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author: Sheila Page

Developing Countries: Victims or Participants? Their Changing Role in International Negotiations

2003

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Intercultural competence and its relevance for international diplomacy

IC and Diplomacy - Intercultural Competence and its Relevance for International DiplomacyThe changing nature of international diplomacy requires new knowledge and awareness of intercultural and other skills needed to perform effectively in the role of diplomat. The research presented in this paper serves to inform current and future planning for the selection, training, and evaluation of international diplomats.

Democracy in Ghana: Lessons for Africa

Despite being one of Africa's finest democracies, Ghana's democracy is still a work in progress. What obstacles hinder Ghana's democracy from attaining maturity? Can these obstacles be removed to make Ghana an accomplished democracy or are they too entrenched to be removed? This study, which may serve as a guide to those wishing to improve and strengthen the democracy in Ghana, employs a considerable amount of existing literature on the democracy in Ghana to identify, not only the general challenges to Ghana's democracy, but some of the entrenched ones as well. Indeed, some of the problems fac...

Governance Challenges in Global Health

Global health is at the threshold of a new era. Few times in history has the world faced challenges as complex as those now posed by a trio of threats: first, the unfinished agenda of infections, undernutrition, and reproductive health problems; second, the rising global burden of noncommunicable diseases and their associated risk factors, such as smoking and obesity; and third, the challenges arising from globalization itself, such as the health effects of climate change and trade policies, which demand engagement outside the traditional health sector.1 These threats are evolving within a...

The Search for Peace

John le Carré: The Biography

I thought to review this book because I had enjoyed the spy novels of John le Carré and, having introduced a chapter on secret intelligence into the latest edition of my textbook and mentioned him in it (p. 155), was keen to see if Adam Sisman had turned up anything new about the novelist’s own short career as an intelligence officer in what was then West Germany.

Strengthening Regional Management: A Review of the Architecture for Regional Co-operation in the Pacific

Persuasion: importance of trust, relevance for small states, and limitations of computers

Dr George Vella, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Malta, argues that persuasion is central not only to diplomacy but also to society in general. He highlights three aspects of persuasion. First is the high importance of trust for persuasion: trust creates the context in which persuasion can be used.

Politics Among Nations

United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran (United States of America v. Iran)

Roma Diplomacy

Roma Diplomacy is a collection of papers written or inspired through Diplo’s 2005/2006 Roma Diplomacy project.

Trends in Diplomatic Communication: A Case Study of Uganda

The aim of this research was to examine the communication trends in diplomacy with a focus on Uganda.

International multistakeholder cyber threat information sharing regimes: Policy considerations for scaling trust and active participation

This paper examines cybersecurity information sharing mechanisms. It looks at the research into public-private partnership (PPP) theory, their application for cybersecurity, and the burgeoning field of international cybersecurity collaboration, and draws conclusions on what policy elements are needed to foster success in architecting a platform for cybersecurity information sharing on a large scale. The paper surveys existing information sharing regimes and the policy objectives they attempt to reach, including capacity building, standardized languages for information sharing, liability prote...

The MIKTA Way Forward (Briefing Paper #2)

Ms Rosen Jacobson assesses the potential, risk, and future of MIKTA, a cooperation scheme comprising Mexico, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Turkey, and Australia, which was officially launched in September 2013.

Diplomatic security and the birth of the compound system

Governance and conflict in the Mano River Union States: Sierra Leone a case study

The MRU states (Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone) experienced more than two decades of bitter conflicts. With the exception of Guinea which was spared a full-scale civil war, the other three neighbouring MRU states went through violent civil conflicts which resulted in massive human suffering, social dislocation and the destruction of the region's economy.

Diplomatic Immunity: Principles, Practices, Problems

Diplomatic Interference and the Law

Q: ‘Why will there never be a coup d’état in Washington? A: Because there’s no American Embassy there.’ This old joke serves to highlight the belief – entrenched deeply in poor, weak states – that diplomatic missions too often meddle in the ‘internal’ or ‘domestic’ affairs of the countries in which they are located, sometimes with dramatic consequences. It is a view that was held in the years following the Second World War by the former Yugoslavia, then struggling to extricate itself from the Soviet orbit, and prompted it to press successfully for the codification of dipl...

