Topics Catalogue

Browse through our Topics section

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Academic diplomacy

Academic diplomacy involves a wide range of activities, from exchanging professors and students to cooperation in certification and degree recognition. Academic diplomacy is used as a synonym for education diplomacy. It is also closely related to scientific and cultura...

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Ad hoc diplomacy

Ad hoc diplomacy is a term which is used to refer to diplomacy conducted by intermittent or sporadic means, such as roving ambassadors or special missions. It is therefore to be distinguished from the conduct of diplomacy through resident and permanent missions. (Sourc...

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AI diplomacy

AI diplomacy is about the impact of AI on geopolitics, AI as a topic on the diplomatic agenda, and AI as a tool for diplomacy. On geopolitics, countries with advanced AI can exercise more military, economic, and societal power. AI is a topic on the diplomatic agenda wh...

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Aid diplomacy

Aid diplomacy is an umbrella term covering foreign aid, humanitarian assistance, and development cooperation. It is used for achieving diplomatic, political, and economic objectives. Often, aid diplomacy is seen as part of soft power via fostering goodwill and contribu...

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Algorithmic diplomacy

Algorithmic diplomacy originates from algorithms which are behind artificial intelligence. Algorithmic diplomacy could be used interchangeably with AI diplomacy. More specifically, algorithmic diplomacy relates to using algorithms to analyse large amounts of data to pr...

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Amarna diplomacy

Amarna diplomacy is widely perceived as an official diplomatic system. It is named after the contemporary name of the Egyptian locality Tal-Amarna, which served as the ancient capital city under the administration of Pharaoh Akhenaten in the 14th century BC. Most of th...

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Ancient diplomacy

Ancient diplomacy refers to the diplomatic techniques and methods employed by ancient civilizations to uphold their relationships with other states or city-states. In the past, diplomacy frequently comprised conversations between kings, ambassadors, or other envoys fro...

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Animal diplomacy

Animals were frequent diplomatic gifts throughout history. Pandas, elephants, lions, falcons and horses have been used as symbols of goodwill between countries. An early example of ‘animal diplomacy’ could be traced back to the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618-907...

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Antarctic diplomacy

Antarctic diplomacy refers to the diplomatic negotiations and agreements among nations related to the governance and protection of the Antarctic region. The primary instrument of Antarctic diplomacy is the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), which comprises the Antarctic Tr...

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Arctic diplomacy

Arctic diplomacy is about international cooperation between nations in the Arctic region. It involves the following countries with territories within the Arctic circle: the United States (via Alaska), Canada, Denmark (via Greenland), Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, a...

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Art diplomacy

Art diplomacy is part of cultural diplomacy. It uses art and other creative expressions to foster understanding, build relationships, and promote cooperation between nations, cultures, or different groups of people. It involves the exchange of ideas, traditions, values...

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Astronomic diplomacy

Astronomical diplomacy, also known as astrodiplomacy, is about all diplomatic and international space-related activities. Astronomical diplomacy is less used than space diplomacy. The relevance of astronomical diplomacy follows the growing importance of space for globa...

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Atomic diplomacy

Atomic diplomacy is used as a synonym for nuclear diplomacy. Atomic diplomacy covers competition in the field of nuclear research aimed at achieving geopolitical advantages. It also includes a wide range of disarmament and other security negotiations aimed at controlli...

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Backchannel diplomacy

Backchannel diplomacy refers to informal, unofficial, and sometimes secret communication channels between governments or other parties, often used to bypass formal diplomatic channels. These channels can involve direct contact between leaders, trusted intermediaries, o...

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Bamboo diplomacy

Bamboo diplomacy is used to describe Vietnam’s approach to diplomacy. Bamboo plays an important role in the daily lives of Vietnamese people, from food to tools and homes. In Vietnam, bamboo symbolises strong root, sturdy stem, and flexible branches, combining streng...

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Big Stick diplomacy

Big Stick Diplomacy is a foreign policy approach famously associated with the 26th President of the USA, Theodore Roosevelt, who served from 1901 to 1909. The term is derived from his famous quote, ‘Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far’. This essenti...

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Bilateral diplomacy

The current crisis of multilateralism has triggered the growing importance of traditional bilateral diplomacy. Typically, bilateral diplomacy between two countries officially involves foreign ministries and heads of state. However, increasingly, other government depart...

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Biodiversity diplomacy

Biodiversity diplomacy refers to the international negotiations, agreements, and collaborations that aim to conserve and sustainably manage earth’s biodiversity. It is a subset of environmental diplomacy and involves the exchange of information, policies, and pra...

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Blockchain diplomacy

Blockchain diplomacy was very fashionable to use at the peak of the blockchain hype. Blockchain technology is a decentralised and secure way to store, verify, and transfer data without intermediaries. The main uses of blockchain are to improve accountability, transpare...

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Blog diplomacy

In 2010, a group of Chinese and American bloggers conducted an online diplomatic mission to improve relations between the two countries. The ‘China-US Bloggers’ Summit’ brought together several prominent bloggers from both sides to initiate an open dialogue a...

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Bombing diplomacy

Bombing diplomacy refers to bombing another side into submission. It is used interchangeably with coercive diplomacy. Like coercive diplomacy, bombing diplomacy is a contradiction as a term, as diplomacy does not include use of force. One example of bombing diplomacy i...

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Boudoir diplomacy

Boudoir diplomacy refers to ‘a manner of conducting business aspired to by certain ambassadors at courts where one or more women were influential or where a queen or empress ruled, as for example, in St Petersburg during the reign of Catherine II of Russia in the...

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Cable diplomacy

Cable’ has an interesting epystemological life in diplomacy. The term “cable” originates from the use of telegraph cables for international communication. Howerver, ‘cable’ remains alive in diplomatic parlance till these very days when tel...

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Carbon diplomacy

Carbon diplomacy refers to the diplomatic efforts and international negotiations surrounding climate change, carbon emissions, and the transition to low-carbon and sustainable economies. It encompasses dialogue, cooperation, and conflict resolution among nations to add...

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Carpet diplomacy

Carpet diplomacy, sometimes also referred to as ‘rug diplomacy’, is a term used to describe the use of cultural exchanges, particularly through the art of carpet weaving or the gifting of carpets, as a means to foster goodwill, dialogue, and understanding between n...

