Evolution of Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities
We can trace the first privileges and immunities to the early days of human communication and attempts to solve conflicts in non-violent ways. The very beginning of diplomacy is usually associated with the granting of diplomatic privileges and immunities. Figure 1 represents the frequently made statement that diplomacy began when people first realised that it was better to hear the message than to eat the messenger.
Figure 1: The beginning of diplomacy
Harold Nicolson (1998, p. 2) highlights the importance of privileges and immunities when he says:
It must soon have been realised that no negotiation could reach a satisfactory conclusion if the emissaries of either party were murdered on arrival. Thus, the first principle to become firmly established was that of diplomatic immunity.
A brief historical survey shows the evolution of privileges and immunities up to modern times.
The institute of privileges and immunities occurred among the Australian aborigines as well as in the Institutes of Manu. The Institutes of Manu are archaic Hindu codes dating from 1500 BCE, according to which an arriving guest should receive a place to sit, water, and some properly seasoned food.
The guest coming after the sunset may not be expelled by the master of the house; should he come at a wrong time, may he not stay unfed…Guests should be given a place to sit, premises, bed, attention and respect: higher – to the higher, lower – to the lower, equal to the equal (Van der Toorn, 1995, p. 365).
From the ancient Near East, the first written indications of privileges and immunities appear in the correspondence between Hattusili III and Ramses III. The Amarna letters – the main sources on diplomacy in this period – also recognised the right of a messenger to swift and unhindered passage (Cohen and Westbrook, 2000; Elgavish, 2000).
In ancient India, rulers did not have permanent ambassadors; instead they relied on envoys who delivered messages, and on negotiators (in the European system they were called plenipotentiaries) authorised to work out or modify agreements on their masters’ behalf. Normally filled by Brahmins (persons of the highest caste), the positions enjoyed a degree of immunity in addition to the protection the individuals enjoyed as envoys or heralds. The Arthashastra says that
…envoys are the mouthpieces of kings. They must carry out their instructions and it would be wrong to put them to death even if they were outcasts. How much less reason is there then for putting a Brahmin to death? (Rana, 2000)
In ancient Greece, the oldest form of international relations rested on the concept of proxenoi or hospitality. This was a kind of permanent representation, consular and informational, rather than diplomatic. Proxenoi represented another city state, clan, tribe, or state within their own. The proxenos of a certain city enjoyed within it certain rights and privileges concerning trade, taxation, and the law, as well as a variety of other honorary benefits. The proxenos – in return for having such privileges – also had certain obligations towards the city that had shown him hospitality. Thus, in his own city, he performed a variety of favours for the city whose hospitality he had enjoyed. Legations would first contact their proxenos and then conduct their negotiations through him, counting on his help. The institution of proxenoi became the basis of all future international relationships in the ancient world, and the English word proxy derives from the word and office.
Diplomacy played a significant role in Rome’s fight for hegemony in Italy (between the fourth and third century BCE) and during the Punic Wars (between the third and second century BCE) against Carthage, its main rival in the western Mediterranean. Like other states of the ancient world, Rome did not possess permanent diplomatic representatives akin to today’s envoys and consuls. Legations played a major part in diplomatic life. They enjoyed special privileges and the position of envoy was considered sacred. Murdering or insulting an envoy often served as a motive for war. In Rome, customs were established to receive envoys. During the Empire (from 27 BCE until 476 AD), the emperor appointed all envoys. The envoys submitted reports to the emperor who then chose between war and peace.
The diplomatic system established among Italian city states is considered the first organised diplomatic system with permanent diplomatic missions, diplomatic archives, and other elements of modern diplomacy. The core element of this system was the institution of diplomatic privileges and immunities. Diplomats needed protection because they had a very delicate status. Since they were thought of as spies, local inhabitants were not allowed to discuss public affairs with foreign diplomats. As well, diplomats were not allowed to possess any property in the host country. A diplomat was also forbidden to take his wife with him, as she might indulge in gossip!
After the Renaissance, the institution of permanent diplomatic missions grew rapidly. The first ministry of foreign affairs was established in France in 1626. Countries established more regular and organised interaction through diplomatic missions. The practice of diplomacy led to the Congress of Vienna in 1815, which established an institutional framework for modern diplomacy that has not changed substantially since. The Congress of Vienna established classes of diplomatic representation (ambassadors and papal legates, ministers plenipotentiary, ministers resident, and chargés d’affairs). It also introduced diplomatic precedence, a rank depending on the class of diplomatic representative and the date at which an envoy presented his letters of credence. Legally speaking, the Congress codified customary diplomatic law. Many institutions from the Congress of Vienna were included in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961, which is the main source of current diplomatic law.
Several attempts have been made to codify the principles of diplomatic law. The first, although rather limited in scope, date back to the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and to the League of Nations in the 1920s (United Kingdom, 1985, p. viii). The two most important documents, however, prior to the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, were the 1928 Havana Convention on Diplomatic Officers and the Harvard Research Draft Convention on Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities of 1932.
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