Types of diplomacy

There are 136 uses of the term diplomacy in three contexts:


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Books on various types of diplomacy

Books on various types of diplomacy – Library of Jovan Kurbalija


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Digital diplomacy

Digital diplomacy is important type of dplomacy

Bilateral diplomacy is a type of diplomacy that involves two countries or entities engaging in direct negotiations and agreements. It is a form of international relations in which two countries or entities work together to resolve issues and create mutually beneficial outcomes. Bilateral diplomacy can involve a wide range of topics, from trade and security to cultural and environmental issues.

Multilateral diplomacy

Multilateral diplomacy is a form of international relations in which multiple countries work together to achieve a common goal. It involves using negotiations, dialogue, and other diplomatic tools to resolve disputes and promote cooperation between nations. Multilateral diplomacy is often used to address global issues such as climate change, poverty, and human rights.

Metaverse diplomacy is the practice of engaging in diplomatic activities and negotiations in virtual worlds, such as video games, virtual reality, and other online platforms. It involves using digital tools to facilitate communication between players, governments, and other stakeholders. It is a form of digital diplomacy that seeks to bridge the gap between the physical and virtual worlds.

Public diplomacy is a type of diplomacy that focuses on engaging with the foreign public to build relationships and influence public opinion. It is a form of soft power which uses cultural, economic, and educational exchanges to build relationships and foster understanding between countries. Public diplomacy can also involve using media and other communication forms to reach foreign audiences.

Development diplomacy is a type of diplomacy that focuses on the use of diplomatic tools to promote economic and social development. It involves using diplomatic channels to facilitate international cooperation and collaboration on development-related issues, such as poverty reduction, health, education, and environmental protection. Development diplomacy also involves using diplomatic tools to support the implementation of development projects and initiatives.


Economic diplomacy is the use of economic instruments to achieve foreign policy objectives. It involves using economic tools such as trade, investment, finance, and development assistance to advance a country’s interests in the international arena. Economic diplomacy is used to promote economic growth, create jobs, and foster international cooperation. It can also be used to strengthen diplomatic ties between countries and to resolve disputes.

Cyber diplomacy is the use of digital technology and communication to facilitate international relations and diplomacy. It involves the use of digital tools such as social media, websites, and other online platforms to engage in diplomatic dialogue, build relationships, and promote international cooperation. Cyber diplomacy can also be used to address global issues such as cyber security, data privacy, and digital infrastructure.

Energy diplomacy is the use of diplomatic relations to promote and protect countries’ interests in the energy sector. It involves the coordination of energy policies between countries, as well as the negotiation of international agreements on energyrelated issues. Energy diplomacy also includes promoting energy security, reducing energy poverty, and promoting sustainable energy development.

Health diplomacy uses diplomatic tools to promote and protect global health. It involves using diplomatic strategies to address global health challenges, such as pandemics, access to healthcare, and health equity. Health diplomacy also involves international cooperation to improve global health outcomes.

Science diplomacy is using science and technology to build bridges between countries and promote international cooperation. It involves using scientific research, technology, and expertise to address global challenges like climate change, pandemics, and food security. Science diplomacy also fosters collaboration between scientists from different countries and promotes sharing knowledge and resources.

Sports diplomacy is using sports to promote international relations, peace, and understanding. It involves using sports to build bridges between countries, cultures, and people and foster dialogue and cooperation. Sports diplomacy can promote social and economic development, human rights, gender equality, and environmental protection. It can also be used to strengthen diplomatic ties between countries and to create a platform for dialogue on global issues.

Climate diplomacy is the use of diplomatic tools to address climate change. It involves engaging with other countries, international organizations, and nonstate actors to develop and implement policies and actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote climate resilience. Climate diplomacy also includes efforts to build international consensus on climate change, such as through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Education diplomacy is the use of education as a tool to promote international relations and foster mutual understanding between countries. It involves the exchange of students, faculty, and ideas between countries, as well as the development of educational initiatives that promote global understanding and collaboration. Education diplomacy can also involve the use of educational resources to support international development goals.

