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History of diplomacy and technology

‘The longer you can look back, the farther you can look forward.’ This quote from Winston Churchill could be a tweet about the interplay between diplomacy and technology. This page will, by revisiting the history of diplomacy, try to find guidelines for the future of diplomacy in the internet era.


Masterclass with Jovan Kurbalija

In January 2021, we began the learning journey through history with Diplomacy and Technology: A historical journey, a series of open monthly Zoom discussions on the history of diplomacy and technology, led by Dr Jovan Kurbalija, an expert with an academic background in international law, diplomacy, and digital technology. Our aim will be to discover how civilizations dealt with ‘new’ technologies, from simple writing, via the telegraph, to the internet. You’re welcome to join us!

In our November masterclass, we analysed the impact the internet and social media have on diplomacy. 


Podcast interviews with leading experts

Diplomacy between tradition and innovation | Amb. Stefano Baldi
The telegraph and diplomacy | Tom Standage
Soft and hard power of Byzantine diplomacy | Prof. Jonathan Shepard
The history of drinks and diplomacy | Tom Standage
What can diplomats learn from primates? | Prof. Frans de Waal

A historical timeline

January 2021 | Introduction

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Read the summary, or watch the recording of introductory masterclass session of our Diplomacy and Technology: A historical journey series
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Continuity and change: We will first focus on the interplay between continuity and change in the history of diplomacy and technology. The core functions of diplomacy, such as negotiation and representation, have been present since the early days of diplomacy. These core functions have not changed substantially over the centuries. Rather, changes have occurred in how diplomacy has been performed. Here, technology has played a crucial role, starting with the appearance of language (the early ‘communications technology’), via the telegraph and radio, up to the internet.

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Information and communications: Next, we will look at information and communication, the two core pillars of diplomacy. We will analyse how information management has affected diplomacy, from the first diplomatic archive in Tell el-Amarna (Ancient Egypt), up to today’s diplomatic archives stored in the digital cloud. We will also examine how the various communications systems have influenced the style in which we communicate. Costly messages in the early days of the electrical telegraph forced diplomats to write concise, tweet-like short texts, while inexpensive fax messaging, and recently the internet, have made longer diplomatic messages possible.

Politics, topics, and tools: Finally, we will analyse the impacts technology had on the political environment in which diplomats operated (changes in sovereignty, increased interdependence), the topics they discussed (regulating telegraphy, and more recently, internet governance), and the tools they used (telegraph diplomacy, Twitter diplomacy).

In applying this methodology, we will try to identify common patterns through history, as well as the importance of the time–space context for the interplay between technology and diplomacy. 

A few caveats should be kept in mind.

First, communications technology is just one of the many catalysts of social, political, and economic developments. Highlighting technology as the only, or dominant, cause of developments in diplomacy might lead to oversimplification and technological determinism. We will try to weigh the importance of technological factors in a broader social and political context.

Second, historical analogies should be approached with great care, otherwise they might lead towards erroneous, although prima facie, conclusions. When looking for patterns in historical developments, one must understand that history rarely repeats itself in the same way. 

Third, the history of technology is not sequential, where one technology replaces another. Most technologies coexist with previous innovations in spite of various ‘endism’ predictions. The traditional postal service was not replaced by the telegraph; neither did the telephone ‘kill’ the telegraph; the radio coexists with television. In fact, with the exception of the telegraph, most communications innovations from the last two centuries, including snail mail, the telephone, radio, television, and fax, are still used today. Snail mail, one of the oldest organised methods of communication, is a successful business even today (e.g. DHL, FedEx).

February 2021 | Prehistory: The birth of diplomacy and early “technologies”

