Track-two diplomacy refers to unofficial and informal efforts to facilitate communication, build trust, and resolve conflicts between parties that are involved in a dispute or conflict. Unlike track-one diplomacy, which involves official government representatives and formal negotiations, track-two diplomacy involves non-governmental actors, such as academics, think tanks, civil society organisations, and private individuals, who use their expertise and personal connections to engage with conflicting parties and explore potential solutions.
The aim of track-two diplomacy is to create an environment where parties can exchange ideas and perspectives, identify areas of common ground, and explore ways to bridge differences and build consensus. This approach is often used in situations where official channels of communication are either not functioning or have broken down, or where the parties involved are unwilling or unable to engage in formal negotiations. By providing a safe and neutral space for dialogue, track-two diplomacy can help build trust, reduce tensions, and pave the way for more formal negotiations in the future.