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Caviar diplomacy

Caviar diplomacy refers to a diplomatic practice where luxurious and expensive gifts, such as caviar, are exchanged between countries or diplomats as a means of promoting goodwill and strengthening diplomatic relations. The term is often used in a critical sense, sugge...

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Celebrity diplomacy

Celebrity diplomacy refers to the practice of using famous individuals, such as actors, musicians, and other public figures, to promote political or social causes on a global scale. It is a form of public diplomacy, which aims to create positive relationships and build...

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Checkbook diplomacy

Checkbook diplomacy is a term used to describe the practice of using financial or economic incentives, such as aid or loans, as a tool for achieving foreign policy objectives. It involves the exchange of money or economic assistance in return for political favours, sup...

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China diplomacy

China’s diplomacy refers to the methods and strategies used by the People’s Republic of China to interact with other countries and international organiszations. It involves the country’s foreign policy, its international relations strategies, and the ...

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Chip diplomacy

Chip or semiconductor diplomacy refers to the strategic use of semiconductor technology, production, and supply chains as a tool for diplomacy, geopolitical influence, and international relations. Chips are an essential processing part of any digital device. They are t...

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Cigar diplomacy

Cigar diplomacy describes the practice of Cuban diplomats to gifting high-quality Cuban cigars as a symbol of national pride and a way to foster goodwill. For instance, Fidel Castro, the former leader of Cuba, was known to gift Cuban cigars to foreign dignitaries and ...

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Citizen diplomacy

Citizen diplomacy refers to the idea that individuals can play a role in promoting international understanding and cooperation through person-to-person interactions and grassroots efforts. It involves people-to-people exchanges, cultural exchanges, and volunteer progra...

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City diplomacy

City diplomacy refers to the activities and relationships between cities and other subnational entities with the goal of achieving political, economic, and cultural objectives. City diplomacy can include relationships between cities within the same country or between c...

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Civil diplomacy

Civil diplomacy refers to the use of non-governmental actors, such as civil society organisations and private individuals, in promoting diplomatic relations and achieving foreign policy objectives. It involves the active participation of citizens and civil society in d...

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Clausewitzian diplomacy

Clausewitzian diplomacy refers to a diplomatic approach that is heavily influenced by the ideas of Carl von Clausewitz, a Prussian general and military theorist who lived from 1780 to 1831. He is most known for his influential work ‘On War’ where he introduced some...

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Climate diplomacy

Climate diplomacy refers to the use of diplomatic channels and strategies to address global climate change and its impact on international relations. It involves negotiating and implementing climate-related policies, treaties, and agreements at the international level,...

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Coercive diplomacy

Coercive diplomacy is the practice of forcing one side to submit. Sometimes it is also called ‘bombing diplomacy’. Although it is used colloquially, it is a contradiction in terms as diplomacy is described in its core meaning as promoting interests without ...

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Coffee diplomacy

Coffee diplomacy is a term used to describe informal diplomatic meetings or negotiations that take place over a cup of coffee or other casual setting. The idea behind coffee diplomacy is that informal, relaxed settings can help break down barriers and facilitate open c...

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Commercial diplomacy

Commercial diplomacy is the practice of using diplomatic efforts to promote and protect a country’s commercial interests in the global marketplace. It involves using diplomatic channels and resources to facilitate trade, investment, and other commercial activitie...

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Conference diplomacy

Conference diplomacy refers to the use of international conferences or summits as a means of conducting diplomatic negotiations and addressing global issues. These conferences bring together representatives from multiple countries to discuss and negotiate on various is...

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Consular and diaspora diplomacy

Consular diplomacy (affairs) is related to the protection of the state’s interests as well as the interests of its citizens and legal entities in the host country. It includes strengthening and developing relations between diaspora and the home country in the fields ...

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Contemporary diplomacy

The term ‘contemporary diplomacy’ describes the methods and tactics countries and other international groups use to promote their interests and carry out their foreign policy goals. The changes in diplomatic practice are influenced by a number of factors, s...

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Cotton diplomacy

Cotton diplomacy’ refers to a strategy used by the Confederate States of America during the early stages of the American Civil War. This strategy was based on the assumption that the Confederacy’s near monopoly on global cotton supplies would lead to diplom...

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COVID-19 diplomacy

COVID-19 has brought the world to its knees. With almost every country and territory reporting cases of the coronavirus, the world is having to adapt to a new kind of normal. Online meetings have long been seen as a poor substitute for face-to-face ones. With the COVI...

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Crisis diplomacy

Crisis diplomacy refers to the diplomatic efforts and strategies employed by countries to manage and resolve international crises. These crises can take many forms, such as armed conflicts, natural disasters, economic crises, and public health emergencies. Diplomatic e...

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Crypto diplomacy

Crypto diplomacy emerged with the increased prominence of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology. It mainly relates to dealing with cryptocurrencies as a new topic on the diplomatic agenda. It involves the regulation of cryptocurrencies among international banks and ...

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Culinary diplomacy

Culinary diplomacy refers to the use of food and cuisine as a means of promoting cultural understanding and building relationships between countries. It is a form of public diplomacy that involves showcasing a country’s food culture to people from other countries...

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Cultural diplomacy

Cultural diplomacy, also known as art diplomacy, aims to use cultural exchange and promotion to foster mutual understanding, establish positive relationships, and promote national interests between different nations. It contributes to fostering positive relationships b...

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Cuneiform diplomacy

The term “cueinform diplomacy” refers to the “diplomatic system used between Near Eastern kingdoms from approximately 2500 to 500 BC; so named because it was based on the exchange of communications printed on tablets in cuneiform characters.” Th...

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Cut-price diplomacy

Cut-price diplomacy is a term used to refer to multiple accreditations and the maintenance of conduct at the UN rather than through the establishment of a resident mission. Source: Dictionary of Diplomacy In the late 1940s, the USA employed a unique form of cut-price d...

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Cyber diplomacy

Cyber diplomacy refers mainly to international negotiations on cybersecurity. This involves building trust and confidence between countries, sharing information and best practices related to cybersecurity, and promoting international cooperation to address cyber threat...

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Cybermediation

Mediation is a ‘low tech’ field in which interpersonal skills, savoir-faire, and emotional intelligence are critically relevant for a good mediator. It remains so.   However, mediation must adjust to the changing society increasingly impacted by digital technolo...