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Read the summary and watch the recording of our masterclass session Prehistory: the birth of diplomacy and early ‘technologies! Listen to the podcast interview with Prof. Frans de Waal, and browse the list of resources related to the topic.
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Many anthropological studies found early attempts of solving conflicts peacefully through negotiations. Most likely, the main shift, what Jared Diamond calls the ‘great leap forward’, took place somewhere between the Neanderthal, who inhabited modern-day Germany 100,000 years ago, and the Cro-Magnon man, who lived 40,000 years ago in modern-day southern France. The difference between their skeletons, the tools they used, and the artworks they created, shows that something significant happened in this period. In addition to war and conflict, they used different ways and means for solving conflicts.
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Two main developments influenced prehistoric diplomacy. The first was the emergence of language and speech as the main instruments of communication (i.e. with increased and more diverse communication, the likelihood of solving problems without confrontation increased), and the second was the emergence of societal organisations in various forms of cohabitation such as clans and tribes. Tribes interacted with other tribes through both conflict and cooperation. The first negotiations and search for compromise appeared in this period. The emergence of the spoken language opened new paths for innovation and the development of human society. Language facilitated communication in early societies and increased the potential for feeling empathy and finding peaceful solutions to conflicts. 

In sedentary communities, our distant predecessors began settling down in one place and occupying particular pieces of land. Some had more fertile land and better life than others which led to an interplay between cooperation and confrontation. The continuum of war and peace started shaping human history, which has continued until this day.

The main building blocks of diplomacy emerged in this period: tribes and clans needed representations; they negotiated and coexisted in both peaceful and violent times. 

Historians have found proof of the institution of privileges and immunities among the Australian aborigines as well as in the Institutes of Manu (Hindu codes from around 1500 BC). As Harold Nicholson wrote, ‘no negotiation could reach a satisfactory conclusion if the emissaries of either party were murdered on arrival. Thus, the first principle to become firmly established was that of diplomatic immunity.’

Through marriages, intertribal bonds and alliances were created. There are many archaeological materials showing the importance of diplomacy in prehistory. Most of them were found in the research of rituals and ceremonies of early diplomatic encounters among tribes and clans. One of the traditions that can be traced back to ancient Mesopotamia is the donation of gifts by representatives of one tribe to another when entering the territory of the other tribe. Keep up with us, on our journey through history of diplomacy and technology!

March 2021 | Ancient Diplomacy: What can it teach us?

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Read the summary, listen to the podcast, or watch the recording of our masterclass session Ancient Diplomacy: What can it teach us? Listen to the podcast interview with Tom Standage, deputy editor of The Economist, on the history
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Writing as the main diplomatic ‘technology’: The transition from prehistory to ancient history can be traced back to the fourth millennium BC when writing was invented by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia. We also know that writing was invented independently later on in China and Central America. Writing is central to our discussion about the interplay between diplomacy and technology, as it was, is, and will remain the main ‘technology’ of diplomacy.
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Mesopotamian diplomacy: Sumerians, the early inhabitants of Mesopotamia, invented writing sometime in the fourth millennium BC. Archaeologists discovered diplomatic documents from around 2500 BC. These documents include references to relations among city states, peace negotiations, arbitrations, and the status of envoys. In Babylonia, during the rule of Hammurabi (circa 1800 BC), a highly functional system of messengers was developed. The 20,000 Mari clay tablets also included the first references to diplomatic immunities, diplomatic passports, and letters of accreditation.

Amarna diplomacy: Amarna diplomacy is named after the Egyptian city of Tell el-Amarna, where archaeologists discovered the first diplomatic archive: clay tablets called the Amarna Letters. According to available sources, Tell el-Amarna was the capital of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (1550 BC–1292 BC), the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, and the era in which ancient Egypt achieved the peak of its power under the reign of Amenhotep III (1390–1352 BC) and Amenhotep IV (1352–1336 BC). These dynasties oversaw a period of extensive creativity, particularly noticeable in the architectural constructions. Diplomacy was favoured over war.

In his book Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations, Raymond Cohen argued that Amarna diplomacy was the first fully-developed diplomatic system, comprising the main diplomatic techniques, including the sending of representatives, negotiating, and the handing out of immunities. He challenged the predominant view among diplomatic historians that the first diplomatic system was established in Italy during the Renaissance with the establishment of permanent embassies among Italian city states.

Hittite diplomacy: A few centuries after Amarna diplomacy, the next well-developed diplomatic system emerged in the Hittite Empire (1650 BC–1180 BC) in modern-day Turkey. Similar to Amarna diplomacy, Hittite diplomacy was a fully developed system, encompassing the typical diplomatic instruments and tools. Hittite diplomacy is well known for the first peace treaty (often called the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty) from around 1259 BC, made between Ramses II and Hattusili III. It is considered one of the oldest international treaties.

