’ of the cold war to a peaceful conclusion.

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The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey

If God ever gave mankind a mission – it was not so much to multiply as to walk. And walk we did, to the farthest corners of the earth. Homo sapiens sapiens is the only mammal to have spread from its place of origin, Africa, to every other continent – before settling down to sedentary life ogling a TV screen or monitor, that is.

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Modern Diplomacy – Opening address

Opening address of the Honourable Dr. George F. Vella, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Environment of Malta.

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Cybersecurity in the Republic of Fiji

This paper discusses cybersecurity in Fiji and offers recommendations to challenges such as the vulnerability of systems due to lack of a cybersecurity framework. The poorly framed laws and lack of appropriate policies.

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Language: Setting the stage

Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Benoit Girardin takes a philosophical approach to rhetoric - along with the issues of interpretation and ethics. He examines each of these three fields and its relation to diplomatic practice and negotiations, showing with examples how diplomatic language exhibiting either a lack or an excess of any of these qualities may lead to problems.

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The development of multilateral diplomacy and its fundamental role in global security and progression.

This dissertation is written to present the notion of peace and security to be the direct result of international cooperation through multilateral means

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Diplomatic Security under a Comparative Lens – Or Not?

“Diplomatic security” is the term now usually preferred to “diplomatic protection” for the steps taken by states to safeguard the fabric of their diplomatic and consular missions, the lives of their diplomatic and consular officers, and the integrity of their communications; it has the advantage of avoiding confusion with the controversial legal doctrine of diplomatic protection.

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The MIKTA Way Forward (Briefing Paper #2)

Ms Rosen Jacobson assesses the potential, risk, and future of MIKTA, a cooperation scheme comprising Mexico, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Turkey, and Australia, which was officially launched in September 2013.

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Perspectives on Africa’s Integration and Cooperation from OAU to AU

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Satow’s Diplomatic Practice, 6th ed

Satow’s Diplomatic Practice is a classic work, first published 90 years ago and revised four times since. This is the first revised edition for thirty years, during which time the world and diplomacy have changed almost beyond recognition. The new edition provides an enlarged and updated section on the history of diplomacy and revises comprehensively […]

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The Breaking of Nations

Robert Cooper is Director-General of External and Politico-Military Affairs for the Council of the EU and thus a man steeped in world affairs. Though he makes no claim to establishing a ‘theory’ of how nations grow and decay, he has presented in this slim volume a rigorous typology of today’s nations. His thoughts are worth setting out in some detail.

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Heart Work: Stories of How EDB Steered the Singapore Economy from 1961 to the 21st Century

DDoS – Available Weapon of Mass Disruption

The increasing militarisation of cyber-space comes in response to fears of critical damage caused by digital weapons like Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS). Understanding that the botnets are the key platform behind DDoS, we compared the costs of running a large-scale attack with the approximate downtime loss in a country-scale attack in case of Serbia, showing that DDoS are readily available weapons of possible mass disruption. Taken as a whole, this paper suggests responding to risks by combating cybercrime as the DDoS enabler, rather than by militarisation.

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A New Governance Space for Health

Global Health Action is an international journal publishing research in the field of global health, addressing transnational health and policy issues.

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Emerging Leaders for a Digital World (2011): Dalsie Greenrose Kalna Baniala from Vanuatu

‘With the number of training courses I have attended, including attending the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), I have learnt a lot.’

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Multistakeholder Diplomacy – Challenges and Opportunities

This book is a collection of papers from Diplo’s February 2005 conference in Malta and from research interns involved in our Multistakeholder Diplomacy internship programme.

The Global Health System: Actors, Norms, and Expectations in Transition

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Persuasion: importance of trust, relevance for small states, and limitations of computers

Dr George Vella, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Malta, argues that persuasion is central not only to diplomacy but also to society in general. He highlights three aspects of persuasion. First is the high importance of trust for persuasion: trust creates the context in which persuasion can be used.

