Yellow banner with pen and letters

Author: World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)

Tunis Agenda for the Information Society

2005

The Tunis Agenda for the Information Society highlights the need to bridge the digital divide, prioritize the development of ICT infrastructure in developing countries, promote internet governance principles, and ensure a people-centered, inclusive, and development-oriented information society. It emphasizes the importance of multilateralism, capacity building, and creating an enabling environment for sustainable ICT development. The document serves as a roadmap for advancing the global information society and harnessing the potential of digital technologies for social and economic progress.
H_z30lkd_400x400.jpg

Introduction

1. We recognize that it is now time to move from principles to action, considering the work already being done in implementing the Geneva Plan of Action and identifying those areas where progress has been made, is being made, or has not taken place.

2. We reaffirm the commitments made in Geneva and build on them in Tunis by focusing on financial mechanisms for bridging the digital divide, on Internet governance and related issues, as well as on implementation and follow-up of the Geneva and Tunis decisions.

Financial mechanisms for meeting the challenges of ICT for development

3. We thank the UN Secretary-General for his efforts in creating the Task Force on Financial Mechanisms (TFFM) and we commend the members on their report.

4. We recall that the mandate of the TFFM was to undertake a thorough review of the adequacy of existing financial mechanisms in meeting the challenges of ICT for development.

5. The TFFM report sets out the complexity of existing mechanisms, both private and public, which provide financing for ICTs in developing countries. It identifies areas where these could be improved and where ICTs could be given higher priority by developing countries and their development partners.

6. Based on the conclusion of the review of the report, we have considered the improvements and innovations of financial mechanisms, including the creation of a voluntary Digital Solidarity Fund, as mentioned in the Geneva Declaration of Principles.

7. We recognize the existence of the digital divide and the challenges that this poses for many countries, which are forced to choose between many competing objectives in their development planning and in demands for development funds whilst having limited resources.

8. We recognize the scale of the problem in bridging the digital divide, which will require adequate and sustainable investments in ICT infrastructure and services, and capacity building, and transfer of technology over many years to come.

9. We call upon the international community to promote the transfer of technology on mutually agreed terms, including ICTs, to adopt policies and programmes with a view to assisting developing countries to take advantage of technology in their pursuit of development through, inter alia, technical cooperation and the building of scientific and technological capacity in our efforts to bridge the digital and development divides.

10. We recognize that the internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals, are fundamental. The Monterrey Consensus on Financing for Development is the basis for the pursuit of adequate and appropriate financial mechanisms to promote ICT for development, in accordance with the Digital Solidarity Agenda of the Geneva Plan of Action.

11. We recognize and acknowledge the special and specific funding needs of the developing world, as referred to in paragraph 16 of the Geneva Declaration of Principles*, which faces numerous challenges in the ICT sector, and that there is strong need to focus on their special financing needs to achieve the internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals.

12. We agree that the financing of ICT for development needs to be placed in the context of the growing importance of the role of ICTs, not only as a medium of communication, but also as a development enabler, and as a tool for the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals.

13. In the past, financing of ICT infrastructure in most developing countries has been based on public investment. Lately, a significant influx of investment has taken place where private-sector participation has been encouraged, based on a sound regulatory framework, and where public policies aimed at bridging the digital divide have been implemented.

14. We are greatly encouraged by the fact that advances in communication technology, and high-speed data networks are continuously increasing the possibilities for developing countries, and countries with economies in transition, to participate in the global market for ICT-enabled services on the basis of their comparative advantage. These emerging opportunities provide a powerful commercial basis for ICT infrastructural investment in these countries. Therefore, governments should take action, in the framework of national development policies, in order to support an enabling and competitive environment for the necessary investment in ICT infrastructure and for the development of new services. At the same time, countries should pursue policies and measures that would not discourage, impede or prevent the continued participation of these countries in the global market for ICT-enabled services.

15. We take note that the challenges for expanding the scope of useful accessible information content in the developing world are numerous; in particular, the issue of financing for various forms of content and applications requires new attention, as this area has often been overlooked by the focus on ICT infrastructure.

16. We recognize that attracting investment in ICTs has depended crucially upon an enabling environment, including good governance at all levels, and a supportive, transparent and pro-competitive policy and regulatory framework, reflecting national realities.

17. We endeavour to engage in a proactive dialogue on matters related to corporate social responsibility and good corporate governance of transnational corporations and their contribution to the economic and social development of developing countries in our efforts to bridge the digital divide.

18. We underline that market forces alone cannot guarantee the full participation of developing countries in the global market for ICT-enabled services. Therefore, we encourage the strengthening of international cooperation and solidarity aimed at enabling all countries, especially those referred to in paragraph 16 of the Geneva Declaration of Principles, to develop ICT infrastructure and ICT-enabled services that are viable and competitive at national and international levels.

19. We recognize that, in addition to the public sector, financing of ICT infrastructure by the private sector has come to play an important role in many countries and that domestic financing is being augmented by North-South flows and South-South cooperation.

20. We recognize that, as a result of the growing impact of sustainable private-sector investment in infrastructure, multilateral and bilateral public donors are redirecting public resources to other development objectives, including Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and related programmes, policy reforms and mainstreaming of ICTs and capacity development. We encourage all governments to give appropriate priority to ICTs, including traditional ICTs such as broadcast radio and television, in their national development strategies. We also encourage multilateral institutions as well as bilateral public donors to consider also providing more financial support for regional and large-scale national ICT infrastructure projects and related capacity development. They should consider aligning their aid and partnership strategies with the priorities set by developing countries and countries with economies in transition in their national development strategies including their poverty reduction strategies.

21. We recognize that public finance plays a crucial role in providing ICT access and services to rural areas and disadvantaged populations including those in Small Island Developing States and Landlocked Developing Countries.

22. We note that ICT-related capacity-building needs represent a high priority in all developing countries and the current financing levels have not been adequate to meet the needs, although there are many different funding mechanisms supporting ICTs for development.

23. We recognize that there are a number of areas in need of greater financial resources and where current approaches to ICT for development financing have devoted insufficient attention to date. These include:

a. ICT capacity-building programmes, materials, tools, educational funding and specialized training initiatives, especially for regulators and other public-sector employees and organizations.

b. Communications access and connectivity for ICT services and applications in remote rural areas, Small Island Developing States, Landlocked Developing Countries and other locations presenting unique technological and market challenges.

c. Regional backbone infrastructure, regional networks, Network Access Points and related regional projects, to link networks across borders and in economically disadvantaged regions which may require coordinated policies including legal, regulatory and financial frameworks, and seed financing, and would benefit from sharing experiences and best practices.

d. Broadband capacity to facilitate the delivery of a broader range of services and applications, promote investment and provide Internet access at affordable prices to both existing and new users.

e. Coordinated assistance, as appropriate, for countries referred to in paragraph 16 of the Geneva Declaration of Principles, particularly Least Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States, in order to improve effectiveness and to lower transaction costs associated with the delivery of international donor support.

f. ICT applications and content aimed at the integration of ICTs into the implementation of poverty eradication strategies and in sector programmes, particularly in health, education, agriculture and the environment.

In addition, there is a need to consider the following other issues, which are relevant to ICT for development and which have not received adequate attention:

g. Sustainability of Information Society related projects, for example the maintenance of ICT infrastructure.

h. Special needs of Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs), such as funding requirements.

i. Local development and manufacturing of ICT applications and technologies by developing countries.

j. Activities on ICT-related institutional reform and enhanced capacity on legal and regulatory framework.

k. Improving organizational structures and business-process change aimed at optimizing the impact and effectiveness of ICT projects and other projects with significant ICT components;

l. Local government and initiatives based in local communities that deliver ICT services to communities in areas such as education, health and livelihood support.

24. Recognizing that the central responsibility for coordination of public financing programmes and public ICT development initiatives rests with governments, we recommend that further cross-sectoral and cross-institutional coordination should be undertaken, both on the part of donors and recipients within the national framework.

25. Multilateral development banks and institutions should consider adapting their existing mechanisms, and where appropriate designing new ones, to provide for national and regional demands on ICT development.

26. We acknowledge the following prerequisites for equitable and universal accessibility to, and better utilization of, financial mechanisms:

a. Creating policy and regulatory incentives aimed at universal access and the attraction of private-sector investment.

b. Identification and acknowledgement of the key role of ICTs in national development strategies, and their elaboration, when appropriate, in conjunction with e-strategies.

c. Developing institutional and implementation capacity to support the use of national universal service/access funds, and further study of these mechanisms and those aiming to mobilize domestic resources.

d. Encouraging the development of locally relevant information, applications and services that will benefit developing countries and countries with economies in transition.

e. Supporting the “scaling-up” of successful ICT-based pilot programmes.

f. Supporting the use of ICTs in government as a priority and crucial target area for ICT-based development interventions.

g. Building human resource and institutional capacity (knowledge) at every level for achieving Information Society objectives, especially in the public sector.

h. Encouraging business-sector entities to help jump-start wider demand for ICT services by supporting creative industries, local producers of cultural content and applications as well as small businesses.

i. Strengthening capacities to enhance the potential of securitized funds and utilizing them effectively.

27. We recommend improvements and innovations in existing financing mechanisms, including:

a. Improving financial mechanisms to make financial resources become adequate, more predictable, preferably untied, and sustainable.

b. Enhancing regional cooperation and creating multi-stakeholder partnerships, especially by creating incentives for building regional backbone infrastructure.

c. Providing affordable access to ICTs, by the following measures:

  • reducing international Internet costs charged by backbone providers, supporting, inter alia, the creation and development of regional ICT backbones and Internet Exchange Points to reduce interconnection cost and broaden network access;
  • encouraging ITU to continue the study of the question of International Internet Connectivity (IIC) as an urgent matter to develop appropriate Recommendations.

d. Coordinating programmes among governments and major financial players to mitigate investment risks and transaction costs for operators entering less attractive rural and low-income market segments.

e. Helping to accelerate the development of domestic financial instruments, including by supporting local microfinance instruments, ICT business incubators, public credit instruments, reverse auction mechanisms, networking initiatives based on local communities, digital solidarity and other innovations.

f. Improving the ability to access financing facilities with a view to accelerating the pace of financing of ICT infrastructure and services, including the promotion of North-South flows as well as North-South and South-South cooperation.

g. Multilateral, regional and bilateral development organizations should consider the utility of creating a virtual forum for the sharing of information by all stakeholders on potential projects, on sources of financing and on institutional financial mechanisms.

h. Enabling developing countries to be increasingly able to generate funds for ICTs and to develop financial instruments, including trust funds and seed capital adapted to their economies.

i. Urging all countries to make concrete efforts to fulfil their commitments under the Monterrey Consensus.

j. Multilateral, regional and bilateral development organizations should consider cooperating to enhance their capacity to provide rapid response with a view to supporting developing countries that request assistance with respect to ICT policies;

k. Encouraging increased voluntary contributions.

l. Making, as appropriate, effective use of debt relief mechanisms as outlined in the Geneva Plan of Action, including inter alia debt cancellation and debt swapping, that may be used for financing ICT for development projects, including those within the framework of Poverty Reduction Strategies.

28. We welcome the Digital Solidarity Fund (DSF) established in Geneva as an innovative financial mechanism of a voluntary nature open to interested stakeholders with the objective of transforming the digital divide into digital opportunities for the developing world by focusing mainly on specific and urgent needs at the local level and seeking new voluntary sources of “solidarity” finance. The DSF will complement existing mechanisms for funding the Information Society, which should continue to be fully utilized to fund the growth of new ICT infrastructure and services.