Culture and Conflict: Challenges for Europe’s Foreign Policy

The Imperial Component in Iran’s Foreign Policy: Towards Arab Mashreq and Arab Gulf States

One of the most important developments the Middle East has witnessed in the 20th centaury was the success of the Iranian revolution of Islamist ideology, with ambitions to control.

Meeting the needs of microstate security

This article examines the pressing security concerns of microstates, particularly against the backdrop of recurring themes of vulnerability in the literature. It reviews those arguments in the early years of decolonization which expressed scepticism about the prospects for independence in such very small dependencies given their lack of defensive capacity and the geopolitical risks which they face in a potentially dangerous external milieu. The article argues that these doubts and concerns have not been realised in the actual experience of microstates particularly in terms of conventional thre...

Australia’s Diplomatic Deficit: Reinvesting in Our Instruments of International Policy

The Responsibility to Protect

Globalism and the New Regionalism

South Africa

In R. Allison and P. Williams (eds), Superpower Competition and Crisis Prevention in the Third World (Cambridge UP, 1989), pp. 206-16.

Perspectives on Africa’s Integration and Cooperation from OAU to AU

Diplomacy under a Foreign Flag: When nations break relations

Politics and Culture in International History, 2nd ed

How important is the role of small states security in the maintenance of international peace and security?

The game of International Peace and Security has for a long time been one played only by the great powers, leading to the singling out of small states in its deliberations. These states would create their own rules and be their own referees, whilst the existing small states would conduct themselves as mere spectators. However, following the effects of the end of the two World Wars, the creation of the UN and decolonization, the role of small states in the maintenance of international peace and security has gathered new responsibilities and in consequence it has made them important agents and m...

A Critical Appraisal of the OPCW’s Media and Public Affairs Policy in the Context of Multilateral Disarmament and Non Proliferation Regimes

Multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation treaties such as the CWC, BWC, CTBT and NPT come with verification regimes that must balance confidentiality against transparency. While the CWC regime has achieved a great degree of intergovernmental transparency, civil and private stakeholders, in addition to the news media and the general public, do not enjoy the same level of access to information.

Social Power in International Politics

Humanitarian Principles

Commercial Diplomacy and the National Interest

This short and lively book lays out the why and the how of promoting US business abroad. America's place in the world depends more than is usually acknowledged on the vigor and global reach of American business. The United States is the world's leading exporter, the world's leading importer, and the world's primary source and destination of funds for foreign investment. Our position as the best place in the world to do business-the most reliable in which to buy, the most lucrative in which to sell, and the safest and surest in which to invest or to raise capital-is a cause, not an effect, of A...

The Role of Nigeria in Restoring Peace in West Africa

Remmy Nweke attempts a search into the rationale behind Nigeria‟s decision to make Africa the cornerstone of her foreign policy.

The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century

One mark of a great book is that it makes you see things in a new way, and Mr. Friedman certainly succeeds in that goal," the Nobel laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz wrote in The New York Times reviewing The World Is Flat in 2005. In this new edition, Thomas L. Friedman includes fresh stories and insights to help us understand the flattening of the world. Weaving new information into his overall thesis, and answering the questions he has been most frequently asked by parents across the country, this third edition also includes two new chapters--on how to be a political activist and social entreprene...

Consular Law and Practice, 2nd edn

The author of this book is a member of the US State Department's Senior Executive Service, Chairman of the International Law Association Committee on the Legal Status of Refugees, and Adjunct Professor of Law at the American University. It is not a new book but is still available on demand from OUP (when you look at the price, though, who is holding the pistols is a moot point). The first edition was published in 1961, shortly before consular law was codified in the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963), and the method of the second edition is correspondingly different in emphasis - d...

World Economic Forum: A Multi-stakeholder Approach to Global Governance

The Abuse of Diplomatic Privileges and Immunities: Recent United Kingdom Experience

Managing Global Chaos

Portraying the religions of the Mediterranean

There is hardly any need to stress that the relations between the adherents of the three great religions of the Mediterranean, as indeed of all other religions, are more affected by the images that each group has of the other than by the precise content of the theological beliefs held by the spiritual leaders of each religious community. This paper discusses the “the politics of representation” that has garnered much interest since the publication by Edward Said of a trilogy on the subject.