Assyrian diplomacy: As the Egyptian and the Hittite empires weakened, the Assyrian state emerged and reached its zenith during the Sargonid Dynasty (722 BC–612 BC). Assyria tried to extend its control over the historical Fertile Crescent region (region of the Middle East that contains parts of present-day Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Cyprus). They were particularly interested in gaining control over the key trade routes. The powerful neighbours of Assyria were forced to form coalitions and alliances in order to counterbalance this emerging power. Assyrian dynasties used both war and diplomacy in order to achieve their goals.

Persian diplomacy: The Persian era is the bridge between the period of ancient civilisations and Ancient Greece. The Persian Empire was hegemonic, relying more on military might than on diplomatic skills. One of the main legacies of the Persians was a highly developed communication system – an ancient-era internet. Although the messenger system was developed for military purposes, it began to be used for receiving and sending envoys to neighbouring states and tribes. The Persian Empire discovered diplomacy in the last days of its existence when Darius III (c.330 BC) offered peace to Alexander the Great of Macedonia based on an ‘ancient friendship and alliance’. The refusal of this offer led to the conquering of the Persian Empire by Greece and the end of the period of ancient civilisations. Keep up with us, on our journey through history of diplomacy and technology!

April 2021 | Ancient Greece: Politics, new tools, and negotiations

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Read the summary, listen to the podcast, or watch the recording of our masterclass session Ancient Greek diplomacy: Politics, new tools, and negotiations!Browse the list of resources related to the topic. Additionally, time travel to the epoch with the sounds of Ancient Greece.
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Ancient Greece is often called the cradle of modern civilisation. Greek philosophy is as valid today as it was more than 20 centuries ago, in its attempts to explain our existence. Theatre, geometry, and astronomy, to name a few, originated here. However, Ancient Greece is not considered a golden age when it comes to diplomacy.
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The strong focus on openness and transparency is one of the parallels between Ancient Greece and our era. Ancient Greek diplomacy was one of the most open diplomacies ever practiced. Envoys addressed public gatherings of citizens of the receiving states. Like today’s Twitter diplomacy, diplomats spoke to the public. Paradoxically, at least at first glance, this openness created one of the major weaknesses of ancient Greek diplomacy. Facing a foreign public, envoys were advocating more than negotiating. However, major diplomatic breakthroughs are usually achieved via ‘translucent diplomacy’ (the public is aware of the negotiations and their results, but it does not follow the process as it unfolds).

What can Twitter diplomacy learn from Ancient Greek diplomacy? In short, full transparency and openness is not an optimal environment for successful diplomacy aimed at solving complex problems through convergence and compromise. Keep up with us, on our journey through history of diplomacy and technology!

May 2021 | Byzantine diplomacy: The elixir of longevity

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Read the summary of the Byzantine Diplomacy episode and find out about Byzantine soft and hard power in our podcast interview with Prof. Jonathan Shepard, historian, and one of the leading scholars on the topic. Browse the list of resources related to the topic. Additionally, browse through the curated list of videos related to Byzantine history.
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The Byzantine Empire (AD 395–1453) did not have the privilege of ruling the whole Mediterranean. After the collapse of Rome, Byzantium continued the tradition of the Roman Empire, constantly attempting to restore its glory. Without the power and the control of the old Roman Empire, Byzantium had to revert to diplomacy to a greater extent. Surrounded by hostile tribes from the Balkans, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa, it used sophisticated techniques to keep them under control. The overextension of the Byzantine Empire required geographically broad diplomatic coverage, from China and India in the east, to the Atlantic Ocean in the west, from the interior of Africa, to the steppes of the Black Sea.
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With regard to diplomatic practice, Byzantium took the first step towards establishing an apparatus (an early ministry of foreign affairs) for managing foreign relations. It also made use of international agreements. One of its most developed treaty practices was with the rulers of Kievan Rus (862–1242). The first treaty was signed with Oleg of Novgorod (AD 911), a later one with Igor of Kiev (AD 944). Treaties had a very broad coverage, including many provisions on cooperation in ‘criminal affairs’, including the Rus’ right to extradition from Byzantium of any of its subjects who committed a criminal act. Keep up with us, on our journey through history of diplomacy and technology!