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Cybernorms

Cybernorms are voluntary guidelines and principles that promote responsible state behaviour in cyberspace. They are designed to enhance international security and stability by providing a framework for states and other stakeholders to follow in order to mitigate cyber ...

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Cybersecurity

Today’s headlines often feature the word ‘cyber’, reporting on threats related to the virtual world: online child abuse, stolen credit cards and virtual identities, malware and viruses, botnets and denial-of-service attacks on corporate or government servers, cyb...

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Data and diplomacy

Described as the ‘oil’ of the 21st century, the potential of data to achieve breakthroughs in various industries and fields is significant. Diplomacy is no exception. Data and diplomacy have three major interplays: data shapes digital geopolitics; data governance ...

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Debt diplomacy

Debt diplomacy refers to the practice of using debt as a tool for exerting influence and control over other countries. It typically involves wealthy countries or institutions lending money to developing countries, often with conditions attached that give the lender gre...

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Defence diplomacy

Defence diplomacy refers to the use of diplomatic tools and strategies by a country’s military and defence establishments to achieve foreign policy goals. It involves engaging with other countries and international organisations on issues related to defence, secu...

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Development diplomacy

Development diplomacy is the highest priority of international relations. This is mostly performed through multilateral activities on a global and regional level. Both within the activities of international organizations (UN and its specialized organizations) and throu...

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Digital diplomacy

You landed on the story of digital diplomacy. Welcome! This story is based on the research and teaching I have done about the digital transformation of diplomacy. It begins with a 4-minute video on digital diplomacy and then clarifies the terminological confusion regar...

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Digital foreign policy

On the emergence of digital foreign policy you can consult: a research report, and conference summary from the conference held on 2nd March 2021. All countries (albeit with differences in emphasis depending on their circumstances and capabilities) recognise that digi...

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Diplomacy of small states

The diplomacy of small states is a subset of diplomacy. It is sufficiently identifiable to warrant an examination on its own. At the same time, it also helps to provide an insight into the broader themes, objectives, and methods of diplomacy in general. Small states f...

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Diplomatic reporting

Focus: Hybrid reporting (AI/human) from the UN Security Council, UN General Assembly 2023, and Internet Governance Forum 2023   Consult a report from the webinar ‘Will AI take over diplomatic reporting?’ Information is the lifeblood of the diplomatic s...

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Direct dial diplomacy

Direct dial diplomacy is a term used to describe informal diplomacy initiated by leaders of two countries who use direct phone calls or other forms of communication to discuss and resolve issues. Direct dial diplomacy is also called telephone diplomacy. When immediate...

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Disarmament diplomacy

Disarmament diplomacy refers to the diplomatic efforts aimed at reducing and eliminating the production, possession, and use of weapons, particularly those that pose a threat to global security and stability. It involves negotiations, agreements, and other diplomatic i...

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Disaster diplomacy

Disaster diplomacy refers to the use of diplomatic efforts to prevent or respond to disasters, such as natural disasters, pandemics, or environmental crises. It involves international cooperation and coordination to address the immediate humanitarian needs and to rebui...

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Dog diplomacy

Dog diplomacy is not a formal term in international relations or diplomacy. However, it can be used colloquially or metaphorically to describe the positive impact that dogs or other pets might have on political or diplomatic relationships. This could involve leaders bo...

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Dollar diplomacy

Dollar diplomacy is a form of foreign policy that uses economic and financial incentives, rather than military force or political pressure, to achieve political objectives in other countries. It was a policy pursued by the USA during the early 20th century, particularl...

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Dubrovnik diplomacy

The term “Dubrovnik diplomacy” refers to the diplomatic traditions and procedures that emerged in the Republic of Dubrovnik (now Dubrovnik, Croatia) during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Despite being surrounded by larger and more powerful governments, Du...

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E-commerce and trade

Technology has significantly transformed the world’s economy. The ability to make data flow worldwide, and the digitisation of information have enabled digital business models and spurred the growth of e-commerce. Digitalisation of Trade On the one hand, digitisatio...

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Earth diplomacy

Earth diplomacy refers to the process of developing and implementing international policies and agreements that address global issues related to the environment, sustainability, and the well-being of the planet as a whole. It involves negotiations and dialogue between ...

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Earthquake diplomacy

Earthquake diplomacy is a term used to describe the use of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief efforts as a means of promoting diplomatic goals and improving relations between countries in the aftermath of a major earthquake. When a country experiences a devast...

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Economic diplomacy

Economic diplomacy is the use of government recourses to promote the growth of a country’s economy by increasing trade, promoting investments, collaboration on bilateral and multilateral trade agreements and etc. It can also mean the use of the economy to promot...

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Education diplomacy

Education diplomacy aims to utilize diplomatic skills and cooperate with both public and private sectors, educators and educational institutions, individuals and organizations, with an agenda of promoting education all over the Globe as a basic human right, accessible ...

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Elephant diplomacy

Elephant diplomacy relates to using elephants as a sign of diplomatic gestures. It is prevalent in South and Southeast Asia. For example, Thai monarchs, particularly King Bhumibol Adulyadej, have been known to present elephants as gifts to other nations, such as in 196...

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Energy diplomacy

There are two aspects of energy diplomacy. One is the provision of energy resources and positioning of the country concerning energy security and international partners.  On the other hand, it can be used as an instrument of foreign agenda, by influencing governments ...

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Environmental diplomacy

Environmental diplomacy refers to the use of diplomacy and international cooperation to address global environmental challenges, such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution. One of early examples of environmental diplomacy dates back to 1748 when Frederick...

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EU diplomacy

EU diplomacy is the joint foreign and security policy of its member states. It is designed to resolve conflicts and foster international understanding, is based on diplomacy and respect of international rules. Trade, humanitarian assistance, and development cooperation...

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Exhibition diplomacy

Exhibition diplomacy refers to the use of exhibitions and cultural displays to promote international understanding and cooperation. Exhibition diplomacy involves the exchange of art, artefacts, and other cultural objects between countries and the staging of exhibitions...

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Expo diplomacy

Expo diplomacy refers to the use of international expositions or world’s fairs as a platform for diplomatic relations and international cooperation. Expo diplomacy involves countries participating in international expositions or world’s fairs by showcasing ...