Cyprus: the search for a solution

Lord Hannay, a senior British diplomat with great experience of multilateral diplomacy, retired in 1995 but was then persuaded to accept the position of Britain’s Special Representative for Cyprus. In this role he played an influential part in the UN-led effort to broker a settlement to the Cyprus conflict until the negotiations temporarily foundered in May 2003, when, with a mixture of relief and regret, he stepped down. (There is a postscript on the referendums held on the island in 2004 on the fifth version of Kofi Annan’s settlement plan.) He has written a brilliant account of the cour...

Diplomacy Before and After Conflict

Negotiating Public Health in a Globalized World: Global Health Diplomacy in Action

The Politics of the South Africa Run: European Shipping and Pretoria

Some time after this book went out of print, now many years ago, I found a message on my answer-phone from a London businessman involved in South African shipping. He asked if I were ‘the G. R. Berridge who had written the book on the politics of South African shipping’ and, if so, could I help him find more copies. On admitting to authorship when I returned his call, he said that he had managed to secure a copy for himself but was constantly in danger of losing it to other members of the South African shipping community, who had discovered its manifold virtues too late.

The Law of Nations or Principles of the Law of Nature Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns

Regionalism in the Post-Cold War World

Experiences of China

Adoption and adaptation of e-health systems for developing nations: The case of Botswana (Research by Benson Ncube)

This paper seeks appropriate solutions to improve the access and capability of the health delivery systems in Botswana. The research reveals that many countries are now using information-based services to assist in the administration and delivery of medical services via telecommunication infrastructures.

A New Wave for the Reform of the Security Council of the United Nations: Great Expectations but Little Results

The reform of the Security Council of the United Nations (UNSC) has been an elusive issue at the United Nations (UN). While practically all Member States agree on the need to change the structure of the most powerful body of the world organization, so far there has been no agreement about what elements of that reform or about the substance of the reform itself.

The impact of cultural diversity on multilateral diplomacy and relations

Basic concepts mean different things in different cultures. In multilateral relations this means that looking at such a concept is always culturally biased. As a result, an interpretation according to one culture also tends to criticise different interpretations according to other cultures. This paper discusses how important it is that diplomats and politicians pay attention to and accept the fact of cultural diversity. If they do, they will understand the underlying causes of many conflicting attitudes and they may become more inclined to seek compromise and consensual approaches rather than ...

A clash of professional cultures: The David Kelly affair

The Hutton inquiry into the death of Dr David Kelly, the senior British arms inspector in the UN inspection mission to Iraq who was found dead in an English wood in July 2003, offers revealing insights into the contrasting professional cultures of journalists, politicians and scientists. This paper focuses both on the language and on the transgressions associated with each of the three professional cultures under investigation.

Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War on Terror

All memoirs are incomplete; instant ones even more so; and memoirs about security matters are the worst, in this respect. The book, however, manages to disappoint in an unusual way.

Diplomacy of tomorrow

The time of diplomacy is far from over. This paper discusses how its role will become ever more central as most important affairs will have to be handled at global, regional and sub-regional levels.

A Diplomat’s Handbook of International Law and Practice

Influence of Economic Relations on Bilateral Relations

The title of the master thesis is "Influence of economic relations on bilateral relations". Firstly, three thesis statements concerning the influence of economic relations on non-economic bilateral relations have been developed. In order to validate the thesis statements a methodology was chosen that is mainly data driven and based on two case studies and a data comparison procedure, as opposed to a "theoretical approach".

DDoS – Available Weapon of Mass Disruption

The increasing militarisation of cyber-space comes in response to fears of critical damage caused by digital weapons like Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS). Understanding that the botnets are the key platform behind DDoS, we compared the costs of running a large-scale attack with the approximate downtime loss in a country-scale attack in case of Serbia, showing that DDoS are readily available weapons of possible mass disruption. Taken as a whole, this paper suggests responding to risks by combating cybercrime as the DDoS enabler, rather than by militarisation.