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Politics and Culture in International History, 2nd ed

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Did diplomatic immunity exist in the ancient Near East?

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An Introduction to International Politics

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Manual on Compliance with and Enforcement of Multilateral Environmental Agreements

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Knowledge management and diplomacy

In this paper we aim to provide a comprehensive introduction to the topic of knowledge management in diplomacy. First we provide working definitions of knowledge and knowledge management, and examine the evolution of the concepts. Next, we consider specific features of diplomacy that affect and limit the way knowledge management can be implemented. Then we look at specific techniques which diplomacy can adapt from the business sector in the field of knowledge management. Finally, we consider some important questions related to human resources and knowledge management.

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Evaluation of the status of the e-government in Comoros

Comoros has an e-government development index (EGDI) of 0.2327*, with a country online presence estimated at 286. This study evaluates the country online presence by counting the governmental web sites, commenting on the figures published compared to the online availability of governmental information, and examining the interaction with citizens.

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Health, security and foreign policy

Over the past decade, health has become an increasingly important international issue and one which has engaged the attention of the foreign and security policy community. This article examines the emerging relationship between foreign and security policy, and global public health. It argues that the agenda has been dominated by two issues – the spread of selected infectious diseases (including HIV/AIDS) and bio-terror. It argues that this is a narrow framing of the agenda which could be broadened to include a wider range of issues. We offer two examples: health and internal instability,...

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Internet governance and service provision in Zimbabwe

From an Internet governance perspective, multilingualism and security have been two of the cornerstone themes since its inception. The security theme addresses topics regarding the Domain Names System (DNS), Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), Internet attacks, security awareness, and policies and legal measures to ensure a safe and secure Internet experience. Security is a very diverse area where multiple topics should be tackled, and ignoring one or more topics while securing other areas would still jeopardise the safety of Internet users.

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The Role of Religion in Shaping Saudi Arabia’s Foreign Policy Towards Sub Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Uganda

Cultural and geographical proximity between Saudi Arabia and Sub-Sahara African region makes the relations between the two sides an interesting and wanting area of study. It was against this backdrop that this researcher decided to investigate into this important area.

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Diplomats at War: British and Commonwealth diplomacy in wartime

In their Preface, the editors of Diplomats at War say that the two world wars in the twentieth century had a “catalytic impact upon the practice of diplomacy”; among other things, they continue, this produced “an unprecedented revolution” in the way heads of mission conducted their business.

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Engineering Influence: The Subtile Power of Small States in the CSCE/OSCE

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Globalism and the New Regionalism

The Clash of Civilizations

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Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

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Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: Mapping the GGE Debate (Briefing Paper #8)

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Guerrilla Diplomacy: Rethinking International Relations

In a previous book review for DiploFoundation, Petru Dumitriu described G. R. Berridge’s Diplomacy: Theory and Practice as 'a Robinson Crusoe’s book on diplomacy'. Suppose one is left on a deserted island and allowed only one book to study diplomacy; in that case, Dumitriu recommends Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. Without doubt, I wholeheartedly support this recommendation.

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Managing Global Chaos

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Strengthening of the Coordination of Emergency Humanitarian Assistance of the United Nations

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A New Wave for the Reform of the Security Council of the United Nations: Great Expectations but Little Results

The reform of the Security Council of the United Nations (UNSC) has been an elusive issue at the United Nations (UN). While practically all Member States agree on the need to change the structure of the most powerful body of the world organization, so far there has been no agreement about what elements of that reform or about the substance of the reform itself.

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Small Economies in the Face of Globalisation

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Diplomacy of tomorrow

The time of diplomacy is far from over. This paper discusses how its role will become ever more central as most important affairs will have to be handled at global, regional and sub-regional levels.

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The Peace Brokers: Mediators in the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948-79

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Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations

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Kosovo Crossing: American Ideals meet Reality on the Balkan Battlefields

The author of this review compares Noam Chomsky's A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West and David Fromkin's Kosovo Crossing: American Ideals meet Reality on the Balkan Battlefields.