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Facebook diplomacy

Facebook diplomacy was coined in 2011 ​​during the so-called ‘Arab Spring’ uprisings in the Middle East. Social media platforms were used to mobilise protestors and coordinate protests. It was the main channel of communication that bypassed central gove...

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Fado diplomacy

Fado diplomacy refers to the use of fado music and culture as a means of promoting diplomacy and cultural exchange between countries. Fado is a traditional style of Portuguese music that is characterised by its soulful, melancholic melodies and lyrics, which often focu...

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Falcons diplomacy

Falcons are used as diplomatic gifts and signs of goodwill. The practice of exchanging falcons among rulers dates back to ancient time. In the 14th century, a falcon was used in a diplomatic mission between two rival kingdoms. The King of the Mongols sent a falcon to ...

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Feminist diplomacy

Feminist diplomacy, or feminist foreign policy, was a concept introduced by the former Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs, Margot Wallström, in 2014. Feminist diplomacy is a segment of development aid, where financing can promote, through diplomatic relations, ideals...

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Financial diplomacy

Financial diplomacy refers to the strategic use of financial resources or tools by governments or international organizations to achieve foreign policy objectives. It can involve a range of activities, including negotiation of economic agreements, management of financi...

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Funeral diplomacy

Funeral diplomacy refers to the practice of using funerals as a platform for diplomacy and international relations. This can involve sending high-level government officials, diplomats, or other representatives to attend the funeral of a foreign leader or dignitary, as ...

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Fusion diplomacy

While fusion diplomacy is not a commonly recognised term in diplomatic circles, an approach to diplomacy that combines different elements and approaches can be important for several reasons. Firstly, complex global challenges such as climate change, economic inequality...

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Future of meetings

In December 2019, Zoom reported 10 million daily users. Three months later, the number of Zoom’s daily participants jumped to more than 300 million. The COVID-19 outbreak has dramatically altered our daily routines, shifting our day-to-day activities from offline to ...

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Gastronomic diplomacy

Gastronomic diplomacy refers to the use of food and culinary traditions as a means of promoting diplomacy and building relationships between nations. This can involve the use of food as a tool for cultural exchange, economic development, and diplomatic negotiation. Gas...

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Geography and diplomacy

Informal diplomacy refers to the practice of conducting diplomatic activities and negotiations through non-official, unofficial, or discreet channels, often without the formal trappings of traditional diplomacy. It is a means of achieving diplomatic goals and resolving...

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Gift diplomacy

Gift diplomacy refers to the practice of exchanging gifts between countries as a means of promoting diplomacy and building relationships. Gift exchanges have been a part of diplomatic practice for centuries, and can play an important role in promoting goodwill and unde...

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Grain diplomacy

Grain diplomacy refers to the use of grain or other agricultural commodities as a tool for diplomacy and foreign policy. The term has historically been used to refer to the strategic use of grain exports or imports by countries as a means of promoting their economic or...

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Grassroot diplomacy

Grassroots diplomacy is a term used to describe a style of international relations that is conducted by civic-minded citizens and organisations, as opposed to governments or multinational corporations. It is a form of bottom-up diplomacy that is characterised by direct...

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Guerilla diplomacy

Guerilla diplomacy, also known as unconventional diplomacy, refers to diplomatic activities that involve unconventional and informal approaches, tactics, and strategies to achieve diplomatic objectives. The term ‘guerrilla’ is borrowed from guerrilla warfar...

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Gulf diplomacy

Gulf diplomacy refers to diplomatic efforts and negotiations between the countries located around the Persian Gulf, including Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. These countries have historically been linked through sha...

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Gumboot diplomacy

Gumboot diplomacy is a term used to describe a type of cultural diplomacy that emerged in the mid-20th century in South Africa. It involves the use of traditional African dance, particularly gumboot dancing, as a way to communicate and build relationships across cultur...

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Gunboat diplomacy

Gunboat diplomacy is a term used to describe a type of foreign policy that involves the use of military force or the threat of military force to achieve diplomatic objectives – particularly in the 19th and early 20th centuries, when naval power was a key element ...

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Hard diplomacy

Hard diplomacy refers to the use of aggressive and coercive tactics to achieve diplomatic goals, typically involving the threat or use of force or economic sanctions. It may involve military intervention, economic pressure, or other forms of coercion to achieve diploma...

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Health diplomacy

Health diplomacy is a form of diplomacy that focuses on protecting the health and well-being of populations across national borders. It involves using health-related issues to build relationships, foster cooperation, and promote peace and stability between nations. Hea...

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Hedgehog Diplomacy

Hedgehog diplomacy is used to describe New Zealand’s diplomacy in an increasingly militarised world. New Zealand is generally associated with the hedgehog and. In making an analogy with New Zealand it is said that ‘Hedgehogs are unquestionably adorable. But...

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History of diplomacy and technology

‘The longer you can look back, the farther you can look forward.’ This quote from Winston Churchill could be a tweet about the interplay between diplomacy and technology. This page will, by revisiting the history of diplomacy, try to find guidelines for the...

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Honorary consuls

Honorary consuls are typically local citizens of the host country with careers outside of official diplomacy. They promote economic, cultural, and educational ties between the two countries. Honorary consuls help people from the sending country with consular matters, ...

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Hostage diplomacy

Hostage diplomacy is a tactic used in international relations, where a state or group takes individuals hostage in order to achieve political or diplomatic objectives. The hostages can be citizens of the state or of another country, and they may be taken for a variety ...

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Human rights diplomacy

Human rights diplomacy refers to the strategies, policies, and actions used by states, international organisations, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to promote and protect human rights globally. It typically includes diplomatic efforts aimed at negotiating int...

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Humanitarian diplomacy

Humanitarian diplomacy strives to mobilize public and governmental support and resources for humanitarian operations and programs, as well as to establish effective partnerships for responding to vulnerable people’s needs. It is the process of influencing decisio...

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Hybrid diplomacy

Hybrid diplomacy is a term used to describe a type of diplomacy that involves the integration of traditional and non-traditional diplomatic tools and approaches. It recognises that diplomacy is no longer limited to traditional state-to-state interactions and that other...

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ICT diplomacy

ICT diplomacy was used in the 1990s when the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) concept described digital technologies and transformations. It involved using technology to enhance communication, collaboration, and cooperation in various areas such as trade,...