Internet governance

29. We reaffirm the principles enunciated in the Geneva phase of the WSIS, in December 2003, that the Internet has evolved into a global facility available to the public and its governance should constitute a core issue of the Information Society agenda. The international management of the Internet should be multilateral, transparent and democratic, with the full involvement of governments, the private sector, civil society and international organizations. It should ensure an equitable distribution of resources, facilitate access for all and ensure a stable and secure functioning of the Internet, taking into account multilingualism.

30. We acknowledge that the Internet, a central element of the infrastructure of the Information Society, has evolved from a research and academic facility into a global facility available to the public.

31. We recognize that Internet governance, carried out according to the Geneva principles, is an essential element for a people-centred, inclusive, development-oriented and non-discriminatory Information Society. Furthermore, we commit ourselves to the stability and security of the Internet as a global facility and to ensuring the requisite legitimacy of its governance, based on the full participation of all stakeholders, from both developed and developing countries, within their respective roles and responsibilities.

32. We thank the UN Secretary-General for establishing the Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG). We commend the chairman, members and secretariat for their work and for their report.

33. We take note of the WGIG’s report that has endeavoured to develop a working definition of Internet governance. It has helped identify a number of public policy issues that are relevant to Internet governance. The report has also enhanced our understanding of the respective roles and responsibilities of governments, intergovernmental and international organizations and other forums as well as the private sector and civil society from both developing and developed countries.

34. A working definition of Internet governance is the development and application by governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.

35. We reaffirm that the management of the Internet encompasses both technical and public policy issues and should involve all stakeholders and relevant intergovernmental and international organizations. In this respect it is recognized that:

a. Policy authority for Internet-related public policy issues is the sovereign right of States. They have rights and responsibilities for international Internet-related public policy issues.

b. The private sector has had, and should continue to have, an important role in the development of the Internet, both in the technical and economic fields.

c. Civil society has also played an important role on Internet matters, especially at community level, and should continue to play such a role.

d. Intergovernmental organizations have had, and should continue to have, a facilitating role in the coordination of Internet-related public policy issues.

e. International organizations have also had and should continue to have an important role in the development of Internet-related technical standards and relevant policies.

36. We recognize the valuable contribution by the academic and technical communities within those stakeholder groups mentioned in paragraph 35 to the evolution, functioning and development of the Internet.

37. We seek to improve the coordination of the activities of international and intergovernmental organizations and other institutions concerned with Internet governance and the exchange of information among themselves. A multi-stakeholder approach should be adopted, as far as possible, at all levels.

38. We call for the reinforcement of specialized regional Internet resource management institutions to guarantee the national interest and rights of countries in that particular region to manage their own Internet resources, while maintaining global coordination in this area.

39. We seek to build confidence and security in the use of ICTs by strengthening the trust framework. We reaffirm the necessity to further promote, develop and implement in cooperation with all stakeholders a global culture of cybersecurity, as outlined in UNGA Resolution 57/239 and other relevant regional frameworks. This culture requires national action and increased international cooperation to strengthen security while enhancing the protection of personal information, privacy and data. Continued development of the culture of cybersecurity should enhance access and trade and must take into account the level of social and economic development of each country and respect the development-oriented aspects of the Information Society.

40. We underline the importance of the prosecution of cybercrime, including cybercrime committed in one jurisdiction, but having effects in another. We further underline the necessity of effective and efficient tools and actions, at national and international levels, to promote international cooperation among, inter alia, law-enforcement agencies on cybercrime. We call upon governments in cooperation with other stakeholders to develop necessary legislation for the investigation and prosecution of cybercrime, noting existing frameworks, for example, UNGA Resolutions 55/63 and 56/121 on “Combating the criminal misuse of information technologies” and regional initiatives including, but not limited to, the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime.

41. We resolve to deal effectively with the significant and growing problem posed by spam. We take note of current multilateral, multi-stakeholder frameworks for regional and international cooperation on spam, for example, the APEC Anti-Spam Strategy, the London Action Plan, the Seoul-Melbourne Anti–Spam Memorandum of Understanding and the relevant activities of OECD and ITU. We call upon all stakeholders to adopt a multi-pronged approach to counter spam that includes, inter alia, consumer and business education; appropriate legislation, law-enforcement authorities and tools; the continued development of technical and self-regulatory measures; best practices; and international cooperation.

42. We reaffirm our commitment to the freedom to seek, receive, impart and use information, in particular, for the creation, accumulation and dissemination of knowledge. We affirm that measures undertaken to ensure Internet stability and security, to fight cybercrime and to counter spam, must protect and respect the provisions for privacy and freedom of expression as contained in the relevant parts of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Geneva Declaration of Principles.

43. We reiterate our commitments to the positive uses of the Internet and other ICTs and to take appropriate actions and preventive measures, as determined by law, against abusive uses of ICTs as mentioned under the Ethical Dimensions of the Information Society of the Geneva Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action.

44. We also underline the importance of countering terrorism in all its forms and manifestations on the Internet, while respecting human rights and in compliance with other obligations under international law, as outlined in UNGA A/60/L.1 with reference to Article 85 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome.

45. We underline the importance of the security, continuity and stability of the Internet, and the need to protect the Internet and other ICT networks from threats and vulnerabilities. We affirm the need for a common understanding of the issues of Internet security, and for further cooperation to facilitate outreach, the collection and dissemination of security-related information and exchange of good practice among all stakeholders on measures to combat security threats, at national and international levels.

46. We call upon all stakeholders to ensure respect for privacy and the protection of personal information and data, whether via adoption of legislation, the implementation of collaborative frameworks, best practices and self-regulatory and technological measures by business and users. We encourage all stakeholders, in particular governments, to reaffirm the right of individuals to access information according to the Geneva Declaration of Principles and other mutually agreed relevant international instruments, and to coordinate internationally as appropriate.

47. We recognize the increasing volume and value of all e-business, both within and across national boundaries. We call for the development of national consumer-protection laws and practices, and enforcement mechanisms where necessary, to protect the right of consumers who purchase goods and services online, and for enhanced international cooperation to facilitate a further expansion, in a non-discriminatory way, under applicable national laws, of e-business as well as consumer confidence in it.

48. We note with satisfaction the increasing use of ICT by governments to serve citizens and encourage countries that have not yet done so to develop national programmes and strategies for e-government.

49. We reaffirm our commitment to turning the digital divide into digital opportunity, and we commit to ensuring harmonious and equitable development for all. We commit to foster and provide guidance on development areas in the broader Internet governance arrangements, and to include, amongst other issues, international interconnection costs, capacity building and technology/know-how transfer. We encourage the realization of multilingualism in the Internet development environment, and we support the development of software that renders itself easily to localization, and enables users to choose appropriate solutions from different software models including open-source, free and proprietary software.

50. We acknowledge that there are concerns, particularly amongst developing countries, that the charges for international Internet connectivity should be better balanced to enhance access. We therefore call for the development of strategies for increasing affordable global connectivity, thereby facilitating improved and equitable access for all, by:

a. Promoting Internet transit and interconnection costs that are commercially negotiated in a competitive environment and that should be oriented towards objective, transparent and non-discriminatory parameters, taking into account ongoing work on this subject.

b. Setting up regional high-speed Internet backbone networks and the creation of national, sub-regional and regional Internet Exchange Points (IXPs).

c. Recommending donor programmes and developmental financing mechanisms to consider the need to provide funding for initiatives that advance connectivity, IXPs and local content for developing countries.

d. Encouraging ITU to continue the study of the question of International Internet Connectivity (IIC) as a matter of urgency, and to periodically provide output for consideration and possible implementation. We also encourage other relevant institutions to address this issue.

e. Promoting the development and growth of low-cost terminal equipment, such as individual and collective user devices, especially for use in developing countries.

f. Encouraging Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and other parties in the commercial negotiations to adopt practices towards attainment of fair and balanced interconnectivity costs.

g. Encouraging relevant parties to commercially negotiate reduced interconnection costs for Least Developed Countries (LDCs), taking into account the special constraints of LDCs.

51. We encourage governments and other stakeholders, through partnerships where appropriate, to promote ICT education and training in developing countries, by establishing national strategies for ICT integration in education and workforce development and dedicating appropriate resources. Furthermore, international cooperation would be extended, on a voluntary basis, for capacity building in areas relevant to Internet governance. This may include, in particular, building centres of expertise and other institutions to facilitate know-how transfer and exchange of best practices, in order to enhance the participation of developing countries and all stakeholders in Internet governance mechanisms.

52. In order to ensure effective participation in global Internet governance, we urge international organizations, including intergovernmental organizations, where relevant, to ensure that all stakeholders, particularly from developing countries, have the opportunity to participate in policy decision-making relating to Internet governance, and to promote and facilitate such participation.

53. We commit to working earnestly towards multilingualization of the Internet, as part of a multilateral, transparent and democratic process, involving governments and all stakeholders, in their respective roles. In this context, we also support local content development, translation and adaptation, digital archives, and diverse forms of digital and traditional media, and recognize that these activities can also strengthen local and indigenous communities. We would therefore underline the need to:

a. Advance the process for the introduction of multilingualism in a number of areas including domain names, e-mail addresses and keyword look-up.

b. Implement programmes that allow for the presence of multilingual domain names and content on the Internet and the use of various software models in order to fight against the linguistic digital divide and to ensure the participation of all in the emerging new society.

c. Strengthen cooperation between relevant bodies for the further development of technical standards and to foster their global deployment.

54. We recognize that an enabling environment, at national and international levels, supportive of foreign direct investment, transfer of technology, and international cooperation, particularly in the areas of finance, debt and trade, is essential for the development of the Information Society, including for the development and diffusion of the Internet and its optimal use. In particular, the roles of the private sector and civil society as the drivers of innovation and private investment in the development of the Internet are critical. Value is added at the edges of the network in both developed and developing countries when the international and domestic policy environment encourages investment and innovation.

55. We recognize that the existing arrangements for Internet governance have worked effectively to make the Internet the highly robust, dynamic and geographically diverse medium that it is today, with the private sector taking the lead in day-to-day operations, and with innovation and value creation at the edges.

56. The Internet remains a highly dynamic medium and therefore any framework and mechanisms designed to deal with Internet governance should be inclusive and responsive to the exponential growth and fast evolution of the Internet as a common platform for the development of multiple applications.

57. The security and stability of the Internet must be maintained.

58. We recognize that Internet governance includes more than Internet naming and addressing. It also includes other significant public policy issues such as, inter alia, critical Internet resources, the security and safety of the Internet, and developmental aspects and issues pertaining to the use of the Internet.

59We recognize that Internet governance includes social, economic and technical issues including affordability, reliability and quality of service.

60. We further recognize that there are many cross-cutting international public policy issues that require attention and are not adequately addressed by the current mechanisms.

61. We are convinced that there is a need to initiate, and reinforce, as appropriate, a transparent, democratic, and multilateral process, with the participation of governments, private sector, civil society and international organizations, in their respective roles. This process could envisage creation of a suitable framework or mechanisms, where justified, thus spurring the ongoing and active evolution of the current arrangements in order to synergize the efforts in this regard.

62. We emphasize that any Internet governance approach should be inclusive and responsive and should continue to promote an enabling environment for innovation, competition and investment.

63. Countries should not be involved in decisions regarding another country’s country-code Top-Level Domain (ccTLD). Their legitimate interests, as expressed and defined by each country, in diverse ways, regarding decisions affecting their ccTLDs, need to be respected, upheld and addressed via a flexible and improved framework and mechanisms.

64. We recognize the need for further development of, and strengthened cooperation among, stakeholders for public policies for generic Top-Level Domain names (gTLDs).

65. We underline the need to maximize the participation of developing countries in decisions regarding Internet governance, which should reflect their interests, as well as in development and capacity building.

66. In view of the continuing internationalization of the Internet and the principle of universality, we agree to implement the Geneva Principles regarding Internet governance.