June 2021 | Renaissance diplomacy: Compromise as a solution to conflict

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Read the summary, listen to the podcast, or watch the recording of our masterclass session Renaissance diplomacy: Compromise as a solution to conflict Browse the list of resources related to the topic. Additionally, time travel to the epoch with the sounds of Renaissance Europe.
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Our next stop brings us to the Renaissance (from c.1400) and the impact the invention of the printing press had on diplomacy during the Reformation in the sixteenth century.
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Renaissance diplomacy developed between Italian city states. Relationships between these states were influenced by two key elements: no hegemonic power and a strong interest in cooperating and solving problems through peaceful means. Like Byzantium in the previous period, the Italian city states preferred to use diplomacy as a tool for solving disputes among themselves. The city states, in particular Venice, borrowed from Byzantium diplomatic techniques such as deception, bribery, and espionage, which became the trademark of Renaissance diplomacy.

During the Renaissance, the first full diplomatic system, consisting of permanent diplomatic missions, diplomatic reporting, and diplomatic privileges, was established. In diplomatic history, it is widely accepted that the first permanent diplomatic mission was established in 1455, and represented the Duke of Milan, Francesco Sforza, in Genoa.

Another important development, linked mainly to the Reformation, was the invention of the printing press around 1440 by the German Johannes Gutenberg. This invention had a considerable impact on all functions of society, including diplomacy. The Church’s dominance through parchment-based writing was challenged. The Church’s participation in diplomacy gradually started to ebb. Clergymen no longer held a monopoly in literacy. They were no longer an indispensable part of every diplomatic mission.

During this period of slow and undeveloped transportation and communications, diplomats were among the few who had the privilege of travelling to remote places in search of news. They played an important role in the transfer and spread of knowledge and information. Keep up with us, on our journey through history of diplomacy and technology!

August 2021 | The telegraph: How it changed diplomacy

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Read the summary and watch the recording of our August masterclass, when we discussed two decisive developments: the invention of the telegraph and the Vienna Congress of 1814/15. Listen to the podcast interview with Tom Standage, deputy editor of The Economist, and browse the list of resources related to the topic.
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The most important technological invention in this period was the electrical telegraph, which, for the first time in human history, effectively detached communication from transportation. Until the invention of the telegraph, the speed and reliability of communication depended on the different means of transportation available at the time, for example, durable foot messengers, fast horses, and ships for crossing large water obstacles.
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As for diplomacy, the 1814/15 Congress of Vienna laid the foundation for modern diplomacy – including the introduction of diplomatic precedent and diplomatic ranks. The period between the Congress of Vienna and the First World War is often described as a golden age of diplomacy, which managed to secure one of the most peaceful periods in recent history. During this period, structural developments took place in both communication and diplomacy. Communications inventions became part of daily life, gradually becoming integrated into global telecommunications networks. Diplomacy was transformed from ad-hoc meetings into an organised system consisting of diplomatic services, international organisations, and habitual international gatherings.

As an illustration of the interplay between diplomacy and technology, one could conjecture that history between the Congress of Vienna and WWI would have been different if it were not for two important telegrams: Ems and Zimmerman. The Ems Telegram sparked the Franco-Prussian War, and led towards the establishment of Germany as a unified state. The Zimmerman Telegram, a secret diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in 1917, proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico, triggering the USA’s entrance into WWI.

The impact of the telegraph on diplomacy can be analysed in three contexts: changes in the environment for diplomatic activities, the introduction of new issues on diplomatic agendas, and the use of new tools. Keep up with us, on our journey through history of diplomacy and technology!