DiploDialogue – Metaphors for Diplomats

On Diplo’s blog, in Diplo’s classrooms, and at Diplo’s events, dialogues stretch over a series of entries, comments, and exchanges and may even linger. DiploDialogue summarises. It’s like in sports events: DiploDialogue aims to bring focus by deleting what, in hindsight, is less relevant. In this first DiploDialogue, Katharina Höne and Aldo Matteucci discuss the usefulness of analogies and metaphors for understanding international relations and diplomacy.

Preventive Diplomacy: Stopping Wars Before they Start

The Secret History of Dayton: U.S. Diplomacy and the Bosnia Peace Process 1995

The power of personal contributions

‘Some of the major issues in the African region that we, as individuals, have to face are infrastructure implementation, awareness, and education. Luckily, there have been encouraging steps by several stakeholders and the younger generations...’ - Duksh Koonjoobeeharry from Mauritius

Mediation in the Yugoslav Wars: The Critical Years, 1990-95

The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey

If God ever gave mankind a mission – it was not so much to multiply as to walk. And walk we did, to the farthest corners of the earth. Homo sapiens sapiens is the only mammal to have spread from its place of origin, Africa, to every other continent – before settling down to sedentary life ogling a TV screen or monitor, that is.

The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many are Smarter than the Few

Worldly wisdom teaches that it is better for reputation to fail conventionally than to succeed unconventionally. John Maynard Keynes

International Regimes

A kind of diplomatic incantation: Exchanging British and Japanese diplomats in the Second World War

Blundering Into Disaster: Surviving the First Century of the Nuclear Age

Alliances and Small Powers

The Dust of Empire: The Race for Mastery in the Asian Heartland

Central Eurasia refers to the countries in the Caucasus and to the five countries of Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. These countries that had once been part of the Russian and Soviet Empire were broken off and set adrift when the Soviet Union self-destructed at the end of 1991. They belatedly joined Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, three countries that also emerged from the sphere of influence of an empire, the British one, to become – in the words of Charles De Gaulle speaking of the newly independent African states – the dust of empire.

Paradiplomatic’ Relations between the United States and Kosova: A Friendship between an Elephant and a Mouse

Naim Dedushaj's thesis 'Paradiplomatic relations between the United States and Kosova' studies the relations between the Albanian nation and America that date way back in history. The first Albanian immigrants moved to the United States in the second half of the 19th century. The major migration flows from Kosova and other parts in ex-Yugoslavia took place in the 20th century.

The Invisible Weapon: Telecommunications and International Politics 1851-1945

International Law

World on Fire: How Exporting Free-Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability

Markets only function optimally when there is perfect information. Joseph Stiglitz received the Nobel Prize in economics for proving that when there are asymmetries of information markets fail. Information economics, with its better analyses of labour, capital, and product markets, enables the construction of macroeconomic models that provide deeper insights into unemployment, recessions and depressions, and other problems that have marked capitalism since its beginnings.

International cyber security diplomatic negotiations: Role of Africa in inter-regional cooperation for a global approach on the security and stability of cyberspace

This research paper examines African countries cybersecurity readiness and how Africa can play a role in shaping international negotiations and discussions on global cybersecurity governance.

Power and Wealth: The Political Economy of International Power

Keeping the Peace in the Cyprus Crisis of 1963-64

After some difficulties, a UN force was established in Cyprus (UNFICYP) following the collapse of the bicommunal independence constitution of this former British colony - a constitution which the Greek Cypriots had always felt too favourable to the Turkish minority - at Christmas 1963. In this book, Alan James, Professor Emeritus of Keele University and leading authority on peacekeeping, provides what is likely to be regarded as the definitive history of the creation of this force.

Manual on Compliance with and Enforcement of Multilateral Environmental Agreements

The History of Diplomatic Immunity

This is a massive book in more than one sense. It is over 700 pages long, including an invaluable bibliography which itself stretches over 70 pages. While dwelling chiefly on the Western tradition, it also takes in the Ottoman Empire and the Far East.

Manuel de droit diplomatique

The secret life of a cyber vulnerability

The comic brings a worrying, yet realistic and educative story that follows a life of a cyber vulnerability, from its inception to its deployment for an actual cyberattack.