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Independent diplomacy

Independent diplomacy refers to the practice of conducting diplomatic relations and negotiations by a country or organisation without being aligned or dependent on any particular ally or group of allies. In other words, an independent diplomatic approach involves pursu...

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Innovation diplomacy

Innovation diplomacy refers to the intersection of innovation and diplomacy, where governments and international actors leverage innovation and technological advancements to promote diplomatic objectives, address global challenges, and foster cooperation among nations....

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Instagram diplomacy

Instagram diplomacy was coined to refer to the diplomatic use of Instagram, mainly in public diplomacy. As the young population shifted from Facebook to Instagram as the main communication channel, diplomatic services adjusted to this shift. They also had to adjust the...

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Intercultural communication

An Internet search on the topic of intercultural communication or cross-cultural communication yields over three million results. In recent years practitioners in a wide variety of fields — scientific cooperation, academic research, business, management, education, h...

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Intercultural diplomacy

Cultural diplomacy, also known as art diplomacy, aims to use cultural exchange and promotion to foster mutual understanding, establish positive relationships, and promote national interests between different nations. It contributes to fostering positive relationships b...

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Interfaith diplomacy

Interfaith diplomacy refers to the use of dialogue, engagement, and cooperation between different religious groups to promote understanding, respect, and peaceful coexistence. It involves the efforts of individuals, organisations, and governments to bridge religious di...

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International organisations

The characteristic of International life is a variety of actors. International organisations, multinational corporations, international non-governmental organizations, and individuals, in addition to the states and their institutions, take part. With increasing global ...

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Internet diplomacy

Internet diplomacy was used frequently in the late 1990s and early 2000s to describe the impact of the internet on diplomacy. It was mainly related to using websites for communication and email for exchanges. The term Internet diplomacy lost prominence with the emergen...

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Internet governance and digital policy

Internet governance, also referred to as digital policy, deals with the policy issues associated with digital technology. Diplo has been providing capacity development support to digital policy practitioners for almost 20 years. This includes online and blended course...

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Investment diplomacy

Investment diplomacy refers to the use of diplomatic channels and strategies to promote investment opportunities and attract foreign investment into a country. It involves engaging in diplomatic efforts to create a favourable investment climate by building relationship...

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Kautilya diplomacy

Kautilya, also known as Chanakya or Vishnugupta, was an ancient Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, and jurist who served as the chief advisor to the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya (c. 340–c. 297 BCE). He is traditionally known as the author of the Arthashas...

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Language (and) diplomacy

It has often been said that language is not only an instrument of communication, but the very essence of diplomacy. Diplomats engage in negotiations, persuasion, presentation, and communication, all of which necessitate language skills for the effective conduct of dipl...

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Lions diplomacy

Historically, lions have been given as diplomatic gifts by various leaders and nations. Here are a few examples: One tale tells of how an Egyptian pharaoh, Amenhotep III, sent an envoy to the Hittite Empire with a lion cub in the diplomatic party. The cub was sent as a...

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Lunar diplomacy

Lunar diplomacy refers to diplomatic efforts and cooperation between countries in relation to space exploration, particularly in regards to the exploration of the moon. In the early 1970s, the USA and the Soviet Union were engaged in the Cold War and were in a race to ...

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Mango diplomacy

Mango diplomacy is used to describe a form of diplomatic exchange or gesture involving the gifting of mangoes between countries or political leaders. The practice is often employed to create a positive impression, strengthen bilateral relations, or resolve disputes thr...

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Maritime diplomacy

Maritime diplomacy refers to the use of diplomatic channels and strategies to manage and resolve maritime issues between nations. It involves engaging in diplomatic efforts to promote maritime security, protect maritime resources, and enhance cooperation in the maritim...

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Medieval diplomacy

The term “medieval diplomacy” describes the diplomatic methods and tactics practiced in Europe between the fifth and the fifteenth centuries. It was a time when monarchs held the bulk of the political authority, and diplomacy was crucial in reshaping Europe...

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Mega diplomacy

Mega-diplomacy, coined by Parag Khanna, includes corporations, NGOs, humanitarian agencies, education institutions, and religious groups. Mega-diplomacy signifies a redistribution of power, with new coalitions and new patterns of diplomatic interaction. The concept of ...

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Megaphone diplomacy

Megaphone diplomacy was coined during the Cold War referring to offensive public exchanges between the Soviet Union and the USA. For example, President Regan referred to the Soviet Union as an ‘Evil Empire’. Megaphone diplomacy is nowadays back in ‘fa...

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Metaverse Diplomacy

What is the Metaverse?   Metaverse diplomacy in 2023: Predictions and Trends Is the current drop in the overall interest for the metaverse temporary or longer t...

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Middle East diplomacy

Middle East diplomacy involves a range of diplomatic initiatives and approaches, including negotiations, dialogue, mediation, and conflict resolution. It often involves engagement with a wide range of stakeholders, including governments, non-governmental organisations,...

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Migration

Migration was always a part of human history. Societies as we know them are a mix of people whose predecessors came from other locations. There is a variety of reasons, types, and forms of migration. We move in search of better economic opportunities, some of us to stu...

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Migration diplomacy

Migration diplomacy involves cooperation and dialogue between countries, international organisations, and other stakeholders to manage migration flows, protect the rights of migrants, and promote sustainable development. Migration diplomacy can involve a range of activ...

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Military diplomacy

Military diplomacy involves a wide range of activities, including joint training exercises, military-to-military exchanges, and coordination of military operations with allied nations. It is often used to support traditional diplomatic efforts and to advance a country&...

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Minilateral diplomacy

Minilateral diplomacy refers to a form of diplomacy that involves a small group of countries working together to address a particular issue or solve a specific problem. It is a form of multilateralism that goes beyond traditional bilateral diplomacy between two countri...

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Missionary diplomacy

Missionary diplomacy is a foreign policy approach that involves the use of religious and moral principles to guide diplomatic relations and achieve foreign policy objectives. One interesting example of missionary diplomacy was the role of missionaries in the opening o...

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Mob diplomacy

Mob diplomacy is not a commonly used term in diplomacy. The term originated during the Renaissance period, when powerful families in Italy would send large groups of people to support their diplomatic efforts in foreign states. So it is likely that the term refers to a...