67. We agree, inter alia, to invite the UN Secretary-General to convene a new forum for multi-stakeholder policy dialogue.

68. We recognize that all governments should have an equal role and responsibility for international Internet governance and for ensuring the stability, security and continuity of the Internet. We also recognize the need for development of public policy by governments in consultation with all stakeholders.

69. We further recognize the need for enhanced cooperation in the future, to enable governments, on an equal footing, to carry out their roles and responsibilities, in international public policy issues pertaining to the Internet, but not in the day-to-day technical and operational matters, that do not impact on international public policy issues.

70. Using relevant international organizations, such cooperation should include the development of globally-applicable principles on public policy issues associated with the coordination and management of critical Internet resources. In this regard, we call upon the organizations responsible for essential tasks associated with the Internet to contribute to creating an environment that facilitates this development of public policy principles.

71. The process towards enhanced cooperation, to be started by the UN Secretary-General, involving all relevant organizations by the end of the first quarter of 2006, will involve all stakeholders in their respective roles, will proceed as quickly as possible consistent with legal process, and will be responsive to innovation. Relevant organizations should commence a process towards enhanced cooperation involving all stakeholders, proceeding as quickly as possible and responsive to innovation. The same relevant organizations shall be requested to provide annual performance reports.

72. We ask the UN Secretary-General, in an open and inclusive process, to convene, by the second quarter of 2006, a meeting of the new forum for multi-stakeholder policy dialogue—called the Internet Governance Forum (IGF). The mandate of the Forum is to:

a. Discuss public policy issues related to key elements of Internet governance in order to foster the sustainability, robustness, security, stability and development of the Internet.

b. Facilitate discourse between bodies dealing with different cross-cutting international public policies regarding the Internet and discuss issues that do not fall within the scope of any existing body.

c. Interface with appropriate intergovernmental organizations and other institutions on matters under their purview.

d. Facilitate the exchange of information and best practices, and in this regard make full use of the expertise of the academic, scientific and technical communities.

e. Advise all stakeholders in proposing ways and means to accelerate the availability and affordability of the Internet in the developing world.

f. Strengthen and enhance the engagement of stakeholders in existing and/or future Internet governance mechanisms, particularly those from developing countries.

g. Identify emerging issues, bring them to the attention of the relevant bodies and the general public, and, where appropriate, make recommendations.

h. Contribute to capacity building for Internet governance in developing countries, drawing fully on local sources of knowledge and expertise.

i. Promote and assess, on an ongoing basis, the embodiment of WSIS principles in Internet governance processes.

j. Discuss, inter alia, issues relating to critical Internet resources.

k. Help to find solutions to the issues arising from the use and misuse of the Internet, of particular concern to everyday users.

l. Publish its proceedings.

73. The Internet Governance Forum, in its working and function, will be multilateral, multi-stakeholder, democratic and transparent. To that end, the proposed IGF could:

a. Build on the existing structures of Internet governance, with special emphasis on the complementarity between all stakeholders involved in this process – governments, business entities, civil society and intergovernmental organizations.

b. Have a lightweight and decentralized structure that would be subject to periodic review.

c. Meet periodically, as required. IGF meetings, in principle, may be held in parallel with major relevant UN conferences, inter alia, to use logistical support.

74. We encourage the UN Secretary-General to examine a range of options for the convening of the Forum, taking into consideration the proven competencies of all stakeholders in Internet governance and the need to ensure their full involvement.

75. The UN Secretary-General would report to UN Member States periodically on the operation of the Forum.

76. We ask the UN Secretary-General to examine the desirability of the continuation of the Forum, in formal consultation with Forum participants, within five years of its creation, and to make recommendations to the UN Membership in this regard.

77. The IGF would have no oversight function and would not replace existing arrangements, mechanisms, institutions or organizations, but would involve them and take advantage of their expertise. It would be constituted as a neutral, non-duplicative and non-binding process. It would have no involvement in day-to-day or technical operations of the Internet.

78. The UN Secretary-General should extend invitations to all stakeholders and relevant parties to participate at the inaugural meeting of the IGF, taking into consideration balanced geographical representation. The UN Secretary-General should also:

a. draw upon any appropriate resources from all interested stakeholders, including the proven expertise of ITU, as demonstrated during the WSIS process; and

b. establish an effective and cost-efficient bureau to support the IGF, ensuring multi-stakeholder participation.

79. Diverse matters relating to Internet governance would continue to be addressed in other relevant fora.

80. We encourage the development of multi-stakeholder processes at the national, regional and international levels to discuss and collaborate on the expansion and diffusion of the Internet as a means to support development efforts to achieve internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals.

81. We reaffirm our commitment to the full implementation of the Geneva Principles.

82. We welcome the generous offer of the Government of Greece to host the first meeting of the IGF in Athens no later than 2006 and we call upon the UN Secretary-General to extend invitations to all stakeholders and relevant parties to participate at the inaugural meeting of the IGF.

Implementation and follow-up

83. Building an inclusive development-oriented Information Society will require unremitting multi-stakeholder effort. We thus commit ourselves to remain fully engaged—nationally, regionally and internationally—to ensure sustainable implementation and follow-up of the outcomes and commitments reached during the WSIS process and its Geneva and Tunis phases of the Summit. Taking into account the multifaceted nature of building the Information Society, effective cooperation among governments, private sector, civil society and the United Nations and other international organizations, according to their different roles and responsibilities and leveraging on their expertise, is essential.

84. Governments and other stakeholders should identify those areas where further effort and resources are required, and jointly identify, and where appropriate develop, implementation strategies, mechanisms and processes for WSIS outcomes at international, regional, national and local levels, paying particular attention to people and groups that are still marginalized in their access to, and utilization of, ICTs.

85. Taking into consideration the leading role of governments in partnership with other stakeholders in implementing the WSIS outcomes, including the Geneva Plan of Action, at the national level, we encourage those governments that have not yet done so to elaborate, as appropriate, comprehensive, forward-looking and sustainable national e-strategies, including ICT strategies and sectoral e-strategies as appropriate1, as an integral part of national development plans and poverty reduction strategies, as soon as possible and before 2010.

86. We support regional and international integration efforts aimed at building a people-centred, inclusive and development-oriented Information Society, and we reiterate that strong cooperation within and among regions is indispensable to support knowledge-sharing. Regional cooperation should contribute to national capacity building and to the development of regional implementation strategies.

87. We affirm that the exchange of views and sharing of effective practices and resources is essential to implementing the outcomes of WSIS at the regional and international levels. To this end, efforts should be made to provide and share, among all stakeholders, knowledge and know-how, related to the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of e-strategies and policies, as appropriate. We recognize as fundamental elements to bridge the digital divide in developing countries, in a sustainable way, poverty reduction, enhanced national capacity building and the promotion of national technological development.

88. We reaffirm that through the international cooperation of governments and the partnership of all stakeholders, it will be possible to succeed in our challenge of harnessing the potential of ICTs as a tool, at the service of development, to promote the use of information and knowledge to achieve the internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals, as well as to address the national and local development priorities, thereby further improving the socio- economic development of all human beings.

89. We are determined to improve international, regional and national connectivity and affordable access to ICTs and information through an enhanced international cooperation of all stakeholders that promotes technology exchange and technology transfer, human resource development and training, thus increasing the capacity of developing countries to innovate and to participate fully in, and contribute to, the Information Society.

90. We reaffirm our commitment to providing equitable access to information and knowledge for all, recognizing the role of ICTs for economic growth and development. We are committed to working towards achieving the indicative targets, set out in the Geneva Plan of Action, that serve as global references for improving connectivity and universal, ubiquitous, equitable, non-discriminatory and affordable access to, and use of, ICTs, considering different national circumstances, to be achieved by 2015, and to using ICTs, as a tool to achieve the internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals, by:

a. mainstreaming and aligning national e-strategies, across local, national, and regional action plans, as appropriate and in accordance with local and national development priorities, with in-built time-bound measures.

b. developing and implementing enabling policies that reflect national realities and that promote a supportive international environment, foreign direct investment as well as the mobilization of domestic resources, in order to promote and foster entrepreneurship, particularly Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs), taking into account the relevant market and cultural contexts. These policies should be reflected in a transparent, equitable regulatory framework to create a competitive environment to support these goals and strengthen economic growth.

c. building ICT capacity for all and confidence in the use of ICTs by all – including youth, older persons, women, indigenous peoples, people with disabilities, and remote and rural communities – through the improvement and delivery of relevant education and training programmes and systems including lifelong and distance learning.

d. implementing effective training and education, particularly in ICT science and technology, that motivates and promotes participation and active involvement of girls and women in the decision-making process of building the Information Society.

e. paying special attention to the formulation of universal design concepts and the use of assistive technologies that promote access for all persons, including those with disabilities.

f. promoting public policies aimed at providing affordable access at all levels, including community-level,to hardware as well as software and connectivity through an increasingly converging technological environment, capacity building and local content.

g. improving access to the world’s health knowledge and telemedicine services, in particular in areas such as global cooperation in emergency response, access to and networking among health professionals to help improve quality of life and environmental conditions.

h. building ICT capacities to improve access and use of postal networks and services.

i. using ICTs to improve access to agricultural knowledge, combat poverty, and support production of and access to locally relevant agriculture-related content.

j. developing and implementing e-government applications based on open standards in order to enhance the growth and interoperability of e-government systems, at all levels, thereby furthering access to government information and services, and contributing to building ICT networks and developing services that are available anywhere and anytime, to anyone and on any device.

k. supporting educational, scientific, and cultural institutions, including libraries, archives and museums, in their role of developing, providing equitable, open and affordable access to, and preserving diverse and varied content, including in digital form, to support informal and formal education, research and innovation; and in particular supporting libraries in their public-service role of providing free and equitable access to information and of improving ICT literacy and community connectivity, particularly in underserved communities.

l. enhancing the capacity of communities in all regions to develop content in local and/or indigenous languages.

m. strengthening the creation of quality e-content, on national, regional and international levels.

n. promoting the use of traditional and new media in order to foster universal access to information, culture and knowledge for all people, especially vulnerable populations and populations in developing countries and using, inter alia, radio and television as educational and learning tools.

o. reaffirming the independence, pluralism and diversity of media, and freedom of information including through, as appropriate, the development of domestic legislation, we reiterate our call for the responsible use and treatment of information by the media in accordance with the highest ethical and professional standards. We reaffirm the necessity of reducing international imbalances affecting the media, particularly as regards infrastructure, technical resources and the development of human skills. These reaffirmations are made with reference to Geneva Declaration of Principles paragraphs 55 to 59.

p. strongly encouraging ICT enterprises and entrepreneurs to develop and use environment-friendly production processes in order to minimize the negative impacts of the use and manufacture of ICTs and disposal of ICT waste on people and the environment. In this context, it is important to give particular attention to the specific needs of the developing countries.

q. incorporating regulatory, self-regulatory, and other effective policies and frameworks to protect children and young people from abuse and exploitation through ICTs into national plans of action and e-strategies.

r. promoting the development of advanced research networks, at national, regional and international levels, in order to improve collaboration in science, technology and higher education.

s. promoting voluntary service, at the community level, to help maximize the developmental impact of ICTs.

t. promoting the use of ICTs to enhance flexible ways of working, including teleworking, leading to greater productivity and job creation.

91. We recognize the intrinsic relationship between disaster reduction, sustainable development and the eradication of poverty and that disasters seriously undermine investment in a very short time and remain a major impediment to sustainable development and poverty eradication. We are clear as to the important enabling role of ICTs at the national, regional and international levels including:

a. Promoting technical cooperation and enhancing the capacity of countries, particularly developing countries, in utilizing ICT tools for disaster early-warning, management and emergency communications, including dissemination of understandable warnings to those at risk.

b. Promoting regional and international cooperation for easy access to and sharing of information for disaster management, and exploring modalities for the easier participation of developing countries.

c. Working expeditiously towards the establishment of standards-based monitoring and worldwide early-warning systems linked to national and regional networks and facilitating emergency disaster response all over the world, particularly in high-risk regions.