UN conferences on the spot – voices from civil society

In the fourth chapter of the book, Britta Sadou, focuses on non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Sadou introduces this particular group as civil society actors and continues by discussing possibilities provided to NGOs by various UN summits. The author highlights some of the main world conferences during the 1990s and early 2000s and poses two important questions - Has the time of those huge events come to an end? What could be the alternatives?

Decision-Making in the UN Security Council: The case of Haiti, 1990-1997

Question: 'When is a "Foreword" not a "Foreword"? Answer: When it is written by Adam Roberts. This book started life as an Oxford doctoral thesis under the supervision of Professor Roberts, and the former supervisor has done both the former student and readers of this book a great service by prefacing it with a seven-page essay in which he underlines its importance in convincing detail. So this, unlike ninety-nine per cent of examples of the same genre, is a Foreword that should not be ignored.

Facing the challenges of an Africa-wide ICT strategy

'There is a need to address these challenges to enhance the capacity of the AU organs, institutions and member states to better respond to instances of ICT policy in Africa. As part of the evolving African governance architecture, there is a need to formulate an ICT strategy...' - Eliot Nsega from Uganda

Searching for Meaningful Human Control. The April 2018 Meeting on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (Briefing Paper #10)

In this briefing paper, Ms Barbara Rosen Jacobson analyses the debate of the April 2018 meeting of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The group was established to discuss emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS).

Small States and the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the EU: A Comparative Analysis

International Politics: States, Power and Conflict since 1945

This textbook is designed to support a general undergraduate course on International Relations. It is based on the second year course which I taught at the University of Leicester in the late 1970s and 1980s. The book was first published in 1987 and was brought out in a second, fully revised edition in 1992. The third edition was published by Prentice-Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf in paperback in 1997 and is now available in a Pearson Education ‘Print on Demand’ edition

Contemporary Diplomacy: Representation and Communication in a Globalized World

Small States and Alliances

Weapons Overview

Will WikiLeaks Hobble U.S. Diplomacy?

Diaspora Diplomacy: Philippine Migration and its Soft Power Influences

Diaspora Diplomacy: Philippine Migration and its Soft Power Influences is about the remarkable and untapped soft power that international migrants possess and how various sectors-from governments, NGOs, business, and international organizations- could tap this valuable resource to enhance global cooperation and development. With compelling stories from Filipina and Filipino migrants in San Francisco, London, Dubai, Dhaka, and Singapore comprising the large Philippine diaspora, this book illustrates how this widespread community performs numerous acts of public diplomacy, bridging the cultural ...

Governing global health: Is Europe ready?

Metaphor and War: The Metaphor System Used to Justify War in the Gulf

High Noon in Southern Africa: Making Peace in a Rough Neighbourhood

Dealing with cybersecurity challenges

'Various governments have come up with different interventions to address these challenges, like cybersecurity which is on the rise. The development of human resource and capacity building has been identified as one of the stumbling blocks.' - Godfrey Ahuma from Ghana

The Internet and diplomats of the 20th century

The Internet and diplomats of the twenty century: how new information technologies affect the ordinary work of diplomats.

Enhancing Global Governance: Towards a New Diplomacy

The role of knowledge in the cyber-age of globalisation

In his paper, Richard Falk reflects on the application of information technology on diplomacy, and discusses the challenge of converting information technology to ‘knowledge technology’, and subsequently to ‘wisdom technology’. Yet, the ‘crossroads in human experience’ brings many challenges and dangers which the author analyses.

The role of the new media in the electioneering process of developing nations, a case study of Nigeria 2015

Abstract: This dissertation examined the roles new media technologies play in the electioneering process of developing nations. The chosen case study was the Nigeria 2015 presidential elections. For this study, the electioneering period was accepted to commence with from the campaign period and to conclude a year after swearing in. This allowed for the study of critical milestones of the electoral cycle.

Economic Statecraft

Digital Opportunities for All: Meeting the Challenge

An Introduction to International Politics

South Africa, the Colonial Powers and ‘African Defence’: The rise and fall of the white entente, 1948-60

This book describes the fate of South Africa's drive, which began in 1949, to associate itself with Britain, France, Portugal and Belgium in an African Defence Pact. It describes how South Africa had to settle for an entente rather than an alliance, and how even this had been greatly emasculated by 1960. In light of this case, the book considers the argument that ententes have the advantages of alliances without their disadvantages, and concludes that this is exaggerated.