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Moon diplomacy

Moon diplomacy refers to the use of space exploration, specifically lunar exploration, as a means of promoting diplomatic relations and cooperation among nations. As the moon is a celestial body that is of interest to many countries, the subject involves collaborations...

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Multi-track diplomacy

Multi-track diplomacy is an approach to conflict resolution that acknowledges and utilizes the roles of various levels of society in peace-building and conflict resolution efforts. The concept is based on the idea that conflict resolution is most effective when it addr...

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Multilateral diplomacy

Latest: Time to Reflect – Multilateralism Day We can define multilateral diplomacy as the cooperation of three or more countries that work toward a common goal. It has developed alongside bilateral diplomacy mainly through congresses and conferences. Modern mul...

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Music diplomacy

Music diplomacy is the use of music and musical activities as a means of promoting cultural understanding, exchange, and diplomacy between nations and communities. Music diplomacy can take many forms, including musical performances, festivals, workshops, and educationa...

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Napkin diplomacy

Napkin diplomacy could refer to informal, off-the-record, or ad-hoc diplomatic negotiations that are not part of the formalized process. This could be analogous to the idea of a ‘back of the napkin’ plan, where ideas are quickly and informally jotted down, ...

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New diplomacy

New diplomacy is a term that refers to the evolving nature of diplomatic interactions in the contemporary global landscape. While the concept of diplomacy itself is not new, the term ‘new diplomacy’ is often used to describe the transformation in diplomatic practic...

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NGO diplomacy

NGO diplomacy refers to the efforts made by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to influence international policy and decision-making processes. This often involves NGOs engaging with governments, intergovernmental organisations, and other stakeholders to advocate fo...

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Nuclear diplomacy

Nuclear diplomacy refers to the use of diplomatic negotiations and communication to manage and regulate the development, deployment, and use of nuclear weapons. It involves discussions and agreements between countries aimed at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons, ...

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Ocean diplomacy

Ocean diplomacy, also known as marine diplomacy, refers to the use of diplomatic strategies and negotiations to address issues related to the ocean and its resources. It involves international cooperation and collaboration to address global challenges related to the oc...

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Oil diplomacy

Oil diplomacy refers to the use of oil as a tool for achieving political and diplomatic objectives. It involves the use of oil resources as a means of exerting influence and power over other countries or groups. Oil-producing countries often use their oil reserves as a...

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Old diplomacy

Old diplomacy refers to the traditional methods and practices of conducting international relations that were prevalent before the advent of modern diplomacy. It encompasses the diplomatic practices and protocols that were followed for centuries, particularly in Europe...

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Olympic diplomacy

Olympic diplomacy refers to the use of the Olympic Games as a means of promoting international cooperation, fostering goodwill between nations, and advancing diplomatic goals. The modern Olympic Games were founded in 1896 with the aim of promoting peace and understandi...

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Online diplomacy

Online diplomacy refers to the use of digital technologies and the internet to conduct diplomatic activities, such as negotiation, communication, and information exchange, between governments, international organizations, and other actors in the international system. ...

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Open diplomacy

Open diplomacy, also known as public diplomacy, is a diplomatic approach that seeks to engage with the public and other non-state actors to promote mutual understanding, build relationships, and achieve diplomatic goals. It involves using various forms of communication...

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Ottoman diplomacy

Ottoman diplomacy refers to the diplomatic practices, policies, and institutions of the Ottoman Empire, which existed from the late 13th century until its dissolution in 1922. The empire, which spanned three continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa) at its height, develope...

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Ozone diplomacy

Ozone diplomacy refers to the international cooperation and negotiations aimed at protecting the Earth’s ozone layer, which is crucial for the planet’s ecological balance and the well-being of its inhabitants. The ozone layer, located in the stratosphere, p...

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Panda diplomacy

Panda diplomacy refers to the practice of the Chinese government gifting or loaning giant pandas to other countries as a symbol of friendship, goodwill, or to strengthen diplomatic relations. Pandas are one of the most recognisable emblems of China, and a source of ...

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Parallel diplomacy

Parallel diplomacy is a form of diplomatic activity that occurs outside of traditional government channels, often involving non-state actors such as NGOs, civil society organisations, private corporations, and individuals. It can be seen as a way for actors to pursue t...

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Parliamentary diplomacy

Parliamentary diplomacy is a form of diplomacy conducted by members of a country’s parliament or legislature, rather than traditional diplomats or government officials. It involves building relationships, exchanging ideas, and fostering dialogue among parliamenta...

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Peace diplomacy

Peace diplomacy refers to the use of diplomatic efforts, negotiations, and communication to resolve conflicts and prevent the outbreak of violence or war. It involves the use of diplomacy as a tool to promote peaceful resolution of disputes between nations, groups or i...

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People-to-People diplomacy

People-to-people diplomacy refers to the direct interaction and exchange between individuals or groups from different countries, cultures, or societies, with the aim of promoting mutual understanding, cooperation, and friendship. Unlike traditional diplomacy, which is ...

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Personal diplomacy

Personal diplomacy refers to ‘activity of a diplomatic kind conducted by someone who is not a diplomatic agent and may be acting without formal authorization or even encouragement, but whose personal standing ensures that he or she will be heard.’ Source: B...

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Ping Pong Diplomacy

Ping pong diplomacy refers to the exchange of table tennis players between the USA and China in the early 1970s, which played a significant role in improving relations between the two countries. In 1971, the US table tennis team was in Japan for the World Table Tennis ...

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Pizza diplomacy

Pizza diplomacy is a term used to describe the use of pizza as a tool for diplomacy or conflict resolution. It refers to the practice of using food, specifically pizza, as a way to build bridges between people, ease tensions, and create a more positive atmosphere for d...

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Plurilateral diplomacy

Plurilateral diplomacy is a form of diplomacy that involves a limited number of countries or groups of countries, who share similar interests, values, or objectives, working together to address specific challenges or opportunities. Plurilateral arrangements can take va...

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Positive diplomacy

Positive diplomacy refers to the use of diplomatic strategies and tactics to promote peace, cooperation, and mutual understanding among nations. It is based on the principle that international relations can be improved through constructive dialogue, respect for diversi...

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Preventive diplomacy

Preventive diplomacy refers to diplomatic actions taken proactively to prevent disputes, conflicts, or crises from escalating into full-scale wars or other forms of armed confrontation. The concept emerged in the context of international relations, with the United Nati...