92. We encourage countries, and all other interested parties, to make available child helplines, taking into account the need for mobilization of appropriate resources. For this purpose, easy-to-remember numbers, accessible from all phones and free of charge, should be made available.

93. We seek to digitize our historical data and cultural heritage for the benefit of future generations. We encourage effective information management policies in the public and private sectors, including the use of standards-based digital archiving and innovative solutions to overcome technological obsolescence, as a means to ensure the long-term preservation of, and continued access to, information.

94. We acknowledge that everyone should benefit from the potential that the Information Society offers. Therefore, we invite governments to assist, on a voluntary basis, those countries affected by any unilateral measure not in accordance with international law and the Charter of the United Nations that impedes the full achievement of economic and social development by the population of the affected countries, and that hinders the well-being of their population.

95. We call upon international and intergovernmental organizations to develop, within approved resources, their policy analysis and capacity-building programmes, based on practical and replicable experiences of ICT matters, policies and actions that have led to economic growth and poverty alleviation, including through the improved competitiveness of enterprises.

96. We recall the importance of creating a trustworthy, transparent and non-discriminatory legal, regulatory and policy environment. To that end, we reiterate that ITU and other regional organizations should take steps to ensure rational, efficient and economic use of, and equitable access to, the radio-frequency spectrum by all countries, based on relevant international agreements.

97. We acknowledge that multi-stakeholder participation is essential to the successful building of a people-centred, inclusive and development-oriented Information Society and that governments could play an important role in this process. We underline that the participation of all stakeholders in implementing WSIS outcomes, and following them up on national, regional and international levels with the overarching goal of helping countries to achieve internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals, is key to that success.

98. We encourage strengthened and continuing cooperation between and among stakeholders to ensure effective implementation of the Geneva and Tunis outcomes, for instance through the promotion of national, regional and international multi-stakeholder partnerships including Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), and the promotion of national and regional multi-stakeholder thematic platforms, in a joint effort and dialogue with developing and less developed countries, development partners and actors in the ICT sector. In that respect, we welcome partnerships such as the ITU-led “Connect the World” initiative.

99. We agree to ensure the sustainability of progress towards the goals of WSIS after the completion of its Tunis phase and we decide, therefore, to establish a mechanism for implementation and follow-up at national, regional and international levels.

100. At the national level, based on the WSIS outcomes, we encourage governments, with the participation of all stakeholders and bearing in mind the importance of an enabling environment, to set up a national implementation mechanism, in which

a. National e-strategies, where appropriate, should be an integral part of national development plans, including Poverty Reduction Strategies, aiming to contribute to the achievement of internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals.

b. ICTs should be fully mainstreamed into strategies for Official Development Assistance (ODA) through more effective information-sharing and coordination among development partners, and through analysis and sharing of best practices and lessons learned from experience with ICT for development programmes.

c. Existing bilateral and multilateral technical assistance programmes, including those under the UN Development Assistance Framework, should be used whenever appropriate to assist governments in their implementation efforts at the national level.

d. Common Country Assessment reports should contain a component on ICT for development.

101. At the regional level:

a. Upon request from governments, regional intergovernmental organizations in collaboration with other stakeholders should carry out WSIS implementation activities, exchanging information and best practices at the regional level, as well as facilitating policy debate on the use of ICT for development, with a focus on attaining the internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals.

b. UN Regional Commissions, based on request of Member States and within approved budgetary resources, may organize regional WSIS follow-up activities in collaboration with regional and sub-regional organizations, with appropriate frequency, as well as assisting Member States with technical and relevant information for the development of regional strategies and the implementation of the outcomes of regional conferences.

c. We consider a multi-stakeholder approach and the participation in regional WSIS implementation activities by the private sector, civil society, and the United Nations and other international organizations to be essential.

102. At the international level, bearing in mind the importance of the enabling environment:

a. Implementation and follow-up of the outcomes of the Geneva and Tunis phases of the Summit should take into account the main themes and action lines in the Summit documents.

b. Each UN agency should act according to its mandate and competencies, and pursuant to decisions of their respective governing bodies, and within existing approved resources.

c. Implementation and follow-up should include intergovernmental and multi-stakeholder components.

103. We invite UN agencies and other intergovernmental organizations, in line with UNGA Resolution 57/270 B, to facilitate activities among different stakeholders, including civil society and the business sector, to help national governments in their implementation efforts. We request the UN Secretary-General, in consultation with members of the UN system Chief Executives Board for coordination (CEB), to establish, within the CEB, a UN Group on the Information Society consisting of the relevant UN bodies and organizations, with the mandate to facilitate the implementation of WSIS outcomes, and to suggest to CEB that, in considering lead agency(ies) of this Group, it takes into consideration the experience of, and activities in the WSIS process undertaken by, ITU, UNESCO and UNDP.

104. We further request the UN Secretary-General to report to the UNGA through ECOSOC by June 2006, on the modalities of the inter-agency coordination of the implementation of WSIS outcomes including recommendations on the follow-up process.

105. We request that ECOSOC oversees the system-wide follow-up of the Geneva and Tunis outcomes of WSIS. To this end, we request that ECOSOC, at its substantive session of 2006, reviews the mandate, agenda and composition of the Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD), including considering the strengthening of the Commission, taking into account the multi-stakeholder approach.

106. WSIS implementation and follow-up should be an integral part of the UN integrated follow-up to major UN conferences and should contribute to the achievement of internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals. It should not require the creation of any new operational bodies.

107. International and regional organizations should assess and report regularly on universal accessibility of nations to ICTs, with the aim of creating equitable opportunities for the growth of ICT sectors of developing countries.

108. We attach great importance to multi-stakeholder implementation at the international level, which should be organized taking into account the themes and action lines in the Geneva Plan of Action, and moderated or facilitated by UN agencies when appropriate. An Annex to this document offers an indicative and non-exhaustive list of facilitators/moderators for the action lines of the Geneva Plan of Action.

109. The experience of, and the activities undertaken by, UN agencies in the WSIS process—notably ITU, UNESCO and UNDP—should continue to be used to their fullest extent. These three agencies should play leading facilitating roles in the implementation of the Geneva Plan of Action and organize a meeting of moderators/facilitators of action lines, as mentioned in the Annex.

110. The coordination of multi-stakeholder implementation activities would help to avoid duplication of activities. This should include, inter alia, information exchange, creation of knowledge, sharing of best practices, and assistance in developing multi-stakeholder and public-private partnerships.

111. We request the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) to make an overall review of the implementation of WSIS outcomes in 2015.

112. We call for periodic evaluation, using an agreed methodology, such as described in
paragraphs 113-120.

113. Appropriate indicators and benchmarking, including community connectivity indicators, should clarify the magnitude of the digital divide, in both its domestic and international dimensions, and keep it under regular assessment, and track global progress in the use of ICTs to achieve internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals.

114. The development of ICT indicators is important for measuring the digital divide. We note the launch, in June 2004, of the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development, and its efforts:

a. to develop a common set of core ICT indicators; to increase theavailability of internationally comparable ICT statistics as well as to establish a mutually agreed framework for their elaboration, for further consideration and decision by the UN Statistical Commission.

b. to promote capacity building in developing countries for monitoring the Information Society.

c. to assess the current and potential impact of ICTs on development and poverty reduction.

d. to develop specific gender-disaggregated indicators to measure the digital divide in its various dimensions.

115. We also note the launch of the ICT Opportunity Index andthe Digital Opportunity Index, which will build upon the common set of core ICT indicators as they were defined within the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development.

116. We stress that all indices and indicators must take into account different levels of development and national circumstances.

117. The further development of these indicators should be undertaken in a collaborative, cost-effective and non-duplicative fashion.

118. We invite the international community to strengthen the statistical capacity of developing countries by giving appropriate support at national and regional levels.

119. We commit ourselves to review and follow up progress in bridging the digital divide, taking into account the different levels of development among nations, so as to achieve the internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including the Millennium Development Goals, assessing the effectiveness of investment and international cooperation efforts in building the Information Society, identifying gaps as well as deficits in investment and devising strategies to address them.

120. The sharing of information related to the implementation of WSIS outcomes is an important element of evaluation. We note with appreciation the Report on the Stocktaking of WSIS-related activities, which will serve as one of the valuable tools for assisting with the follow-up, beyond the conclusion of the Tunis phase of the Summit, as well as the “Golden Book” of initiatives launched during the Tunis phase. We encourage all WSIS stakeholders to continue to contribute information on their activities to the public WSIS stocktaking database maintained by ITU. In this regard, we invite all countries to gather information at the national level with the involvement of all stakeholders, to contribute to the stocktaking.

121. There is a need to build more awareness of the Internet in order to make it a global facility which is truly available to the public. We call upon the UNGA to declare 17 May as World Information Society Day to help to raise awareness, on an annual basis, of the importance of this global facility, on the issues dealt with in the Summit, especially the possibilities that the use of ICT can bring for societies and economies, as well as of ways to bridge the digital divide.

122. We request the Secretary-General of the Summit to report to the General Assembly of the United Nations on its outcome, as requested in UNGA Resolution 59/220.

Annex

Action LinePossible moderators/facilitators
С1. The role of public governance authorities and all stakeholders in the promotion of ICTs for developmentECOSOC/UN Regional Commissions/ITU
С2. Information and communication infrastructureITU
C3. Access to information and knowledgeITU/UNESCO
C4. Capacity buildingUNDP/UNESCO/ITU/UNCTAD
C5. Building confidence and security in the use of ICTsITU
C6. Enabling environmentITU/UNDP/UN REGIONAL COMMISSIONS/UNCTAD
C7. ICT Applications
– E-government
– E-business
– E-learning
– E-health
– E-employment
– E-environment
– E-agriculture
– E-science

– UNDP/ITU
– WTO/UNCTAD/ITU/UPU
– UNESCO/ITU/UNIDO
– WHO/ITU
– ILO/ITU
– WHO/WMO/UNEP/UN-Habitat/ITU/ICAO
– FAO/ITU
– UNESCO/ITU/UNCTAD
C8. Cultural diversity and identity, linguistic diversity and local contentUNESCO
C9. MediaUNESCO
C10. Ethical dimensions of the Information SocietyUNESCO/ECOSOC
C11. International and regional cooperationUN Regional Commissions/UNDP/
ITU/UNESCO/ECOSOC

* For reference, Paragraph 16 of the Geneva Declaration of Principles reads as follows:
We continue to pay special attention to the particular needs of people of developing countries, countries with economies in transition, Least Developed Countries, Small Island Developing States, Landlocked Developing Countries, Highly Indebted Poor Countries, countries and territories under occupation, countries recovering from conflict and countries and regions with special needs as well as to conditions that pose severe threats to development, such as natural disasters.


You may also be interested in

profilepic1.jpg

Emerging Leaders for a Digital World (2011): Dalsie Greenrose Kalna Baniala from Vanuatu

‘With the number of training courses I have attended, including attending the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), I have learnt a lot.’

page_1-4.jpg

For an effective taxation of electronic commerce in Madagascar

This research paper focuses on the taxation of electronic commerce (or e-commerce) in Madagascar. The objectives of this project are to offer insight and help the fiscal administration for future governmental programmes focusing on the taxation of e-commerce in Madagascar.

