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Our object in this study is to analyse the present state of the UN 'system' and to suggest changes and reforms which might allow it to function in a more systematic and effective manner. This study is the fourth in a sequence analysing salient problems in the working of the United Nations system and recommending how to equip it better to meet the enormous challenges of a new era. Each study has benefited from the sponsorship and consistent encouragement of the Dag Harnrnarskjold Foundation (Uppsala, Sweden) and the Ford Foundation (New York, USA). The work began in 1989-1990 with issues ...
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Dimitris Bourantonis, Assistant Professor of International Relations at the Athens University of Economics and Business and a well-published writer on the UN over many years, has provided a very valuable service for students of the world body by writing this short book.
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There is no evidence that the vigorous political action needed to implement the recommendations of previous reports on the vulnerability of small states in the Commonwealth will be forthcoming in the near future. In matters of security, economics and particularly the environment, the collective interests of small states do not appear to have been recognized in the international community. Major donors find dealing with small individual demands from multiple small states difficult, but a regional approach simplifies matters and should be the primary area of concern. The Vulnerability Index prov...
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Inspired by the damaging leadership contest fiascos of recent years in certain international organizations, not least that in the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1998-9, this is a timely and important book. Kahler emphasises that if these bodies do not abandon their old, creaking 'club system of governance' and get their acts together, they will lose their already precarious support in the US Congress and forfeit that of their increasingly assertive members among the developing countries, particularly the large emerging market-economies. With the institutions of global governance thus put at...
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A United Nations for the Twenty-First Century
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Coercive Cooperation: Explaining Multilateral Economic Sanctions
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Regional water cooperation in the Arab – Israeli Conflict: A case study of the West Bank
The conflict between Israel and Arab countries, with several devastating wars, is about territory and land, and maybe just as crucially on the water that flows through that land. This dissertation, an analysis of the management of water in the West Bank, as a case study, seeks to underline the possibility of using soft power diplomacy, in addition to mediation and water cooperation, for a more collaborative kind of approach to the conflict.
The Procedure of the UN Security Council
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Basic concepts mean different things in different cultures. In multilateral relations this means that looking at such a concept is always culturally biased. As a result, an interpretation according to one culture also tends to criticise different interpretations according to other cultures. This paper discusses how important it is that diplomats and politicians pay attention to and accept the fact of cultural diversity. If they do, they will understand the underlying causes of many conflicting attitudes and they may become more inclined to seek compromise and consensual approaches rather than ...
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The World Bank’s Contribution to Poverty Reduction in Peru
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Knowledge management: experience from international organisations
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Securing the Future of Multilateral Development Finance: Time for Europe to take the Initiative
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How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance
A New Diplomacy for Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Global Change
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What is Global Health Diplomacy? A Conceptual Review
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Building international diplomacy requires understanding ourselves, others, and how we relate together. It also involves understanding how others relate among themselves. In efforts to internationalise and build a truly global future, the consideration of contacts among all parts of the world becomes critical. The sustained diplomatic cooperation that has taken place in the last 50 years between China and African nations is an instructive example. This major phenomenon is the focus of this paper.
We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century
The world did celebrate as the clock struck midnight on New Year’s Eve, in one time zone after another, from Kiribati and Fiji westward around the globe to Samoa. People of all cultures joined in—not only those for whom the millennium might be thought to have a special significance. The Great Wall of China and the Pyramids of Giza were lit as brightly as Manger Square in Bethlehem and St. Peter’s Square in Rome. Tokyo, Jakarta and New Delhi joined Sydney, Moscow, Paris, New York, Rio de Janeiro and hundreds of other cities in hosting millennial festivities. Children’s faces ref...
The Clash of Globalizations: Essays on the Political Economy of Trade and Development Policy
Mediation in the Yugoslav Wars: The Critical Years, 1990-95
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The values and institutions of multilateralism are not ahistorical phenomena. They are created and maintained in the context of specific demands and challenges, and through specific forms of leadership, norms, and international power configurations. All of these factors evolve and change; there is little reason to believe that multilateral values or institutions could or should remain static in form and nature. The relationship between the distribution of power, the nature of challenges and problems, and the international institutions that emerge to deal with collective challenges is const...
A New Wave for the Reform of the Security Council of the United Nations: Great Expectations but Little Results
The reform of the Security Council of the United Nations (UNSC) has been an elusive issue at the United Nations (UN). While practically all Member States agree on the need to change the structure of the most powerful body of the world organization, so far there has been no agreement about what elements of that reform or about the substance of the reform itself.