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Negotiating Public Health in a Globalized World: Global Health Diplomacy in Action

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The National Security of Small States in a Changing World

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International cyber security diplomatic negotiations: Role of Africa in inter-regional cooperation for a global approach on the security and stability of cyberspace

This research paper examines African countries cybersecurity readiness and how Africa can play a role in shaping international negotiations and discussions on global cybersecurity governance.

Towards a Single Development Vision and the role of the Single Economy

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International Regimes

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The Role of the Beijing Olympics in China’s Public Diplomacy and its Impact on Politics, Economics and Environment

The 2008 Beijing Olympics were ardently sought, lavishly staged and hugely successful, despite intense scrutiny, speculation and setbacks. Amplified by modern media, most controversies revolved around China's political repression, epitomised by Tibet brutality. Resultant protests threatened boycott and terror, putting internal cohesion, national image and Olympic dream at stake.

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Carry on, Excellencies!

The latest piece of EU legislation on air transport security seems at first sight to contradict a wellestablished principle of diplomatic law, the freedom of diplomatic communication.

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The History of Diplomatic Immunity

This is a massive book in more than one sense. It is over 700 pages long, including an invaluable bibliography which itself stretches over 70 pages. While dwelling chiefly on the Western tradition, it also takes in the Ottoman Empire and the Far East. It begins in ancient times (though having less on the second […]

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An Examination of the Role of Women in Conflict Management: Sierra Leone Case Study

This paper examines the role of women in conflict management, using Sierra Leone as a case study.

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The Foreign Policies of the Global South: Rethinking Conceptual Frameworks

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The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century

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Knowledge management and international development – the role of diplomacy

In this chapter, Walter Fust talks about the role of knowledge management, and knowledge for development, in diplomacy. He describes various methods to assess what knowledge should be stocked, and explains the need for managers who are assigned the task of deciding what should be stocked. These decisions need to be guided by principles, or guidelines - referred to as value management.

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Small States in International Relations

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Barriers to conflict resolution in Africa: Mediating beyond power and ethnicity in the EAC and SADC countries through a Kenyan case study

This paper assesses the relevance of ethnicity and power in conflicts occurring in the EAC and SADC regions through a case study of Kenya. It engages with elites’ power contestation and the manner in which power has historically caused violence and instability in Kenya. Further, an account of researches on ethnicity and its inducing of violence is made. Through this, one discovers the importance of ethnicity beyond that of being a channel for the upsurge of violence.

A Critical Appraisal of the OPCW’s Media and Public Affairs Policy in the Context of Multilateral Disarmament and Non Proliferation Regimes

Multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation treaties such as the CWC, BWC, CTBT and NPT come with verification regimes that must balance confidentiality against transparency. While the CWC regime has achieved a great degree of intergovernmental transparency, civil and private stakeholders, in addition to the news media and the general public, do not enjoy the same level of access to information.

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Cybersecurity competence building trends

Report on cybersecurity competence building trends in OECD countries.

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Politics Among Nations

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Convention on Diplomatic Asylum

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Social media and networks: What potential is there for policy engagement by citizens in West Africa?

The paper takes a look at concrete case studies in Nigeria, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire and looks at different levels of citizens’ engagement in public policy and how social media and networks are being used. Interviews, questions, consultations, discussions, and surveys were conducted, which led to the discovery that things are happening in strange places and that the potential of social media and networks in citizen policy engagement can only be likened to a pregnancy whose term is already here.

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Diplomacy Before and After Conflict

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A Diplomat’s Handbook of International Law and Practice

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Virtual Reality and the Future of Peacemaking (Briefing Paper #14)

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How important is the role of small states security in the maintenance of international peace and security?

The game of International Peace and Security has for a long time been one played only by the great powers, leading to the singling out of small states in its deliberations. These states would create their own rules and be their own referees, whilst the existing small states would conduct themselves as mere spectators. However, following the effects of the end of the two World Wars, the creation of the UN and decolonization, the role of small states in the maintenance of international peace and security has gathered new responsibilities and in consequence it has made them important agents and m...