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Proto diplomacy

Proto diplomacy refers to the earliest forms of diplomacy practiced by ancient civilisations before the development of modern diplomatic methods. In these early societies, communication and negotiation between different groups were often conducted through the exchange ...

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Proxy diplomacy

Proxy diplomacy is a form of diplomacy where one country or entity delegates the task of negotiating with another country to a third party. In proxy diplomacy, the third party acts as an intermediary or go-between, conveying messages and negotiating on behalf of the or...

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Public diplomacy

There is no agreed definition of public diplomacy. Fitzpatrick identified 150 definitional statements of public diplomacy.[1]  All of them can be situated between the wide and narrow definitions of public diplomacy. The wide definition treats it as an expression of so...

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Quantum diplomacy

Quantum diplomacy is a new term that came into fashion with the growth of quantum technology. This concept is still relatively new and is being explored by researchers in various fields, including international relations, physics, and computer science. On conceptual le...

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Quiet diplomacy

Quiet diplomacy, sometimes referred to as ‘silent diplomacy’ or ‘behind-the-scenes diplomacy,’ is a diplomatic approach that involves discreet, low-profile communication and negotiation between parties, typically governments or international org...

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Railway diplomacy

Railway diplomacy is a form of diplomacy that involves the construction or use of railways as a means of advancing a country’s strategic interests or influence in foreign policy. The concept originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when major powers ...

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Raw material diplomacy

Raw material diplomacy refers to the diplomatic efforts and international relations strategies focused on securing access to and control over raw materials that are essential for a country’s economy or industrial production. These materials may include metals, mi...

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Real-time diplomacy

Real-time diplomacy refers to the use of technology and communication tools to enable diplomats and other foreign policy actors to respond quickly and effectively to rapidly evolving situations around the world. Real-time diplomacy involves using information and commun...

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Regional diplomacy

Region diplomacy, also known as regional diplomacy, is a diplomatic strategy that focuses on fostering cooperation, understanding, and collaboration among countries within a specific geographic region. This approach to diplomacy emphasises the importance of regional dy...

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Rennaisance diplomacy

Renaissance diplomacy is the term used to describe the diplomatic methods and strategies used by European powers during the Renaissance, spanning from the 14th to the 17th century. Italy became a major hub of trade and culture during this time, and the Italian city-sta...

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Rhetoric

Diplomats seeking to analyse political rhetoric can benefit from knowledge of the terms and techniques of classical rhetoric as well as techniques frequently used in modern political speech. Silva Rhetoricae: The Forest of Rhetoric provided by Dr Gideon Burton of Brig...

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Rights of persons with disabilities

There are approximately 1 billion people around the world, or 15% of the world’s population, who experience some form of disability.  There are several factors that contribute to the increase of this number, including: human conflicts, destruction due to natura...

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Rowing diplomacy

In the 16th century, a diplomatic mission to the court of Elizabeth I of England was conducted by the crew of a rowing boat. The crew was made up of four representatives of the Ottoman Sultan, and they were sent to negotiate a potential alliance between the two empires...

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Rug diplomacy

Carpet diplomacy, sometimes also referred to as ‘rug diplomacy,’ is a term used to describe the use of cultural exchanges, particularly through the art of carpet weaving or the gifting of carpets, as a means to foster goodwill, dialogue, and understanding b...

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Salmon diplomacy

Salmon diplomacy refers to the practice of using salmon fisheries and related conservation efforts as a tool for diplomacy between nations or groups of people. This can include cooperative efforts to manage shared salmon populations, negotiations over fishing rights an...

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Sand diplomacy

Sand diplomacy’ refers to diplomatic activities involving countries with significant desert regions: Countries with vast desert regions face unique challenges related to natural resources, climate change, and geopolitical issues. Therefore, ‘sand diplomacy&...

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Satellite diplomacy

Satellite diplomacy cuts across all three aspects of diplomacy. Satellites are part of reshaping geopolitical environment through the space race. Advancements in satellite technologies shape better security and economic position of countries. Satellites are also topic ...

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Sauna diplomacy

The sauna is seen as a powerful tool of diplomacy because it allows for the creation of a relaxed atmosphere, which can be beneficial for bridging gaps and finding common ground between countries. Saunas have long been a part of Finnish culture, but it is only recently...

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Science diplomacy

Science diplomacy has the potential to help us address some of the most pressing challenges of our time such as climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic. In both cases science diplomacy has already illustrated its potential. Yet, we are still very far from achieving ou...

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SDGs diplomacy

SDGs diplomacy, or sustainable development goals diplomacy, refers to the practice of promoting and implementing the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development through diplomatic efforts, international cooperation, and negotiation. The 2030 Agenda, a...

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Selfie diplomacy

Selfie diplomacy refers to the informal use of social media, and specifically selfies, by diplomats and political leaders to create a positive image, engage with the public, or even soften their image in the eyes of the global audience. This could involve taking and sh...

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Semiconductor diplomacy

Semiconductor or chip diplomacy refers to the strategic use of semiconductor technology, production, and supply chains as a tool for diplomacy, geopolitical influence, and international relations. Chips are an essential processing part of any digital device. They are t...

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Sherpa diplomacy

Sherpa diplomacy refers to a practice in international relations where a trusted and experienced individual, known as a ‘sherpa’, is appointed to prepare and lay the groundwork for high-level diplomatic meetings between leaders of different countries. The term ‘s...

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Shuttle diplomacy

Shuttle diplomacy is a method of diplomacy in which a mediator travels back and forth between two or more parties in order to negotiate an agreement or resolve a dispute. The term ‘shuttle diplomacy’ was coined in the 1970s, when Secretary of State Henry Ki...

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Silent diplomacy

Silent diplomacy, also known as quiet diplomacy or backchannel diplomacy, refers to a form of diplomatic engagement that occurs behind the scenes, without public disclosure or media attention. It typically involves discreet communication and negotiation between parties...

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Soft Power diplomacy

Soft power diplomacy refers to the use of a country’s cultural, economic, and ideological influence to promote its interests and values abroad. Unlike hard power, which relies on military or economic coercion, soft power aims to win the hearts and minds of people...