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How Much is a Seat on the Security Council Worth? Foreign Aid and Bribery at the United Nations
Ten of the fifteen seats on the U.N. Security Council are held by rotating members serving two-year terms. We find that a country’s U.S. aid increases by 59 percent and its U.N. aid by 8 percent when it rotates onto the council. This effect increases during years in which key diplomatic events take place (when members’ votes should be especially valuable) and the timing of the effect closely tracks a country’s election to, and exit from, the council. Finally, the U.N. results appear to be driven by UNICEF, an organization over which the United States has historically exerted great ...
Enhancing Global Governance: Towards a New Diplomacy
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The United Nations: An Introduction
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The year 2020 marked the 75th anniversary of the United Nations (UN). It is also the year that the world was faced with responding to the emergence of the novel coronavirus, COVID-19, an unprecedented global challenge that has left no area of society and no individual life untouched.
The UN and the world diplomatic system: lessons from the Cyprus and US- North Korea talks
In Bourantonis, D. and M. Evriviades (eds), A United Nations for the Twenty-First Century(Kluwer Law International, 1996), pp. 105-16
The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy
Global Health and the Foreign Policy Agenda
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From U Thant to Kofi Annan: UN Peacemaking in Cyprus, 1964-2004
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Small States at the United Nations
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The European Union and the Latin American and the Caribbean Dialogue: Building a Strong Partnership
Humanitarian intervention and international society
Palestinian statehood diplomacy: The Palestinian UN bids of 2011-2012
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The Parliament of Man: The Past, Present and Future of the United Nations
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Global Warming and Global Politics
United Nations Handbook 2015-16
The United Nations and Israel
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Work Programme on Electronic Commerce
Activities of the Department of Public Information: Strategic communications services
The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action
The road to dignity by 2030: ending poverty, transforming all lives and protecting the planet
UN Conferences: Media events or genuine diplomacy?
Perspectives on Africa’s Integration and Cooperation from OAU to AU
International Relations and Global Climate Change
Trends and Progress in International Cooperation: Report of the Secretary-General
The International Climate Change regime: A Guide to Rules, Institutions and Procedures
Multistakeholder Diplomacy – Challenges and Opportunities
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Searching for Meaningful Human Control. The April 2018 Meeting on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (Briefing Paper #10)
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Our Global Neighbourhood
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Reform of the United Nations Security Council
The challenge of regionalism
Multilateral Diplomacy for Small States: The Art of Letting Others Have Your Way
Multilateral Diplomacy for Small States: The Art of Letting Others Have Your Way
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‘… lively … persuasive … careful analysis… This is a very readable study, combining narrative strength with political acuity, and informative on the years of disappointment … Much has changed since the UN’s annus mirabilis, but Berridge’s conclusions still stand’, Nicholas Sims, London School of Economics, Millenium.
Small developing economies and the multilateral trading system: A Caribbean perspective
Small developing economies are often constrained in participating in the negotiation and regulation of multilateral trading rules due to severe cost and resource limitations. This article argues that, despite the costs and difficulties, small states must remain engaged in the multilateral trading system in order to ensure that their specialised commercial interests are recognised and to protect their rights. Umbrella entities like the Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery (CRNM) provide a means of maximising the influence of small states in an international forum such as the World Tra...
Decision-Making in the UN Security Council: The case of Haiti, 1990-1997
Question: 'When is a "Foreword" not a "Foreword"? Answer: When it is written by Adam Roberts. This book started life as an Oxford doctoral thesis under the supervision of Professor Roberts, and the former supervisor has done both the former student and readers of this book a great service by prefacing it with a seven-page essay in which he underlines its importance in convincing detail. So this, unlike ninety-nine per cent of examples of the same genre, is a Foreword that should not be ignored.
Strengthening the region’s participation
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Ilona Kickbusch argues that public health experts need to work with diplomats in order to achieve global health goals.