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Small States and the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the EU: A Comparative Analysis

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The Argentine seizure of the Malvinas [Falkland] Islands: History and Diplomacy

The emergence of international public opinion and the origins of public diplomacy in Japan in the inter-war period

The emergence of international public opinion and the origins of public diplomacy in Japan in the inter-war period.

Governing global health: Is Europe ready?

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Surrender is Not an Option: Defending America at the United Nations and Abroad

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The Positive Branding of Islam: A Case Study of Islamic Countries, their Public Diplomacy Efforts and Effectiveness

Abstract: This thesis examines if any attempts are made by the Muslim world to address the current negative image of Islam using public diplomacy (PD) and if these efforts are effective and successful. It is the aim of this research to show that the correct use of PD can result in a positive improvement of the image of Islam.

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Education and Conflict: Complexity and Chaos

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Foreign ministries and the management of the past

In his paper, Keith Hamilton looks at Foreign Ministries’ treatment of historical diplomacy, and specifically, the publication of diplomatic documents. Through his historical analyses, the author examines the various aims of these documents, such as, to shed light on past developments and help in current and future negotiations; to influence parliamentarians and a wider public; and to further international relations’ studies.

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Mediation in International Relations

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Small States and Alliances

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Strengthening Regional Management: A Review of the Architecture for Regional Co-operation in the Pacific

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Common African Position on the Post-2015 Development Agenda

The participatory approach that led to the elaboration of the Common African Position (CAP) on the post-2015 Development Agenda involving stakeholders at the national, regional and continental levels among the public and private sectors, parliamentarians, civil society organizations (CSOs), including women and youth associations, and academia. This approach has helped address the consultation gap in the initial preparation and formulation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

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The post-modern state and the world order

1989 marked a break in European history. What happened in 1989 went beyond the events of 1789, 1815 or 1919. These dates, like 1989, stand for revolutions, the break-up of empires and the re-ordering of spheres of influence. But these changes took place within the established framework of the balance of power and the sovereign independent state. 1989 was different. In addition to the dramatic changes of that year – the revolutions and the re-ordering of alliances – it marked an underlying change in the European state system itself. To put it crudely, what happened in 1989 was not jus...

OK Corral 140 Years Later: Between Frontier Violence and the Emerging Rule of Law

It was a hundred and forty years ago today that Wyatt Earp took his group to fight the outlaws of the Clanton gang. It was a bright, windy and chilly day of October 26, 1881 that – without its actors being exactly aware of – paved the way for the rule of law to become an irreversible fact.

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Diaspora Diplomacy: Philippine Migration and its Soft Power Influences

Diaspora Diplomacy: Philippine Migration and its Soft Power Influences is about the remarkable and untapped soft power that international migrants possess and how various sectors-from governments, NGOs, business, and international organizations- could tap this valuable resource to enhance global cooperation and development. With compelling stories from Filipina and Filipino migrants in San Francisco, London, Dubai, Dhaka, and Singapore comprising the large Philippine diaspora, this book illustrates how this widespread community performs numerous acts of public diplomacy, bridging the cultural ...

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Enhancing Global Governance: Towards a New Diplomacy

The study of regional integration

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The role of knowledge in the cyber-age of globalisation

In his paper, Richard Falk reflects on the application of information technology on diplomacy, and discusses the challenge of converting information technology to ‘knowledge technology’, and subsequently to ‘wisdom technology’. Yet, the ‘crossroads in human experience’ brings many challenges and dangers which the author analyses.

The Dayton Agreements and International Law

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Developing Community-level Capacity Assessment Tools: Perspectives and Practical Applications in the Context of Rural Africa (Briefing Paper #11)

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Portraying the religions of the Mediterranean

There is hardly any need to stress that the relations between the adherents of the three great religions of the Mediterranean, as indeed of all other religions, are more affected by the images that each group has of the other than by the precise content of the theological beliefs held by the spiritual leaders of each religious community. This paper discusses the “the politics of representation” that has garnered much interest since the publication by Edward Said of a trilogy on the subject.