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Conclusion of tech diplomacy study

Foreign digital diplomacy and tech diplomacy agendas have matured, with countries putting strategies in place to pursue their national interests. Tech diplomacy practice has become more structured in terms of policy and administration, and the extent of engagement in t... Read more...

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Other hubs of tech diplomacy

Many countries are planning to expand their networks to encompass major hubs of tech diplomacy, innovation, and policy discussions. In addition to the Bay Area, there are other tech diplomacy hubs on the territory of the USA, such as Houston, Chicago, Boston, and New Y... Read more...

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Formal and informal tech diplomacy networking

The Bay Area is a lively hub with organisations and initiatives supporting exchanges between locally posted diplomats and other stakeholders. Below is a selection of such opportunities for exchange. Cyber and Tech Retreat Organised by Denmark and in collaboration with ... Read more...

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Tech diplomacy interactions in the San Francisco Bay Area

There is an overall agreement between tech companies and tech diplomats in the Bay Area that the conduct of tech diplomacy is crucial in building understanding between governments and tech companies, allowing for holding difficult conversations on the intersection of v... Read more...

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USA tech diplomacy and the San Francisco Bay Area

Since 2017, the environment of engagement in tech diplomacy in the Bay Area has changed considerably, as the USA has introduced new digital and cyber diplomacy strategies and has implemented administrative structures to pursue them. ... Read more...

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Tech diplomacy in digital foreign policy

Countries are increasingly implementing digital elements in their policies, defining national digital and digitalisation policies, and in some cases, have created dedicated digital foreign policies. In order to implement them, they create dedicated posts: from the firs... Read more...

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About tech diplomacy

There is still no established definition of the term ‘tech diplomacy’, neither academically nor in practice. Several other related types of diplomacy are widely used and are seemingly competing or overlapping with the term. These include ‘e-diplomacy’, ‘cyber... Read more...

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Rapport: Des voix africaines plus fortes dans le numérique : construire une politique étrangère et une diplomatie africaines du numérique

À mesure que le dynamisme numérique de l'Afrique s'accroît, sa participation à la politique numérique mondiale doit augmenter. Dans cette transition, les pays africains doivent composer avec les réalités géopolitiques de notre époque.... Read more...

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Telephone diplomacy: Dialling the ‘red line’

The telephone, radio, and telegraph constitute the three most important inventions that have shaped communication up until today. The telegraph delinked communication from physical transportation and travelling, the telephone transferred voice over distances, and the r... Read more...

The telegraph: How it changed diplomacy

The period between the end of Renaissance diplomacy (early 16th century) and the start of the golden age of diplomacy and technology (early 18th century) was shaped by the Reformation and religious wars. Central Europe came out divided, while around it, new, more centr... Read more...

Renaissance diplomacy: Compromise as a solution to conflict

The Renaissance (French: ‘rebirth’) was a period in European civilisation immediately following the Middle Ages. From the late 13th to the early 17th century, it brought a renewed interest in Classical learning, first to Italy, and later to all western... Read more...

Byzantine diplomacy: The elixir of longevity

The term ‘Byzantine’ comes from the name of the ancient Greek city Byzantium which the Roman Emperor Constantine I (Constantine the Great) rebuilt and renamed Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), and in 330, moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Cons... Read more...

Ancient Diplomacy: What can it teach us?

In the third session of our monthly Zoom series Diplomacy and Technology: A historical journey, a masterclass with Jovan Kurbalija, we focused on ancient diplomacy. We started with the emergence of writing, one of the most important communication technologies in the hi... Read more...

Prehistory: Origins of diplomacy and early ‘technologies’

When did diplomacy begin? To find how diplomacy began, we need to go back to prehistoric times and look at the developments which nurtured proto-diplomacy. Behavioral sciences show that cooperation and peaceful conflict resolution are crucial for the survival and prosp... Read more...