ITP-course-600x400-1.jpg

Report of the Working Group on Internet Governance

The Working Group on Internet Governance discusses the need for international cooperation to address challenges in internet governance. They emphasize the importance of multistakeholder participation, human rights protection, and transparency in decision-making processes. The report outlines principles for effective governance, such as inclusivity, accountability, and sustainability. The Working Group calls for ongoing dialogue and collaboration among governments, private sector entities, civil society organizations, and technical communities to ensure a secure and open internet for all.

Zoniaina-Fitahiana-Rakotomalala.jpg

Bridging the digital divide

‘Internet governance (IG) is a new field which lacks expertise in Madagascar. Some of the pressing issues in Madagascar are the digital divide, IT illiteracy, and the inadequacy of national jurisdiction with technology advances.’ - Zoniaina Fitahiana Rakotomalala from Madagascar

Statement on the Common Heritage of Mankind to the Internet’s critical infrastructure by Dr Alex Sceberras Trigona, Malta

Dr. Alex Sceberras Trigona raises questions about whether the Internet should be considered part of the Common Heritage of Mankind, emphasizing the need for international recognition and protection to ensure its proper management and safeguarding for current and future generations.

umcrest.png

The Role of Regional Cooperation in Eradicating Poverty and Aid Dependency in East Africa

The hypothesis of this thesis is that regional cooperation and integration are effective tools in alleviating poverty within nations and reducing their dependency on foreign or development aid.

Ginger-Paque.jpg

Towards ‘concrete, physical, and local’

'This is not an outside imposition of technology, but an enthusiastic acceptance of support... the ideal situation, where just a push, just a bit of help, can enable the local population to maximise use of resources under their own direction.' - Virginia Paque from Wisconsin, USA

CYBERSECURITY.png

Cybersecurity competence building trends

Report on cybersecurity competence building trends in OECD countries.

Katitza-Rodriguez.jpg

Tackling privacy issues

'It is necessary to focus the IGF discussion on the real problems associated with the collection and use of personal information. The reality is that there is very little that consumers can do today to protect their personal data...' - Katitza Rodriguez from Peru

icann.png

ICANN and internet governance: sorting through the debris of ‘self-regulation’

This message explores the challenges and complexities of internet governance, highlighting the need to navigate the aftermath of relying on 'self-regulation' within ICANN.

artworks-000557468451-38esck-t500x500.jpg

Developing new ways to govern the Internet

'Even if I am participating in the process during the whole year and interacting with many people, meeting them face-to-face at an event like the IGF remains essential... it is the most effective way to network...' - Rafik Dammak from Tunisia

G7-block.png

Digital Opportunities for All: Meeting the Challenge

The text is about embracing digital opportunities to overcome challenges and ensure access for all.

umcrest.png

The Feasibility of Information Communication Technology as a Tool for Development: Caribbean Community Perspectives

As a result of global trends relating to trade, many small economies continue to seek replacements for traditional markets which no longer offer preferential treatment.

DIPLO_BRIEF_12.png

Updating International Geneva to the Data-driven Era (Briefing Paper #12)

In this briefing paper, Ms Rafaela Marinho and Mr Avi Krish Bedi outline their research on how international organisations (IOs) in Geneva address and use big data in their work.

TechPlomacy-report.png

The Rise of TechPlomacy in the Bay area

Tech diplomacy is becoming a necessity for countries worldwide. Countries need to capture the nexus between technology innovation and economic developments. To be effectively present in the Bay Area, countries need to use innovative diplomatic approaches. This report discusses how tech diplomacy can be developed, and more specifically, how countries approach the Bay Area tech industry.

umcrest.png

The use of Information and Communications Technology (ICTs) in human rights promotion: A case study of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights

The employment of ICT tools as a weapon of choice at the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, an organ established within the African Union with a broad mandate of spearheading human rights promotion on the African Continent has not been emphasised as a crucial element in the struggle towards achieving human rights promotion and protection on the African continent, with the resulting consequence that the Commission is not as visible and known to the people that it is supposed to serve.

umcrest.png

Policy and regulatory challenges to deploying blockchain technologies

Abstract: Blockchain technologies are heralded by some as one of the most promising innovations after the Internet. The concept’s origins are linked to Bitcoin, a paperless cryptocurrency, and the first decentralized digital currency that works without a central bank or single administrator.

Judith-Okite.jpg

Opening one’s eyes to opportunity

'John Walubengo introduced me to KictaNET... I got involved in ICT and... what it could do at a time when Kenya was revising its national ICT policy...' - Judith Okite from Kenya

eucom.png

Net neutrality in Europe

The European Union upholds net neutrality, ensuring that all internet traffic is treated equally, without discrimination or interference from internet service providers. This regulation protects consumers' rights to access online content freely and without limitations set by providers.

angelic_0.png

Breaks through the barriers of development

‘Capacity building is necessary to allow for equal participation... It will require all of us who have leadership positions to gain more knowledge to be able to provide, promote, and support Internet access for all.’ - Angelic Alihusain-del Castilho from Surinam

H_z30lkd_400x400.jpg

Tunis Agenda for the Information Society

The Tunis Agenda for the Information Society highlights the need to bridge the digital divide, prioritize the development of ICT infrastructure in developing countries, promote internet governance principles, and ensure a people-centered, inclusive, and development-oriented information society. It emphasizes the importance of multilateralism, capacity building, and creating an enabling environment for sustainable ICT development. The document serves as a roadmap for advancing the global information society and ha...

Towards-a-secure-cyberspace-via-regional-co-operation.png

Towards a secure cyberspace via regional co-operation

The study Towards a secure cyberspace via regional co-operation provides an overview of the international dialogue on establishing norms of state behaviour and confidence-building measures in cyberspace.

page_1-4.jpg

Access of ICT benefits for underserved rural communities in developing countries: A case study from Nepal

Policy-makers and governments in developing nations can implement more effective policies and frameworks by gaining a better understanding of the factors that support stakeholders and partners to extend the benefits of information communication technology (ICT) to rural communities. The aim of this paper is to answer the framework to follow for extending access to ICT benefits in underserved rural areas of a developing country.

book-leaders.jpg

Emerging Leaders for the Digital World

Emerging leaders, whose stories feature in this publication, are among 501 participants from 60 ACP countries who participated in the Capacity Development programme in ICT Policy and Internet Governance for Africa Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) 2010/2011.

Sustainable-Development-Financing.png

Report of the Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing

Report of the Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing.

UnitedNations-logo.png

The road to dignity by 2030: ending poverty, transforming all lives and protecting the planet

The message emphasizes the goal of achieving dignity by 2030 through ending poverty, transforming lives, and preserving the environment.

Stephanie-Borg-Psaila.png

The EU’s New Commission: Digital Policy in the Limelight (Briefing Paper #13)

In this briefing paper, Dr Stephanie Borg Psaila analyses Ursula von der Leyen's new EU Commission's emphasis on digital policy for 2019–2024.

Mediation_and_AI_front_0.png

Mediation and artificial intelligence: Notes on the future of international conflict resolution

Over the last years AI has emerged as a hot topic with regard to its impact on our political, social, and economic lives.

cap.png

Common African Position on the Post-2015 Development Agenda

The participatory approach that led to the elaboration of the Common African Position (CAP) on the post-2015 Development Agenda involving stakeholders at the national, regional and continental levels among the public and private sectors, parliamentarians, civil society organizations (CSOs), including women and youth associations, and academia. This approach has helped address the consultation gap in the initial preparation and formulation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

IGbook-7th-eng.png

An Introduction to Internet Governance

'An Introduction to Internet Governance provides an excellent entry point. It has introduced many diplomats and officials to this emerging field of global policy. For others, it will stimulate reflections from linguistic, legal, and other perspectives. This book clearly shows that although the Internet is a ‘technical’ invention, its governance is far from simply a technical issue. Kurbalija’s book highlights the legal, social, linguistic, and economic perspectives of Internet governance. It is an impressive introduction to this emerging field of global policy' Nitin Desai, former Chai...

umcrest.png

In search of the most sustainable and coherent diplomatic approaches to addressing the fundamental challenges Small States (including Small Island States or SIDS) perennially face in an uncertain world of hegemonic giants

Small states, in every sphere of natural and human activity, are negatively and disproportionately impacted by crises, when compared to their hegemonic, larger and stronger counterparts.

Pricing-the-right-to-education.png

Pricing the right to education: The cost of reaching new targets by 2030

This paper shows there is an annual nancing gap of US$39 billion over 2015-2030 for reaching universal pre-primary, primary and secondary education of good quality in low and lower middle income countries.

The Hypocrisy Threatening the Future of the Internet

The message highlights the threat of hypocrisy to the future of the internet, raising concerns about the negative impact of inconsistent actions and standards on the digital landscape.

UnitedNations-logo.png

The Milennium Development Goals Report 2015

The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015 reflects on the progress made towards achieving the eight goals set by world leaders in 2000. It highlights significant accomplishments in areas such as poverty reduction, child mortality, and access to clean water. However, challenges remain, including disparities among regions and persistent inequalities. The report emphasizes the need for continued efforts to address these issues and accelerate progress towards sustainable development.

diplo-2018.png

Developing Community-level Capacity Assessment Tools: Perspectives and Practical Applications in the Context of Rural Africa (Briefing Paper #11)

The message provides an overview of developing community-level capacity assessment tools relevant to rural Africa to improve local development strategies.

Climate-Change-and-Human-Rights.png

Climate Change and Human Rights: A Rough Guide

This text provides an overview of the intersection between climate change and human rights, emphasizing the impacts on vulnerable populations and the need to address these issues to protect human rights.

Felix-Samakande.png

Broadening the diplomatic bandwidth

‘I believe whistle-blowing websites have a greater role to play in the future of the humankind. These are a few of the issues that I became aware of through DiploFoundation, on whose blogosphere these issues continue to be debated.’ - Felix Samakande from Zimbabwe

net_neutrality.png

The network neutrality debate and development

This study focuses ont he Net Neutrality controversy. It aims to answer a number of questions including - If Net Neutrality deserves protection, the question is how? Should a political or legal solution be enacted at national or international levels? Can we trust an informal free-market solution that may develop on its own, or should legal and political means be used to enunciate this principle? Will market forces ensure the best outcome, whatever this may be?

page_1-4.jpg

How effective is direct remote interaction in EuroDIG?

This report describes the evolution of remote participation in EuroDIG and provides an assessment of the current situation, focusing on the issue of inclusiveness by direct remote interaction. It also provides steps to improve and put in greater perspective the effectiveness and reach of remote participation hubs, as well as outlining further directions research can take regarding the networks of people and organisations mobilised in the process.

Ulemu-Nyasulu.jpg

The e-learning experience

'My vision for Malawi is to have educational institutions connected to the Internet and to each other. This would provide for reduction in cost, as we would... use lecturers/teachers from other institutions to teach students across the country...' - Ulemu Nyasulu from Malawi

page_1-4.jpg

How safe are we? Security risks of the social networks

We are witnessing an extreme proliferation of the social networks, which can be seen in two ways: an expansion of social network websites, and an increase in the number of people who are starting to use them. The author describes the risks associated with social networks, mostly associated with user's privacy, and the responsibility for those risks. This paper also analyses whether the rules proscribed so that social network providers can distance themselves from possible abuses are really designed to help the users be safe.

page_1-4.jpg

Electronic government equals sustainable development for Guyana

Electronic government (e-government) equals sustainable development for Guyana. This is the thesis illustrated by this paper along with the possible constraints involved in implementing e-government.

download-3.jpg

Information and communications technologies for development

The text discusses the role of information and communications technologies (ICTs) in development.

netmundial.png

NETmundial Multistakeholder Statement

The NETmundial Multistakeholder Statement emphasizes the importance of a collaborative approach between stakeholders in addressing Internet governance issues. It highlights principles such as human rights, open standards, and transparent processes as key foundations for managing the Internet. The statement calls for shared responsibility, inclusivity, and diversity in decision-making processes to ensure a free, open, and secure cyberspace for all.

