Arctic diplomacy is about international cooperation between nations in the Arctic region. It involves the following countries with territories within the Arctic circle: the United States (via Alaska), Canada, Denmark (via Greenland), Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. The following issues are at the center of Arctic diplomacy:
– Territorial sovereignty over the Arctic, especially as melting ice opens new potential shipping routes and resources.
– Access to resources, including oil, gas, and minerals.
– Climate change affects the melting of ice in the Arctic and rising sea levels.
– Security implications follow the growing economic and environmental relevance of the Arctic region.
– The rights of indigenous peoples in the Arctic region are increasingly the focus of human rights communities.
– Scientific research accelerates in the Arctic region due to the region’s relevance for climate change.
Arctic diplomacy requires achieving delicate balances between economic interests, environmental protection, national security, and the rights of indigenous peoples.