September 2021 | Telephone diplomacy: Dialling the ‘red line’

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Read the summary, listen to the podcast, or watch the recording of our masterclass session Telephone diplomacy: Dialling the ‘red line’. Browse the list of resources and videos related to the topic.
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Telephony and wireless (radio) communication, together with the telegraph, constitute the three most important inventions that have shaped communication. They have also strongly influenced diplomacy. The telegraph delinked communication from physical transportation and travelling. The telephone transferred voices over distances. And wireless communication delinked communication from any physical medium. In diplomacy, the telephone made the close contact of heads of state possible, including various ‘red lines’.
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In 1877, Alexander Graham Bell produced ‘the first telephone capable of transmitting speech with adequate quality’. The real impact of the telephone on international relations was felt after the Second World War. Country leaders, especially those of the two superpowers, the USA and the USSR, started using the telephone in order to avoid further escalation in international crises. It has been reported that the telephone played an important role in all of the following international crises: the Six-Day War in the Middle East in 1967, the Indo-Pakistani War in December 1971, the Arab–Israeli War of 1973, and the invasion of Afghanistan by the USSR in 1979. 

Wireless (radio) communications had a strong impact on communication geopolitics. The radio spectrum is used for electric wireless communication. It is divided into frequencies measured in the unit known as the hertz (Hz). International rules for the allocation of frequencies were set in 1912. Although the spectrum remains the same, the range of usable frequencies constantly increases with the development of technology. New, especially digital technology, significantly increased the spectrum range.

Some diplomatic issues, like security, privacy, neutrality, that were raised in the international policy surrounding telephony and wireless communications are still discussed today in the context of internet governance. Keep up with us, on our journey through history of diplomacy and technology!

October 2021 | Radio and TV broadcasting and public diplomacy

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Read the summary and watch the recording of our October masterclass, when we discussed how radio and TV broadcasting influenced diplomacy. Browse the list of resources and videos related to the topic.
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The basis for radio broadcasting was created by technological breakthroughs in wireless communication. Both Guglielmo Marconi and Reginald Fessenden were attempting to create a wireless telephone, but their pursuit resulted in something else. The technology developed for wireless telephony was used in one-way radio broadcasting. 

Orson Welles’ radio drama The War of the Worlds was an early example of the power of radio broadcasting. His ‘announcement’ of the start of the war with the Martians created panic in the United States
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Since its invention in 1926, and the beginning of commercial use six years later by the BBC, television has become a main news and entertainment medium. The golden years of television during the 1970s and 1980s saw that prime-time TV was a new, real-time way of addressing a wide audience and becoming an integral part of their everyday lives. For the first time, we were able to see and hear world news as it happened, and countries and diplomats started using TV as a two-way channel: first as a quick source of information, and second, as a powerful tool for public diplomacyand for conveying their messages. Keep up with us, on our journey through history of diplomacy and technology!

November 2021 | #Diplomacy: Internet and social media 

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Read the summary and watch the recording of our November masterclass, when we discussed the impact of internet and social media on diplomacy. Listen to the podcast interview with Amb. Stefano Baldi, and browse the list of resources related to the topic.
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Diplomats use the internet for meetings, sharing information, negotiating, and communicating. Even ‘corridor diplomacy’, which was strongly linked to traditional diplomacy, has been replaced by emails, Twitter, and Zoom meetings.

Social media has drastically changed what can be achieved at the negotiation table, as internet users and the public affect the process and outcome of negotiations.

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How has diplomacy adjusted to the changes brought about by the internet?
Is the internet a diplomatic revolution, or simply another stage in the evolution of diplomacy?

December 2021 | Data, AI, Virtual Reality and diplomacy

Data AI Virtual Reality and diplomacy

In 2021, an estimated 2.5 quintillion bytes of data was generated per day. Statistics show that by 2025, 463 exabytes of data will be produced on a daily basis. Described as the ‘oil’ of the 21st century, the potential of data to achieve breakthroughs in various industries and fields is significant. Diplomacy is no exception. Despite popular belief that diplomacy is traditional in nature, it is tasked to continuously adapt to an ever-changing world.

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Over the past few years, there has been significant progress in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), which is increasingly becoming part of our everyday lives (from intelligent digital personal assistants and smart home devices, to autonomous vehicles, smart buildings and medical robots) and not just the stuff of science fiction.

With AI’s entry into all aspects of society, it will inevitably influence diplomacy. The more deeply AI is integrated into society, the larger the effect will be on the context in which diplomats operate.

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Events

Resources

2004

Misunderstood: The IT manager’s lament

Communication between information technologists and their clients – including diplomats - does not work as well as it should. We know that information technology has become ubiquitous. We also know that diplomats rely extensively on web services, electronic mail and ... Read more...

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