Diplomatic Law: Commentary on the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 3rd ed

Vienna Convention on Consular Relations

Post Cold War diplomatic training

Victor Shale's paper refers to a specific time period: the post-Cold War period which brought about new forms of conflicts, and high levels of terrorism. In the light of the change in traditional diplomacy, his paper examines multistakeholder diplomatic training and its importance as an approach in penetrating different cultures, and examines whether this approach could be used to minimise intractable conflicts.

Cybersecurity in the Western Balkans: Policy gaps and cooperation opportunities

Report on cybersecurity cooperation in the Western Balkans.

The Forgotten French

The Argentine seizure of the Malvinas [Falkland] Islands: History and Diplomacy

Regional water cooperation in the Arab – Israeli Conflict: A case study of the West Bank

The conflict between Israel and Arab countries, with several devastating wars, is about territory and land, and maybe just as crucially on the water that flows through that land. This dissertation, an analysis of the management of water in the West Bank, as a case study, seeks to underline the possibility of using soft power diplomacy, in addition to mediation and water cooperation, for a more collaborative kind of approach to the conflict.

Strengthening the region’s participation

‘Witnessing the open community policy development process at the AfriNIC community led me to further appreciate the importance of the Policy Research Phase of the Diplo IGCBP. AfriNIC-13 was an eye opener...’ - Maduka Attamah from Nigeria

A Tipping Point for the Internet: Predictions for 2018 (Briefing Paper #9)

Cybersecurity in the Republic of Fiji

This paper discusses cybersecurity in Fiji and offers recommendations to challenges such as the vulnerability of systems due to lack of a cybersecurity framework. The poorly framed laws and lack of appropriate policies.

The system of privileges and immunities applicable to the international organisations in Switzerland and to the permanent foreign delegations in Geneva

Amadeo Perez is Legal Adviser to the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva, and this booklet is therefore authoritative. It is a revised edition of an article published in the UNITAR Employment Guide by Jean-Pierre Vettovaglia in 1991. As will thus be clear, it is designed to provide a non-legalistic description of its subject for new members of the Geneva diplomatic corps, specifically, those on the staff of the international organizations headquartered there as well as those attached to the permanent missions accredited to them.

The Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross: Commentary

The Fundamental Principles are the result of a century of experience. Proclaimed in Vienna in 1965, they bond together the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the International Committee of the Red Cross and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, and guarantee the continuity of the Movement and its humanitarian work. In this succinct commentary intended for the general public, Jean Pictet explains the meaning of each of the seven Fundamental Principles; he analyses them on the basis of different criteria and presents all their various aspects, thus mak...

An African Analysis of the War in Iraq

English translation of the book published in French under title: Une lecture Africaine de la guerre en Irak.

Satow’s Diplomatic Practice, 6th ed

Satow’s Diplomatic Practice is a classic work, first published 90 years ago and revised four times since. This is the first revised edition for thirty years, during which time the world and diplomacy have changed almost beyond recognition. The new edition provides an enlarged and updated section on the history of diplomacy and revises comprehensively […]

Don’t Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate

DC Confidential: The controversial memoirs of Britain’s ambassador to the U.S. at the time of 9/11 and the Iraq War

DC Confidential: The controversial memoirs of Britain's ambassador to the U.S. at the time of 9/11 and the Iraq War.

Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations

About E-participation

This one-page document aims to explain the origins and needs of the usage of ICT in global participation, as well as to mention some good practices and potential for the future.

Language: Setting the stage

Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Benoit Girardin takes a philosophical approach to rhetoric - along with the issues of interpretation and ethics. He examines each of these three fields and its relation to diplomatic practice and negotiations, showing with examples how diplomatic language exhibiting either a lack or an excess of any of these qualities may lead to problems.

Customary International Humanitarian Law

Customary international humanitarian law is a set of unwritten rules derived from a general, or common, practice which is acknowledged as law. It's the basic standard of conduct in armed conflict accepted by the world community. Customary international humanitarian law is applicable universally – independently of the application of treaty law – and is based on extensive and virtually uniform State practice regarded as law.