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Sound diplomacy

Sound diplomacy refers to the use of diplomatic strategies and approaches to promote and achieve international cooperation and peaceful relations between nations through the medium of music, arts, and culture. It involves the use of cultural exchanges, artistic perform...

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Space diplomacy

The United Arab Emirates has launched the first-ever Arab interplanetary mission to Mars. Luxembourg has its own space programme. A few hundreds satellites, owned by the private company SpaceX, are in Earth orbit providing the internet in a few dozen countries around t...

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Sport diplomacy

Sport diplomacy is the use of sports as a tool to promote and facilitate international relations and communication between nations. It involves using sports as a platform to create and maintain relationships, build bridges between communities, and promote understanding...

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Sports diplomacy

Sports diplomacy is the use of sport to realize policy goals. Sports and sportspeople are important tools in promoting agendas and helping encourage positive social-cultural changes. Star athletes are ambassadors of the modern age and are often utilized to advocate for...

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Sub-state diplomacy

Sub-state diplomacy refers to the diplomatic activities that are conducted by non-state actors such as cities, regions, local governments, and other governance structures short of states with international recognition. City diplomacy is the most advanced form of sub-st...

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Summit diplomacy

Summit diplomacy refers to the practice of high-level diplomatic meetings between heads of state or government of different countries. Such meetings are usually held to discuss and resolve complex international issues that require the attention and decision-making of t...

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Tea diplomacy

Tea diplomacy refers to the use of tea as a tool for building relationships, fostering goodwill, and promoting diplomacy between individuals, groups, or nations. It involves the ceremonial preparation, serving, and drinking of tea in a specific manner that signifies re...

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Tech diplomacy

Tech diplomacy is the practice of diplomacy engaging with the private tech sector on digital policy and emerging technology issues. Denmark introduced the term Tech diplomacy in 2017 when they appointed the first tech ambassador based in the Bay Area with the main task...

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Telegraph diplomacy

The technique of conducting diplomatic relations and talks by telegrams or other quick means of communication is known as ‘telegraph diplomacy’. The phrase first appeared in the 19th century, when the telegraph was invented and quickly replaced other long-distance ...

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Telephone diplomacy

The term ‘telephone diplomacy’ describes the use of telephone calls between leaders or diplomats of several nations to conduct diplomatic negotiations, cover significant global problems, or settle disputes. It is a method of diplomatic communication that enables le...

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Track-Two diplomacy

Track-two diplomacy refers to unofficial and informal efforts to facilitate communication, build trust, and resolve conflicts between parties that are involved in a dispute or conflict. Unlike track-one diplomacy, which involves official government representatives and ...

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Trade diplomacy

Trade diplomacy refers to the use of diplomatic strategies and negotiations to promote international trade and economic cooperation between nations. It involves the use of diplomatic channels to facilitate trade agreements, reduce barriers to trade, and resolve dispute...

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Twin-track diplomacy

Twin-track diplomacy is a strategy in international relations that involves pursuing two parallel approaches to achieve a desired outcome. The first track typically involves engaging in direct negotiations or formal diplomacy with a particular government or group, whil...

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Twitter diplomacy

Twitter diplomacy refers to the use of the social media platform Twitter by government officials, diplomats, and other high-level individuals for public diplomacy and conduct of diplomatic communicaiton. Some examples of Twitter diplomacy include announcements of polic...

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US diplomacy

The characteristics of US diplomacy can vary depending on the specific context and geopolitical landscape at any given time. However, there are several general characteristics that are often associated with US diplomacy: Promoting democracy and human rights: The United...

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Vatican diplomacy

Vatican diplomacy refers to the diplomatic activities and foreign relations conducted by the Holy See, the central governing body of the Roman Catholic Church. The Holy See, represented by the Pope and the Roman Curia, maintains diplomatic relations with many countries...

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Venetian diplomacy

Venetian diplomacy is the term used to describe the diplomatic methods and tactics used by the Republic of Venice in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era. Venice was a maritime power with considerable economic and political sway across the Mediterranean and beyond....

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Virtual diplomacy

Virtual diplomacy was used when the term ‘virtual’ was popular. It was related mainly to non-material characteristics of digital communication. As a part of this trend, there were also virtual embassies, typically as early websites. Generally speaking, R...

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War diplomacy

War diplomacy refers to the use of diplomatic negotiations and tactics in the context of a potential or ongoing armed conflict. In other words, it is the practice of using diplomatic channels to manage and potentially resolve conflicts that have the potential to escala...

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Water diplomacy

Water diplomacy concerns water-related challenges and conflicts through negotiation, cooperation, and collaboration among various stakeholders, including nations, organizations, and communities. Water diplomacy aims to resolve or reduce disagreements and conflicts over...

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Web diplomacy

Web diplomacy, also known as digital diplomacy or e-diplomacy, refers to the use of digital technologies, particularly the internet and social media, to conduct diplomatic activities and achieve foreign policy objectives. Web diplomacy can take various forms, such as u...

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Wellness diplomacy

Wellness diplomacy is a relatively new concept that refers to the use of public health and wellness initiatives as a means of promoting peace, collaboration, and cooperation between countries. It recognises that health and well-being are fundamental human rights and im...

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Wolf Warrior diplomacy

’Wolf Warrior diplomacy’ refers to China’s recent foreign policy approach, characterised by a more assertive and combative stance in its diplomatic relations with other countries. The term is inspired by a Chinese action movie franchise called ‘Wolf Warrior...

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Wrestling diplomacy

Wrestling diplomacy is a term used to describe the use of wrestling as a tool for promoting diplomacy and peace between nations. It involves organising wrestling competitions between different countries, with the aim of promoting cultural exchange, understanding, and g...

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Yoga diplomacy

Yoga diplomacy refers to the use of yoga as a tool to promote diplomacy, peace, and cultural exchange between nations or communities. It involves using the practice of yoga to build bridges and establish connections between people of different cultures, backgrounds, an...

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Youth diplomacy

Youth diplomacy is about active involvement of youth in international relations and diplomacy. It promotes engaging young people in global issues to foster cross-cultural understanding and dialogue, and, ultimately, peace and cooperation among nations. Youth-led initia...

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Zoom diplomacy

Zoom diplomacy’ refers to the use of Zoom or other video conferencing tools in diplomatic contexts. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns around the world, many organisations and industries, including diplomacy, had to adapt to remote work setting...