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Persuasion, trust, and personal credibility

Ambassador Kishan Rana indicates the cultivation of relations and the credibility of diplomats as the basis for persuasion in diplomacy. He provides an initial taxonomy of the type of relations that diplomats should cultivate. When it comes to credibility, Ambassador Rana presents the main ways of developing and maintaining credibility in diplomatic relations. The more credible the diplomat, the more likely it is that their persuasion with local interlocutors will be successful.

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Evolution of Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities

Excerpt from the lecture 1: Principles and concepts, evolution and instruments; Online course on Diplomatic Law: Privileges and Immunities.

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The History of Diplomatic Immunity

This is a massive book in more than one sense. It is over 700 pages long, including an invaluable bibliography which itself stretches over 70 pages. While dwelling chiefly on the Western tradition, it also takes in the Ottoman Empire and the Far East.

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The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict

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International Politics: States, Power and Conflict since 1945

This textbook is designed to support a general undergraduate course on International Relations. It is based on the second year course which I taught at the University of Leicester in the late 1970s and 1980s. The book was first published in 1987 and was brought out in a second, fully revised edition in 1992. The third edition was published by Prentice-Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf in paperback in 1997 and is now available in a Pearson Education ‘Print on Demand’ edition

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Searching for Meaningful Human Control. The April 2018 Meeting on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (Briefing Paper #10)

In this briefing paper, Ms Barbara Rosen Jacobson analyses the debate of the April 2018 meeting of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The group was established to discuss emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS).

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Dealing with cybersecurity challenges

'Various governments have come up with different interventions to address these challenges, like cybersecurity which is on the rise. The development of human resource and capacity building has been identified as one of the stumbling blocks.' - Godfrey Ahuma from Ghana

E-diplomacy and Diplomatic Law in the Internet Era

Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace (ed by Katharine Ziolkowski) covers in a multi-disciplinary approach the technical, legal, policy and diplomacy aspects of State activities in cyberspace during peacetime. It consists of 23 chapters of academic nature, elaborated by 24 authors specialised in the respective areas of expertise. Diplo's Dr Jovan Kurbalija contributed this chapter on E-diplomacy and Diplomatic Law in the Internet Era.

Metaphor and War: The Metaphor System Used to Justify War in the Gulf

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Engagement: Public Diplomacy in a Globalised World

We need a public diplomacy which fits our time. The policy issues which confront us are increasingly global. Systematic engagement with publics both at home and abroad will be required if we are to identify and implement solutions. Policy-makers and diplomats must work with a wider range of constituencies beyond government, moving towards a more open, inclusive style of policy-making and implementation. Understanding of complexity, difference, networks and cultural heritage will be needed, alongside more imaginative use of technology. Engagement, conducted with energy, ambition and cre...

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Diplomatic Law: Commentary on the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 3rd ed

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Diplomacy and Global Governance: The Diplomatic Service in an Age of Worldwide Interdependence

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FDR’s Ambassadors and the Diplomacy of Crisis: From the rise of Hitler to the end of World War II

What effect did personality and circumstance have on US foreign policy during World War II? This incisive account of US envoys residing in the major belligerent countries – Japan, Germany, Italy, China, France, Great Britain, USSR – highlights the fascinating role played by such diplomats as Joseph Grew, William Dodd, William Bullitt, Joseph Kennedy and W. Averell Harriman. Between Hitler's 1933 ascent to power and the 1945 bombing of Nagasaki, US ambassadors sculpted formal policy – occasionally deliberately, other times inadvertently – giving shape and meaning not always intended by ...