IGCBP2011 research project summaries for EuroDIG 2011

The publication contains research project summaries written by students of the 2011 Research Phase of the Internet Governance Capacity Building Programme (IGCBP2011). The summaries were presented during EuroDIG 2011.

page_1-4.jpg

The use of ICT in human rights promotion: A case study of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights

The paper seeks to render a critical analysis that will lead and co-ordinate a programme of promotional work across the region, including the integration of ICT strategies in its promotional work.

book-peacetime_1.jpg

Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace

The publication covers in a multi-disciplinary approach the technical, legal, policy and diplomacy aspects of State activities in cyberspace during peacetime. It consists of 23 chapters of academic nature, elaborated by 24 authors specialised in the respective areas of expertise. Diplo's Dr Jovan Kurbalija contributed the chapter on E-diplomacy and Diplomatic Law in the Internet Era.

page_1-2-1.jpg

Development diplomacy and poverty reduction strategy

Lichia Yiu and Raymond Sanner describe in detail the application of development diplomacy in the context of international co-operation for poverty reduction in Highly Indebted Poor Countries. In particular, the authors describe the goal of the International Labour Organisation – a non-state actor – in advocating the inclusion of employment and Decent Work Agenda policies in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, an instrument developed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

1183232336_mtTTw-X2.jpg

Diplomatic Reporting in the Internet Era

Paper delivered by Ambassador Victor Camilleri during the E-diplomacy panel on Diplomatic Reporting in the Internet Era after WikiLeaks, held on 9 February, 2011.

Making-Education-a-Priority-in-the-Post-2015-Development-Agenda.png

Making Education a Priority in the Post-2015 Development Agenda

The post-2015 development agenda should prioritize education to address global challenges effectively and promote sustainable development. Educational goals must encompass quality, inclusivity, equity, and lifelong learning opportunities for all individuals, regardless of background. Investing in education not only benefits individuals by improving their opportunities and well-being but also contributes to societal advancement by fostering economic growth, reducing poverty, and promoting social cohesion. Education is a fundamental human right and a key driver of progress, making it essential f...

download-1.gif

Development Effectiveness: What Have We Learnt?

The text discusses lessons learned regarding development effectiveness.

EU-webinar_1.png

Digital Markets Act

The Digital Markets Act (DMA) aims to ensure the proper functioning of the EU internal market by 'promoting effective competition in digital markets' and, in particular, a fair and contestable online platform environment.

Elias-Espinoza.jpg

Creating enabling environments for access to the Internet

'In most developing countries access to the Internet for people without disabilities is an issue. Thus the thought of access to people with disabilities is rarely considered.' - Emmanuel Edet from Nigeria

ddmf.png

Data Diplomacy: Mapping the Field

The adoption of open data policies and the standardization of data collection were among the recommendations made during DiploFoundation's Data Diplomacy Roundtable: Mapping the Field, a brainstorming event that took place on 5 April 2017 – on the role of (big) data in international affairs and diplomacy.

E_Commerce.pdf.png

Promoting e-Commerce in developing countries

This study examines the advantages and possibilities for the use of digital signatures to carry out electronic transactions. It focuses on developing and transition countries that have not fully implemented the use of digital signatures in their economic, commercial and productive processes. An important aim of this research is to create awareness on the likely effects for enforcing the use of digital signatures to carry out e-commerce transactions on the economies of developing and transition countries. The study also proposes key issues to be considered for policy-makers in countries in orde...

Valmikki-Singh.png

The need for IG regimes and representation

‘Indeed, the Internet can be a doubleedged sword. Consequently, given man’s innate quest to have stability, reliability, and certainty in his life, governance of the Internet is only a natural evolution.' - Valmikki Singh from Guyana

Arlene-Buckmire-Outram.png

Marrying education with ICT

‘It is necessary to ensure the responsible use of technology and to stress the innovation and knowledge sharing that technology allows over the opportunity for piracy, slander, and other ‘negative’ activities’ - Arlene Buckmire-Outram from Grenada

Global Cross-Border Privacy Rules Declaration

The text discusses the need for trusted cross-border data flows to support economic growth and innovation. It introduces the establishment of a Global Forum to promote interoperability in data protection and privacy, aiming to enhance international cooperation and standards. The Forum is set to encourage the use of global systems, share best practices, and engage various stakeholders. Participation is open to jurisdictions accepting the Forum's principles, with decisions made by consensus. Regular meetings will determine activities and implementation, with the possibility of additional gatheri...

Book-of-Abstracts-IGCBP-Policy-Research-Project.png

Book of Abstracts – IGCBP Policy Research Project

Book of Abstracts – IGCBP Policy Research Project.

cyber-1.png

The secret life of a cyber vulnerability

The comic brings a worrying, yet realistic and educative story that follows a life of a cyber vulnerability, from its inception to its deployment for an actual cyberattack.

Screenshot-2021-09-21-at-15.15.26.png

Addressing the Digital Divide in the Joint Statement Initiative on E-Commerce: from enabling issues to data and source code provisions

This paper examines the evolution of the ‘digital divide’, especially in the context of the WTO Joint Statement Initiative on Electronic Commerce. As an integral part of its analysis, the paper examines textual proposals raised under the current Joint Statement Initiative (JSI) negotiations, especially those submissions on data flows, data localization, and source code. This study has been produced under a project implemented by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), in consortium with CUTS International, Geneva; BKP Economic Advisors; and InterAnalysis. It was pub...

UNESCO-logo.jpg

Education Counts: Towards the UN Development Goals

The text discusses the importance of education in achieving the UN Development Goals. It highlights the critical role education plays in economic growth, reducing poverty, improving health outcomes, and promoting gender equality. By investing in education, countries can address various societal challenges and work towards sustainable development.

EXPLO.png

Exploring the benefits of digital education

'The government of Nigeria is making a giant stride to improve the situation by rolling out programs that would in one form or the other include Information Technology in the curriculum of primary and secondary students.' - Ijeoma Ogbuagu from Nigeria

umcrest.png

The World Bank’s Contribution to Poverty Reduction in Peru

Peru’s economy has improved significantly, however poverty is an imperative issue that is not progressing as expected.

Internet-safety-for-kids.jpg

From a Safer Internet to a Better Internet for Kids

The text is about transitioning from a safer internet to a better internet for kids.

global.jpg

Global Public Goods: International Cooperation in the 21st Century

This collection of papers offers a new rationale and framework for international development cooperation. Its main argument is that in actual practice development cooperation has already moved beyond aid. In the name of aid (i.e., assistance to poor countries), we are today dealing with issues such as the ozone hole, global climate change, HIV, drug trafficking, and financial volatility. All of these issues are not really poverty related. Rather, they concern global housekeeping: ensuring an adequate provision of global public goods. Many important lessons could be drawn by first recognizing t...

Lenandlar-Singh.jpg

Incorporating IG issues into teaching

‘I strongly believe that personal development is most important for my teaching and research. Indeed, I have always been keen to improve my areas of expertise and share newly acquired knowledge with my students.’ - Lenandlar Singh from Guyana

Reforms to the International Financial Architecture | Our Common Agenda Policy Brief 6 

The international financial architecture is outdated and failing humanity. From egregious borrowing costs for developing countries to underinvestment in global crises like climate change and pandemics, the system is rife with inefficiencies and biases. It's a tale of two worlds, with a growing gap between the haves and have-nots, not just in wealth but in access to a secure future. The clock is ticking on ambitious reforms to make the world's financial architecture fit for the 21st century.

Screenshot-2021-09-29-at-14.27.46.png

UNCTAD Digital Economy Report 2021

The Digital Economy report 2021 provides a review of studies dealing with cross-border data flows and analyses the inequalities in the data-driven digital economy. The Report looks at existing governance approaches at national, regional and multilateral levels, with a bearing on data flows. It calls for a balanced approach to global data governance that could help ensure that data can flow across borders as freely as necessary and possible, while achieving an equitable distribution of benefits, within and across countries; and addressing risks related to human rights and national security.

Africareport_FR_cover.png

Rapport: Des voix africaines plus fortes dans le numérique : construire une politique étrangère et une diplomatie africaines du numérique

À mesure que le dynamisme numérique de l'Afrique s'accroît, sa participation à la politique numérique mondiale doit augmenter. Dans cette transition, les pays africains doivent composer avec les réalités géopolitiques de notre époque.

Leaving-No-One-Behind-in-the-Data-Revolution.png

Leaving No One Behind in the Data Revolution (Briefing Paper #5)

The text offers policy recommendations and insights on cybersecurity, focusing on building resilience, fostering cooperation, and addressing challenges in the digital domain.

umcrest.png

Stakeholderism in African Internet Governance: the Case of the .africa gTLD

In 2012, ICANN announced plans to delegate over 1000 new generic top level domain names, one of which was the long awaited .africa.

unga2020.png.jpg

Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is a comprehensive plan that outlines 17 goals aimed at ending poverty, protecting the planet, and ensuring prosperity for all. It addresses challenges such as climate change, inequality, and peace and justice. The agenda emphasizes the importance of partnerships, data, and financing in achieving these goals. Implementing the agenda requires a collective effort from governments, businesses, civil society, and individuals to create a more sustainable and equitable world by the year 2030.

ASEF_Vertical_FULL.png

Connecting Asia and Europe | ASEF Outlook Report 2016/2017 | Volume I: Data on Connectivity

The ASEF Outlook Report 2016/2017 Volume I delves into data on various dimensions of Asia-Europe connectivity including digital, economics, sustainable development, culture, media, education, and governance.

A-Tipping-Point-for-the-Internet-Predictions-for-2018-Briefing-Paper-9.png

A Tipping Point for the Internet: Predictions for 2018 (Briefing Paper #9)

The briefing paper discusses various predictions for the internet in 2018, focusing on key trends and developments that will shape the digital landscape. Key areas include the rising importance of cybersecurity, the impact of artificial intelligence on online platforms, growing concerns over data privacy, increased regulation of tech giants, and the potential for blockchain technology to revolutionize various industries. These trends are expected to drive significant changes in how we use and interact with the internet in the coming year.

Eliot-Nsega.jpg

Facing the challenges of an Africa-wide ICT strategy

'There is a need to address these challenges to enhance the capacity of the AU organs, institutions and member states to better respond to instances of ICT policy in Africa. As part of the evolving African governance architecture, there is a need to formulate an ICT strategy...' - Eliot Nsega from Uganda

Walubengo.jpg

Launching an ICT campus and beyond

'I found that living in a developed economy is quite different from living in my developing country environment. Things like the Internet are taken for granted...In sub-saharan Africa, lack of the same (Internet) resources would automatically discourage me...' - John Walubengo from Kenya

kd.png

The role of knowledge in the cyber-age of globalisation

In his paper, Richard Falk reflects on the application of information technology on diplomacy, and discusses the challenge of converting information technology to ‘knowledge technology’, and subsequently to ‘wisdom technology’. Yet, the ‘crossroads in human experience’ brings many challenges and dangers which the author analyses.

book-digitaldivide.jpg

Crossing the Executive Digital Divide

Information and communications technologies (ICT) have become critical in business, government, manufacturing, critical infrastructures, academia, and, literally, everywhere else, and yet, despite the large sums of money involved, ICT remains the least well understood function in an organization.

ModernDiplomacy.jpeg

Diplomacy as an instrument of good governance

The functioning of diplomacy is influenced by a complicated combination of different interrelated factors. This paper briefly analyses their impact on the evolution of diplomacy and discusses how diplomacy as an instrument of good governance should adjust itself to meet the new challenges, to become more relevant, open and agile, to modify its methods and to fully utilise opportunities offered by the technological revolution.