The Diplomacy of Micro States
Summits: Six Meetings that Shaped the Twentieth Century
Development Co-operation Report 2015: Making Partnerships Effective Coalitions for Action
Development Co-operation Report 2014: Mobilising Resources for Sustainable Development
Culture and Organizations: Software of the Mind
Common African Position on the Post-2015 Development Agenda
The participatory approach that led to the elaboration of the Common African Position (CAP) on the post-2015 Development Agenda involving stakeholders at the national, regional and continental levels among the public and private sectors, parliamentarians, civil society organizations (CSOs), including women and youth associations, and academia. This approach has helped address the consultation gap in the initial preparation and formulation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
UN conferences on the spot – voices from civil society
In the fourth chapter of the book, Britta Sadou, focuses on non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Sadou introduces this particular group as civil society actors and continues by discussing possibilities provided to NGOs by various UN summits. The author highlights some of the main world conferences during the 1990s and early 2000s and poses two important questions - Has the time of those huge events come to an end? What could be the alternatives?
Preference-Dependent Economies and Multilateral Liberalization: Impacts and Options
The Peace Brokers: Mediators in the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948-79
On Behalf of My Delegation,…: A Survival Guide for Developing Country Climate Negotiators
The one hundred pages of this book are in fact a useful Survival Guide for those approaching climate change negotiations for the first time. It has been written for developing country delegates, but delegates from other countries can also profit from its reading the same way that a similar survival guide for industrialized country delegates would be useful for those coming from developing countries, because it is necessary to know both sides of the story
The ‘Working’ Non-Aligned Movement: Between Belgrade, Cairo, and Baku – The NAM’s Leadership Visibility
The objective of this chapter is to highlight lessons learned, promote best practices, and carry takeaways that are useful for other levels of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), or even other forums.
The Kyoto Protocol: International Climate Policy for the 21st Century
Multilateral Conferences: Purposeful International Negotiation
Ron Walker was a member of the Australian diplomatic service for 37 years, for the last 22 of which (1975-96) he specialized in multilateral diplomacy. His book on this subject is not an academic book. Instead he has done for multilateral diplomacy what Kishan Rana has done for bilateral diplomacy, namely, provided on the basis of long and wide experience, much at a senior level, a splendid handbook of practical advice for the novice.
The Role of Regional Cooperation in Eradicating Poverty and Aid Dependency in East Africa
The hypothesis of this thesis is that regional cooperation and integration are effective tools in alleviating poverty within nations and reducing their dependency on foreign or development aid.
Digital Diplomacy as a foreign policy statecraft to achieving regional cooperation and integration in the Polynesian Leaders Group
Established in 2011, the Polynesian Leaders Groups serves to fulfill a vision of cooperation, strengthening integration on issues pertinent to the region and to the future of the PLG. Its nine – American Samoa, French Polynesia, Niue, Cook Islands, Tokelau, Tuvalu, Tonga and Wallis Futuna, is argued to have strength in numbers, resources and diversity, and a positive addition to the growing regional diplomacies in the South Pacific.
The Greening of Machiavelli: The Evolution of International Environmental Policy
Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Valletta Statement on Multilateral Trade
Summitry in the Americas: The End of Mass Multilateralism?
Summits among large numbers of leaders that convene on a periodic basis are the “new diplomacy.” In the Western Hemisphere, summits continue to multiply, whether in response to specific issues or to the desire by certain countries to assert their leadership. At the same time, skepticism regarding the value of summits has become widespread. A common view is that summits are largely photo ops for leaders and that their lofty communiqués are soon forgotten, leaving a wide gap between aspirations and implementation. These frustrations notwithstanding, summits are here to stay. Gathering...
The United Nations and Development: From Aid to Cooperation
Strengthening Regional Management: A Review of the Architecture for Regional Co-operation in the Pacific
Alliances and Small Powers
Summitry as intercultural communication
In one of his last essays before his premature death in 1972, Martin Wight described international conferences as ‘the set pieces punctuating the history of the European states-system, moments of maximum communication’.
Ambiguity versus precision: The changing role of terminology in conference diplomacy
Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Of central concern in the field of negotiation is the use of ambiguity to find formulations acceptable to all parties. Professor Norman Scott looks at the contrasting roles of ambiguity and precision in conference diplomacy. He explains that while documents drafters usually try to avoid ambiguity, weaker parties to an agreement may have an interest in inserting ambiguous provisions, while those with a stronger position or more to gain will push for precision.
The evolution of diplomacy in the Caribbean
This paper will focus on the development of diplomacy in the Caribbean and how it impacts the development of small Caribbean States, paying attention to the regional, bilateral and multilateral levels of diplomacy.