The Dayton Agreements and International Law

War and the Private Investor: A Study in the Relations of International Politics and International Private Investment

The Yugoslav diplomatic service under sanctions

Sanctions adversely affect all the structures of the state and society, and render difficult, if not impossible, the normal operation of services, including the Foreign Service.This paper discusses the challenges faced by the Yugoslav diplomatic service when the country was under sanction.

Health, security and foreign policy

Over the past decade, health has become an increasingly important international issue and one which has engaged the attention of the foreign and security policy community. This article examines the emerging relationship between foreign and security policy, and global public health. It argues that the agenda has been dominated by two issues – the spread of selected infectious diseases (including HIV/AIDS) and bio-terror. It argues that this is a narrow framing of the agenda which could be broadened to include a wider range of issues. We offer two examples: health and internal instability,...

Did diplomatic immunity exist in the ancient Near East?

Evaluation of the status of the e-government in Comoros

Comoros has an e-government development index (EGDI) of 0.2327*, with a country online presence estimated at 286. This study evaluates the country online presence by counting the governmental web sites, commenting on the figures published compared to the online availability of governmental information, and examining the interaction with citizens.

The security of small nations: Challenges and defences

The 'essentially contested concept' of security is analysed, and some main kinds of ambiguity and dimensions outlined: level, kind of threat and kind of defence. Discourses on security, particularly of small nations, must avoid being trapped into dealing only with one level (national, which in practice normally means state), one kind of threat (military) and one kind of defence (again military). There is no clear relation between kind of alignment and military expenditures, but non-aligned states are overrepresented both among the very high armers and among the very low armers. Increasing gaps...

Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: Mapping the GGE Debate (Briefing Paper #8)

Small Economies in the Face of Globalisation

The National Security of Small States in a Changing World

Draft Articles on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property

Text adopted by the Commission at its forty-third session, in 1991, and submitted to the General Assembly as a part of the Commission’s report covering the work of that session. The report, which also contains commentaries on the draft articles, appears in Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1991, vol. II

When may senior state officials be tried for international crimes? Some comments on the Congo v. Belgium case

The recent judgment of the ICJ has indubitably shed light on a rather obscure area of international law, that is, the legal regulation of the personal immunities of foreign ministers.

The History of Diplomatic Immunity

This is a massive book in more than one sense. It is over 700 pages long, including an invaluable bibliography which itself stretches over 70 pages. While dwelling chiefly on the Western tradition, it also takes in the Ottoman Empire and the Far East. It begins in ancient times (though having less on the second […]

Intervening in Africa: Superpower Peacemaking in a Troubled Continent

Engagement: Public Diplomacy in a Globalised World

We need a public diplomacy which fits our time. The policy issues which confront us are increasingly global. Systematic engagement with publics both at home and abroad will be required if we are to identify and implement solutions. Policy-makers and diplomats must work with a wider range of constituencies beyond government, moving towards a more open, inclusive style of policy-making and implementation. Understanding of complexity, difference, networks and cultural heritage will be needed, alongside more imaginative use of technology. Engagement, conducted with energy, ambition and cre...

E-diplomacy and Diplomatic Law in the Internet Era

Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace (ed by Katharine Ziolkowski) covers in a multi-disciplinary approach the technical, legal, policy and diplomacy aspects of State activities in cyberspace during peacetime. It consists of 23 chapters of academic nature, elaborated by 24 authors specialised in the respective areas of expertise. Diplo's Dr Jovan Kurbalija contributed this chapter on E-diplomacy and Diplomatic Law in the Internet Era.

Public diplomacy in Croatia: Sharing NATO and EU values with domestic publics

Embassies as Command Posts in Anti-Terror Campaign

The Diplomatic Kidnappings: A Revolutionary Tactic of Urban Terrorism

Managing the Cold War: A view from the front line

Michael Alexander, a Russian-speaking senior British diplomat who died in 2002, was a major behind-the-scenes figure in what he calls the ‘management’ of the cold war to a peaceful conclusion.

Heart Work: Stories of How EDB Steered the Singapore Economy from 1961 to the 21st Century

The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict

Surrender is Not an Option: Defending America at the United Nations and Abroad