Veronica-Cretu.jpg

E-teaching social programmes

'I had to use all possible means of getting people to participate actively in the programme... What learning style does a person have? Is it part of his or her culture or not? These were the questions for which I looked to find answers.' - Veronica Cretu from Moldova

page_1-2-1.jpg

Inclusive Internet Governance

In this paper, Derrick Cogburn outlines a vision for multistakeholder democratic participation in global information and communication policy processes. Drawing on international regime theory, Cogburn suggests that the UN World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) is an explicit attempt to formulate the principles, norms, and values of an emergent international regime to govern the information society in general, and the Internet specifically.

Achieving-Zero-Hunger.png

Achieving Zero Hunger: The Critical Role of Investments in Social Protection and Agriculture

The message emphasizes the crucial role of investments in social protection and agriculture in achieving zero hunger.

igbook-spanish.jpg

Introducción a la Gobernanza de Internet

Aunque la gobernanza de Internet trata de los fundamentos del mundo digital, la gobernanza no puede manejarse con la lógica digital binaria de lo verdadero o lo falso, lo bueno o lo malo. En cambio, el sujeto exige muchas sutilezas y sombras de significado y percepción, requiriendo un enfoque analógico, cubriendo un continuo de opciones y compromisos. El objetivo del libro Introducción a la Gobernanza de Internet, del Dr Jovan Kurbalija, es proporcionar una visión general de los principales temas y actores en el campo a través de un marco práctico para el análisis, discusión, y resolu...

Reframing Internet Governance Discourse: Fifteen Baseline Propositions

The text presents fifteen baseline propositions aimed at reframing discourse on internet governance, providing a foundational framework for understanding and addressing the complexities of governing the internet effectively.

GFCE-study-2021-Full-study-December-2021-homepage.png

Improving the practice of cyber diplomacy: Training, tools, and other resources – Final study

This study analyses the capacity development of cyber diplomacy, including training opportunities, tools, and other resources, and looks at their reach, take-up, and what should come next. Why? Because although cyber diplomacy, the conduct of diplomacy with respect to a state’s interests in cyberspace, is too important to ignore, the participation of countries is far from ideal.

NAMIBIA.png

Namibia’s Digital Foreign Policy and Diplomacy (Briefing Paper #3)

This briefing paper emerged from Diplo's participation in Namibia's Foreign Policy Review Conference (July 2016). In this paper, Dr Katharina E. Höne suggests a three-pronged approach to Namibia's digital foreign policy and diplomacy, and looks at the discourse on information and communications technology (ICT) and development.

Barbara-Rosen-Jacobson_diplo.png

Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: Mapping the GGE Debate (Briefing Paper #8)

The paper discusses the ongoing debate in the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS) and the varying perspectives on the need for regulation and control of these weapons.

Understanding the Digital Divide

The digital divide refers to inequalities in access to and usage of technology. Factors such as income, education, geography, and age can contribute to this gap. Bridging this divide is crucial for ensuring equal opportunities for all individuals in today's technologically-driven world.

DDoS – Available Weapon of Mass Disruption

The increasing militarisation of cyber-space comes in response to fears of critical damage caused by digital weapons like Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS). Understanding that the botnets are the key platform behind DDoS, we compared the costs of running a large-scale attack with the approximate downtime loss in a country-scale attack in case of Serbia, showing that DDoS are readily available weapons of possible mass disruption. Taken as a whole, this paper suggests responding to risks by combating cybercrime as the DDoS enabler, rather than by militarisation.

page_1-4.jpg

Internet governance and service provision in Zimbabwe

From an Internet governance perspective, multilingualism and security have been two of the cornerstone themes since its inception. The security theme addresses topics regarding the Domain Names System (DNS), Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), Internet attacks, security awareness, and policies and legal measures to ensure a safe and secure Internet experience. Security is a very diverse area where multiple topics should be tackled, and ignoring one or more topics while securing other areas would still jeopardise the safety of Internet users.

page_1-4.jpg

Factors influencing broadband adoption and digital content consumption in developing countries: A case from Pakistan

This paper attempts to redress the issues of broadband adoption and digital content consumption and provides detailed analysis on the factors that influence them, and rejection determinants in a developing country like Pakistan.

page_1-4.jpg

Le code du travail burkinabé face au télétravail: Comment adapter le code du travail burkinabé pour qu’il réponde aux exigences du travail à distance?

Les TICs et l’Internet particulièrement ont étouffé le fondement de la nécessaire présence physique du travailleur dans l’entreprise. Au Burkina Faso, ce contexte a créé de nouvelles opportunités dont le travail à distance, depuis l’accession du pays au cyberespace en 1996.

Glosario-de-Acrónimos-de-Gobernanza-de-Internet-cover.png

Glosario de Acrónimos de Gobernanza de Internet

La última edición del Glosario de Acrónimos de Gobernanza de Internet, compilado por DiploFoundation, contiene explicaciones de más de 130 acrónimos, inicialismos y abreviaturas utilizados en la jerga de la gobernanza de Internet. Además del término completo, la mayoría de las entradas incluyen una explicación concisa y un enlace para obtener más información.

Development-Co-operation.png

Development Co-operation Report 2014: Mobilising Resources for Sustainable Development

The Development Co-operation Report 2014 emphasizes the importance of mobilizing resources for sustainable development. It highlights the need for effective partnerships, innovative financing mechanisms, and increased transparency to achieve development goals. The report also stresses the importance of policy coherence, human rights-based approaches, and the engagement of a wide range of stakeholders in development efforts.

Shareeni-Kala.jpg

Making the link between IG and e-learning

‘Students and teachers do not have to sit in the classroom or be face-to-face but can now take part in e-learning from anywhere in the world and at any time, thanks to online facilities.’ - Shareeni Kala from Fiji

CYBER.png

Cybersecurity in the Western Balkans: Policy gaps and cooperation opportunities

Report on cybersecurity cooperation in the Western Balkans.

Charity-Gamboa.jpg

Teaching computer literacy to alleviate poverty

'I am involved in strengthening education policies at a global level through a forum that will bring representatives from national and international organizations, experts, teachers, NGOs and the youth who are engaged in education...' - Charity Gamboa from the Philippines

A-developing-countrys-perspective-on-IG-issues.png

A developing country’s perspective on IG issues

'Among all the country members of the East African Community, only Burundi, my country, was absent from that EAIGF... That’s why, at the end of the IGF in Hyderabad, I came back with a new dream: An IGF Burundi.' - Jean Paul Nkurunziza from Burundi

Screenshot-2021-11-08-at-16.41.08-1.png

Digital Commerce Course: a five-year assessment

The publication evaluates the impact of the Digital Commerce Course, aimed at providing capacity building on e-commerce to trade professionals. Over the years, the course has helped trade negotiators navigate an ever more complex e-commerce agenda, which currently encompasses a vast range of issues, from trade facilitation to data protection and cross-border data flows. This course has been offered for five years (2017-2021) by means of a partnership between Diplo Foundation, CUTS International Geneva, the International Trade Centre and the Geneva Internet Platform. For more information about ...

Fuatai.png

Developing ICT for youth and people in rural settings

'There is a huge need for online learning infrastructure at the national level in my country and I am sure it is the same in other small island developing states... I encourage governments to have their public servants, in particular youth to study Internet governance...' - Fuatai Purcell from Samoa

umcrest.png

How is trust defined in Internet governance organisations? (applied ethics in not-for-profit Internet organisations, managing critical Internet resources – a case study on trust)

The message addresses the definition of trust within Internet governance organizations, focusing on applied ethics in not-for-profit Internet entities managing critical Internet resources. Trust is a central component explored through a case study, examining the dynamics and importance of trust within these specialized organizations.

page_1-4.jpg

Cybersecurity in the Republic of Fiji

This paper discusses cybersecurity in Fiji and offers recommendations to challenges such as the vulnerability of systems due to lack of a cybersecurity framework. The poorly framed laws and lack of appropriate policies.

Stories-from-Diplos-Internet-Governance-Programmes.png

Emerging Leaders for the Digital World 2009

These pages contain the stories of talented people likely to play an important role in future Internet-related developments; all of them former participants in Diplo’s Internet Governance Capacity Building Programme (IG CBP) held between 2005 and 2007.

ITU.png

Measuring the Information Society Report 2015

The Measuring the Information Society Report 2015 provides insights into trends related to information and communication technologies globally.

GodfredAhuma90x130Oct2019.jpg

Dealing with cybersecurity challenges

'Various governments have come up with different interventions to address these challenges, like cybersecurity which is on the rise. The development of human resource and capacity building has been identified as one of the stumbling blocks.' - Godfrey Ahuma from Ghana

fao_logo.jpg

Special Ministerial Event on Food Security and Sustainble Development in Small Island Developing States

A summary of the Special Ministerial Event on Food Security and Sustainable Development in Small Island Developing States.

showCoverImage.jpg

Small states in the global politics of development

Much of the discussion surrounding small states has treated them as a discrete category, with common vulnerabilities and opportunities. However, a productive approach is to look at the global politics of development, and then see where small states fit in. The author looks in turn at the global politics of finance, trade and the environment. He concludes that small states have been largely unsuccessful in asserting their own interests in global politics, and that (to the extent that it is possible to generalize about states which differ greatly) vulnerabilities rather than opportunities are th...

page_1-4.jpg

Adoption and adaptation of e-health systems for developing nations: The case of Botswana (Research by Benson Ncube)

This paper seeks appropriate solutions to improve the access and capability of the health delivery systems in Botswana. The research reveals that many countries are now using information-based services to assist in the administration and delivery of medical services via telecommunication infrastructures.

Barbara-Rosen-Jacobson.png

Searching for Meaningful Human Control. The April 2018 Meeting on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (Briefing Paper #10)

In this briefing paper, Ms Barbara Rosen Jacobson analyses the debate of the April 2018 meeting of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The group was established to discuss emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS).

Marilia-Maciel.jpg

Local hubs and the work of the RPWG

'It was also very important for me to join other members of the RPWG to be physically present at the IGF, so we could follow the implementation of the RP mechanism, working in partnership with the Secretariat... and providing assistance to the hubs.' - Marilia Maciel from Brazil

31YMwJKaCeS._SY291_BO1204203200_QL40_FMwebp_.webp

A New Diplomacy for Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Global Change

The text discusses the need for a new diplomacy approach to address the challenges of global change and foster sustainable development.

umcrest.png

The multistakeholder model in Internet policy-making: A case study of Paraguay

Internet Governance was a vague topic in Latin America and especially in Paraguay. Only after Snowden´s revelations of mass surveillance, the topic becomes familiar.

a-study.png

A study of the UN Working Group on IG – MSP in communication technology for development at the global level

The paper aims to identify best practices and lessons learned in multi-stakeholder partnership (MSP) practices at the global policy level through a participatory methodology based on interviews and an online electronic survey.

book-abstracts.jpg

Book of Abstracts (Internet Governance)

This collection of abstracts comes from from research projects conducted during the 2010/2011 Internet Governance Capacity Building Programme (IGCBP).

wb.jpg

Oslo Summit: Financing Education in Developing Countries

The Oslo Summit focuses on financing education in developing countries to ensure access and quality education for all children.

encyclopedia.jpg

Enyclopedia of International Development

The Encyclopedia of International Development is a comprehensive resource that covers a wide range of topics related to development, including theories, practices, actors, and key issues. It offers insights from various disciplines and perspectives, making it an invaluable tool for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in the field of international development.

page_1-4.jpg

Introducing child safety in Romanian schools: Does the existing primary and secondary curriculum address online safety?