Unvanquished: A U.S.-U.N. Saga
Question: When is a diplomatic victory not a diplomatic victory? Answer: When it is achieved by means of a veto in the Security Council of the United Nations. Nowhere is this maxim more tellingly illustrated than in the Council’s meeting in New York in November 1996 which voted on the issue of whether or not […]
The New Public Diplomacy: Soft Power in International Relations
The Hypocrisy Threatening the Future of the Internet
Negotiating and Navigating Global Health: Case Studies in Global Health Diplomacy
Ahead of the Curve? UN Ideas and Global Challenges
Ideas and concepts are arguably the most important legacy of the United Nations. Ahead of the Curve? analyzes the evolution of key ideas and concepts about international economic and social development born or nurtured, refined or applied under UN auspices since 1945. The authors evaluate the policy ideas coming from UN organizations and scholars in relation to such critical issues as decolonization, sustainable development, structural adjustment, basic needs, human rights, women, world employment, the transition of the Eastern bloc, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and global govern...
Contemporary Diplomacy: Representation and Communication in a Globalized World
Multilateral Institutions: Building New Alliances, Solving Global Problems
The mountain of global problems, viz. the list of world tasks that can be solved only collectively by the international community, continues to grow. At the same time, the multilateral institutions find themselves in the midst of a difficult process of change, one marked by a high degree of mistrust and fragmentation in the international community as well as by a low level of willingness and ability to tackle global tasks in the multilateral framework. This trend has been due to certain unilateral reflexes that emerged when the Cold War drew to a close and above all to the experiences th...
The Role of Small States in the Multilateral Framework
The current world geopolitical configuration shows how after the end of a bipolar world set by the top superpowers (United States and the Ex Soviet Republic) along with other major players (such as Germany, Great Britain, France, Japan and China, the P5 United Nations Security Council members + 1 with the full capacity of veto power in all world top decisions and procedures) set up a new world reconfiguration that has emerged since the end of the twenty century and mainly in the beginning of this 21th century standing driven from some centers of power and in parasailed with the political and e...
Organisational culture of UN agencies: The need for diplomats to manage porous boundary phenomena
The goal of this article is to introduce readers to the complexity of the organisational culture of UN agencies in order to limit possible misunderstandings about the functioning of the UN and its agencies and in order to make diplomatic interactions with UN agencies as efficient and as effective as possible.
Towards a secure cyberspace via regional co-operation
The study Towards a secure cyberspace via regional co-operation provides an overview of the international dialogue on establishing norms of state behaviour and confidence-building measures in cyberspace.
United Nations-Sponsored World Conferences: Focus on Impact and Follow-up
Diplomacy as an instrument of good governance
The functioning of diplomacy is influenced by a complicated combination of different interrelated factors. This paper briefly analyses their impact on the evolution of diplomacy and discusses how diplomacy as an instrument of good governance should adjust itself to meet the new challenges, to become more relevant, open and agile, to modify its methods and to fully utilise opportunities offered by the technological revolution.
Multilateral Diplomacy and the United Nations Today
As the world confronts new and ongoing challenges of globalization, international terrorism and an array of other global issues, the United Nations and its key attribute-multilateral diplomacy-are more important now than ever before. With new and updated essays that detail the experiences of a diverse group of practitioners and scholars who work in the field of diplomacy, this new edition covers in even greater breadth and depth the quintessential characteristics of multilateral diplomacy as it is conducted within the United Nations framework. Multilateral Diplomacy and the United Nations Toda...
Multilateral Diplomacy: The United Nations System at Geneva: A Working Guide
The Grand Decade for Global Health: 1998-2008
Manual on Compliance with and Enforcement of Multilateral Environmental Agreements
Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: Mapping the GGE Debate (Briefing Paper #8)
Use of language in diplomacy
Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Ambassador Stanko Nick takes a practical approach, examining issues such as the choice of language in bilateral and multilateral meetings, the messages conveyed by language choice, difficulties posed by interpretation, and aspects of diplomatic language including nuance, extra-linguistic signalling, and understatement. Language, according to Nick, is not a simple tool but "often the very essence of the diplomatic vocation."
Reinventing NATO’s Public Diplomacy
The Organization of Global Negotiations: Constructing the Climate Change Regime
Diplo: Effective and inclusive diplomacy
Diplo is a non-profit foundation established by the governments of Malta and Switzerland. Diplo works to increase the role of small and developing states, and to improve global governance and international policy development.
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