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How is trust defined in Internet governance organisations? (applied ethics in not-for-profit Internet organisations, managing critical Internet resources – a case study on trust)

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Preventive Diplomacy: Stopping Wars Before they Start

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Humanitarian Principles

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The power of personal contributions

‘Some of the major issues in the African region that we, as individuals, have to face are infrastructure implementation, awareness, and education. Luckily, there have been encouraging steps by several stakeholders and the younger generations...’ - Duksh Koonjoobeeharry from Mauritius

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Commercial Diplomacy and the National Interest

This short and lively book lays out the why and the how of promoting US business abroad. America's place in the world depends more than is usually acknowledged on the vigor and global reach of American business. The United States is the world's leading exporter, the world's leading importer, and the world's primary source and destination of funds for foreign investment. Our position as the best place in the world to do business-the most reliable in which to buy, the most lucrative in which to sell, and the safest and surest in which to invest or to raise capital-is a cause, not an effect, of A...

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Consular Law and Practice, 2nd edn

The author of this book is a member of the US State Department's Senior Executive Service, Chairman of the International Law Association Committee on the Legal Status of Refugees, and Adjunct Professor of Law at the American University. It is not a new book but is still available on demand from OUP (when you look at the price, though, who is holding the pistols is a moot point). The first edition was published in 1961, shortly before consular law was codified in the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963), and the method of the second edition is correspondingly different in emphasis - d...

Diplomatic security and the birth of the compound system

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International Law

U.S. Propaganda in the Middle East – The Early Cold War Version

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Palestinian statehood diplomacy: The Palestinian UN bids of 2011-2012

The Palestinian Authority (PA) launched an intense diplomatic campaign to garner a supporting vote in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), which was finally realized in 2012 by an upgrade to a 'non member observer state', granting Palestine a set of new privileges. It represents a victory for Palestinian diplomacy and presents a model of statehood diplomacy that received support as much as criticism. It stirred discussions about statehood and state recognition, and exposed the limited success of international interventions in post-conflict state building efforts.

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The Forgotten French

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Lilliput under threat: The security problems of small island and enclave developing states

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Roma Diplomacy

Roma Diplomacy is a collection of papers written or inspired through Diplo’s 2005/2006 Roma Diplomacy project.

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Spies in Uniform: British Military and Naval Intelligence on the Eve of the First World War

Matthew Seligman, who is a Senior Lecturer in History at the University of Northampton, sets as his target the claim - recently revived by Niall Ferguson - that the British decision for war in August 1914 was made despite the absence of any compelling evidence that Germany was prompted by a 'Napoleonic' design.

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The Role of Diplomacy in the Challenges to Maritime Security Cooperation in the Gulf of Guinea: Case Study of Nigeria

There is presently a pervading feeling that the West and Central African states are long overdue to take control of their maritime environment. However, these expectations show no indication of materialising in the short term.

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Diplomatic Immunity: Principles, Practices, Problems

Regionalism versus Multilateralism

The literature on regionalism versus multilateralism is growing as economists and political scientists grapple with the question of whether regional integration arrangements are good or bad for the multilateral system. Are regional integration arrangements "building * blocks or stumbling blocks," in Jagdish Bhagwati's phrase, or stepping stones toward multilateralism?

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Australia’s Diplomatic Deficit: Reinvesting in Our Instruments of International Policy

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An African Analysis of the War in Iraq

English translation of the book published in French under title: Une lecture Africaine de la guerre en Irak.

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Return to the UN: United Nations diplomacy in regional conflicts

‘… lively … persuasive … careful analysis… This is a very readable study, combining narrative strength with political acuity, and informative on the years of disappointment … Much has changed since the UN’s annus mirabilis, but Berridge’s conclusions still stand’, Nicholas Sims, London School of Economics, Millenium.

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War and the Private Investor: A Study in the Relations of International Politics and International Private Investment

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Intergovernmental organisations sharing and linking open and real-time data for inclusive governance

The rapid rise of the Internet has encouraged the use of open, real-time, and linked data to help understand and improve development processes.The advancement of data use for development without an Internet governance framework, however, raises the importance of inclusion of the most marginalized, as well as privacy and security. This paper will examine such issues, as well as the role inter-governmental organisations can play in helping to encourage the use of data while supporting the protection of privacy and security.