This paper examines the idea of an online child safety policy for Romania, which would provide an initiative to encourage smart online behavior in young children, prepare them to surf the Internet, and educate them to avoid its dangers. As technology develops and more and more children spend time online, they are exposed to numerous threats, dangers and potential abuse. Children need to learn how to behave online, how to critically assess their activities online and act accordingly.

umcrest.png

Internet governance (IG) as a diplomatic priority

This dissertation demonstrates that IG is a significant, emerging diplomatic process that should be studied and addressed seriously by diplomats to prepare them to manage the implications it has for future impact on global governance of the Internet.

page_1-2-1.jpg

The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)

Written just before WSIS 2005, Petru Dumitriu takes us through an accounted journey of the WSIS process from 2003 in Geneva to the preparatory stages of the Tunis Summit in 2005. In this chapter Dumitriu also put forward suggestions for a post-multistakeholder summit where all stakeholders could use their creativity and resources to consolidate what has been established and to develop new forms of dialogue and partnership among themselves.

umcrest.png

Freedom of Expression on the Internet

The Internet for the first time entirely made possible the fulfillment of the Article 19 of the Universal Declaration "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers". On the Internet, everybody is, even unconsciously, sending or receiving information, sharing idea and changing views. However, at the same time it has again showed how diverse the world is and how cultural, political, religious and social differences m...

Report-front-page.png

Report: The geopolitics of digital standards: China’s role in standard-setting organisations

Standards for digital technologies are all around us, enabling devices to interact with each other, allowing us to connect to mobile networks, and facilitating the exchange of information. By providing rules or guidelines for the development and functioning of technologies, products, and services, standards foster interoperability and enable safety and quality of service. This report provides an overview of the digital standardisation ecosystem and explores China’s role within this ecosystem.

picture-85-1323265487.jpg

The Information Society Library

The Information Society Library (ISL) is a series of non-technical booklets providing information and guidelines on key cyberspace- and Internet-related issues.

Jovan_photo_2016.jpg

From Harmonising Cyberpolicies to Promoting Twiplomacy: How Diplomacy Can Strengthen Asia-Europe’s Digital Connectivity

This text was published in the ASEF Outlook Report 2016/2017.

A-sustainable-project-with-great-results.png

A sustainable project with great results

It is a sustainable project with great results. The participants of our capacity building projects are currently taking charge of managing local initiatives, drafting regional ICT policy plans and training their own teams.' - Dhrupad Mathur from India

policybrief1-200x284-1.png

Global Inviolability of the Internet Root Zone (Briefing Paper #1)

Dr Kurbalija explains the internet root zone, and highlights the context and controversy of questions about its inviolability. Possible solutions identified by him include legal elements (customary law, diplomatic law, common heritage of mankind), 'software' inviolability, and 'hardware' inviolability.

Prida_-report_front_page-copy.png

Sustainable Capacity Building: Internet Governance in Africa – An Action Plan

Enhancing sustainable capacity building on internet governance (IG) would have positive consequences within and beyond the African context. Considering the importance of the issues that fall under the framework of IG – ranging from providing access to infrastructure to promoting cybersecurity and fostering emerging technologies – it is possible to conclude that strengthening IG capacity building could ultimately contribute to developing the capacities required for implementing the Digital Transformation Strategy for Africa (2020-2030) (African Union, 2020a) and the Agenda 2063 (AU Commi...

Interplay between Telecommunications and Face-to-Face Interactions: A Study Using Mobile Phone Data

The study explores the relationship between telecommunications and face-to-face interactions using mobile phone data.

ModernDiplomacy.jpeg

The Internet and diplomats of the 20th century

The Internet and diplomats of the twenty century: how new information technologies affect the ordinary work of diplomats.

KEN-LOHENTO.png

Facing challenges for developing countries

'Development challenges are enormous for Africa and they go beyond promoting information and communication technology. One important issue currently is how Africa will solve its energy problems, which are a threat to progress on the continent.' - Ken Lohento from Benin

ModernDiplomacy.jpeg

The waning of the state and the waxing of cyberworld

This paper discusses whether IT is functioning mainly as an instrument of states in their quest for power and wealth or is principally operating as a transformative agent by market forces and various sectors of civil society.

partner-freedom_house.png

Freedom on the Net 2015

The Freedom on the Net 2015 report assesses global internet freedom, highlighting increasing government censorship and surveillance. Internet freedom is in decline due to various restrictive measures taken by governments, impacting users' rights and privacy. The report warns that the situation could worsen if unchecked, emphasizing the importance of protecting freedom of expression and online rights. Despite challenges, it also notes positive developments, such as the use of social media for activism and the expansion of internet access.

page_1-4.jpg

Exploring the need for speed in deploying information and communications technology for international development and bridging the digital divide

This paper comes on the eve of the millennium development goals deadline of 2015 which acknowledges ICT as the enabler for speeding towards the finish line. The quest is to explore whether we are all speeding towards a clearly defined goal, given our varied capacities and affinities.

page_1-4.jpg

Bandwidth management: the public policy approach in a university campus network

This research presents an example of how evidence-based policy-making can lead to bandwidth optimisation in a university network, giving rise to improved network performance and cost savings.

Cyber-diplomacy-study-Diplo-Phase-I-pdf.jpeg

Improving the practice of cyber diplomacy: Training, tools, and other resources – Phase I

Cyber diplomacy, the conduct of diplomacy with respect to a state’s interests in cyberspace, is too important to ignore. Yet, the participation of countries is far from ideal.

Sheba-Mohammid.jpg

Re-imagining the future

‘There is so much work still to be done. There are so many unraveling threads. There is so much still to create. There is much need to better use the Internet for development.’ - Sheba Mohammid from Trinidad and Tobago

Deirdre-Williams_0.jpg

Empowering women in the IG process

'At the ICANN meeting in Puerto Rico last year I was not aware of anything unusual in the demographics, but in Hyderabad I noticed that while men of my age were quite well-represented, there were comparatively few women...' - Deirdre Williams from St Lucia

development.png

Development Aid and Nigeria’s Poverty Challenge: Millenium Development Goals 4 and 5 in Focus

The quest to eradicate poverty has been identified as the most critical challenge facing development in the world today. Women and children are disproportionately affected by poverty.

page_1-4.jpg

Data protection on the Internet and its lack of regulation in Paraguay: adequate regulation for call centres

This research focuses on data protection regulations in Paraguay in order to analyse whether it contains provisions regulating the computerised processing of personal data and transborder data flows.

Africareport_cover_EN.png
Anju-Mangal.jpg

Defining development in the context of current realities

‘My personal knowledge reflects other cultures and types of people in Fiji and the Pacific. I live not only with one race but with many who have different cultural and traditional values.’ - Anju Mangal from Fiji

page_1-4.jpg

Cloud computing: Opportunities and issues for developing countries

This paper looks at how cloud computing will surpass the Internet in adoption and usage as this technology’s users are on the other side of the digital divide. It looks at the diffusion of mobile phones and devices in developing countries and its continuous dramatic rise and at some popular mobile applications that are helping development efforts, such as m-Banking, m-Education, m-Health, m-Agriculture, and others that already exist and are popular within developing countries.

Acronym-3.0.png

Internet Governance Acronym Glossary

The 2019 edition of the Internet governance Acronym Glossary, compiled by DiploFoundation, contains explanations of over 150 acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations used in IG parlance. In addition to the complete term, most entries include a concise explanation and a link for further information.

ag.png

Australian aid: Promoting prosperity, reducing poverty, enhancing stability

The text is about Australian aid focusing on promoting prosperity, reducing poverty, and enhancing stability.

DIGITAL-COMMERCE.png

Digital Commerce Capacity Development

This publication presents the thematic approach, methodology, achievements and lessons learned from a capacity development initiative on e-commerce jointly offered in 2017/2018 by DiploFoundation, CUTS International Geneva, the International Trade Centre (ITC), the Geneva Internet Platform(GIP), and delivered with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

World-Summit-on-the-Information-Society-and-development-of-Internet-diplomacy.png

World Summit on the Information Society and development of Internet diplomacy

The purpose of this paper is to identify new developments and innovations in diplomatic practice resultant from the WSIS and WGIG. First, the author describes the overall WSIS framework and specific aspects of the WGIG. Second, he identifies the new developments and innovation in diplomatic practice that are likely of lasting importance. The author does so by comparing WSIS diplomatic practice to the practices developed during other major UN summits held since the Rio Earth Summit in 1992.

The Vulnerability of the Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean

The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are highly vulnerable to external economic and environmental shocks due to their small size and limited resources, which threaten their sustainability and development.

fr-igbook_0.jpg

Une introduction à la gouvernance d’Internet

La gouvernance d’Internet n’est pas un sujet simple. Bien qu’elle traite d’une notion qui se veut être un symbole représentatif majeur du monde numérique, elle ne peut pas être abordée avec une simple logique numérique binaire qui ne reconnait que le vrai et le faux, le bon et le mauvais.

Janyl-Bokonbaeva.jpg

The benefits of e-learning

'There is a difference from taking a physical course, and some nuances of real-world, human interaction were missing. Yet, in a way, this difference helped me to concentrate better... in e-learning, one can stay more focused...' - Janyl Bokonbaeva from Kyrgyzstan

page_1-4.jpg

Maturity of cybersecurity initiatives in Malawi: A comparison with the drive for fast and ubiquitous Internet connectivity

This study looks at the current state of cybersecurity initiatives in Malawi against a background of significant efforts to greatly enhance Internet connectivity speeds and access. Focus is therefore placed on cybersecurity-related standards, policies and legislation, and cybercrime law, as well as higher- and end-user-education programmes.

page_1-4.jpg

E-learning at Fiji National University

In this paper, Fiji National University (FNU) was used to determine the possibility of e-learning. A new programme was chosen and a programme document was written. Based on the programme, a unit syllabus was developed. Given the infrastructure of the information and communication technology (ICT) department at FNU, this project will be deployed as a pilot project for evaluation and monitoring of e-learning research.

page_1-4.jpg

Intergovernmental organisations sharing and linking open and real-time data for inclusive governance

The rapid rise of the Internet has encouraged the use of open, real-time, and linked data to help understand and improve development processes.The advancement of data use for development without an Internet governance framework, however, raises the importance of inclusion of the most marginalized, as well as privacy and security. This paper will examine such issues, as well as the role inter-governmental organisations can play in helping to encourage the use of data while supporting the protection of privacy and security.

page_1-4.jpg

Evaluation du statut de l’E-Gouvernement en Union des Comores

L’e-gouvernement consiste à l’utilisation des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (TIC) par un gouvernement pour transformer sa façon d’administrer, de produire et de délivrer efficacement des services publics aux citoyens.

wto.png

Work Programme on Electronic Commerce

The text outlines the World Trade Organization's work program on electronic commerce, focusing on discussions and negotiations aimed at establishing rules and frameworks to govern digital trade in the global economy.

SAM1.png

Developing awareness of IG issues

‘While employers and tertiary institutions have been providing Internet access to their employees for the last 10–12 years, the majority of Fijians have only been able to afford Internet access at home within the last five or six years...’ - Sam Goundar from Fiji

Michele-Marius.jpg

The impact of development on a society

‘A critical activity will be information dissemination – educating people about IG issues and assisting them in formulating views and opinions that can not only be applied to their lives, but which can be communicated to national and regional leaders as appropriate.’ - Michele Marius from Jamaica

1200px-Flag_of_NATO.svg_.png

New threats: the cyber-dimension

The text discusses emerging cyber threats and the need for increased cybersecurity measures to address these new challenges.

book-internetguide_0.jpg

Internet Guide for Diplomats

The Internet Guide for Diplomats is the first guide specifically conceived and realised to assist diplomats and others involved in international affairs to use the Internet in their work. The book includes both basic technical information about the Internet and specific issues related to the use of the Internet in diplomacy. Examples and illustrations address many common questions including web-management for diplomatic services, knowledge management and distance learning.