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Evaluating Public Diplomacy Programmes

The new operational environment generated by the mass media revolution and the advent of the global information society lays the ground for a generalized re-emergence of public diplomacy (PD). After having been dismantled during the 1990s, this branch of foreign policy is undergoing a redevelopment phase within the chancelleries of many states around the globe. The growing salience of public opinion and the exponential development of the new information and communication technologies predispose this diplomacy of persuasion to play an increasing role at the forefront of twenty-first century int...

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The Imperial Component in Iran’s Foreign Policy: Towards Arab Mashreq and Arab Gulf States

One of the most important developments the Middle East has witnessed in the 20th centaury was the success of the Iranian revolution of Islamist ideology, with ambitions to control.

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Weapons Overview

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Power and Wealth: The Political Economy of International Power

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The Invisible Weapon: Telecommunications and International Politics 1851-1945

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A Tipping Point for the Internet: Predictions for 2018 (Briefing Paper #9)

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All Fall Down: America’s fateful encounter with Iran

All Fall Down is the definitive chronicle of Americas experience with the Iranian revolution and the hostage crisis of 1978-81. Drawing on internal government documents, it recounts the controversies, decisions and uncertainties that made this a unique chapter in modern American history. From his personal experiences, the author draws revealing portraits of the people who engaged in this test of wills with an Islamic revolutionary regime.

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Civilisation and its Enemies: The Next Stage of History

Lee Harris is not an academic – his name would hardly be quoted in obscure learned journals. In the aftermath of 9/11 he has written this book in an attempt to articulate and argue a position that justifies (both retaliatory and precautionary) military intervention while rejecting racism or fundamentalism. A ‘loner’ who shares many ideas with the Straussian school (but without the latter’s undertone of righteous victim), Harris may be giving voice to the worldview underpinning much current U.S. action in international political affairs. He is worth engaging.

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The Clash of Globalizations: Essays on the Political Economy of Trade and Development Policy

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Outrage: Diplomatic Immunity

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Multilateralism under Challenge? Power, International Order, and Structural Change

The values and institutions of multilateralism are not ahistorical phenomena. They are created and maintained in the context of specific demands and challenges, and through specific forms of leadership, norms, and international power configurations. All of these factors evolve and change; there is little reason to believe that multilateral values or institutions could or should remain static in form and nature. The relationship between the distribution of power, the nature of challenges and problems, and the international institutions that emerge to deal with collective challenges is const...

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The New Diplomacy

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DC Confidential: The controversial memoirs of Britain’s ambassador to the U.S. at the time of 9/11 and the Iraq War

The publication of these memoirs in autumn 2005 caused a public furore in Britain so I shall not waste time giving any background on Sir Christopher Meyer. (Just punch his name into Google, which will enable you in the blink of an eye even to find out from the BBC website which records he chose when he appeared on Desert Island Discs.)

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Propaganda in International Politics

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Trends in Diplomatic Communication: A Case Study of Uganda

The aim of this research was to examine the communication trends in diplomacy with a focus on Uganda.

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A clash of grand strategies between Russia, United States of America and Turkey for greater power and influence in the Middle East

The thesis explores the changing dynamics in the Middle East where the region is witnessing a metamorphosis in its power structure as major regional powers actively pursue their grand strategies to unseat U.S. hegemony. The analysis focuses in particular on the foreign policies of the revisionist powers of Russia and Turkey collaborating in all spheres of statecraft against the resoluteness of the U.S. to maintain the status quo. It recognises that the Syrian civil war has disrupted the equilibrium of the prevailing power structure which, by extension, has provided the enabling environment for...

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Embassies as Command Posts in Anti-Terror Campaign

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Consular Law and Practice, 3rd ed

First published in 1961, Consular Law and Practice is a classic work of great interest and practical use to diplomats, consuls, and international lawyers.

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