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Diplomacy is used to manage the goals of foreign policy focusing on communication. New trends affect the institution of diplomacy in different ways. Diplomacy has received an additional tool in the form of the Internet. In various cases of interdependence and dependence interference in a country’s affairs is accepted. Multilateral cooperation has created parliamentary diplomacy and a new type of diplomat, the international civil servant. States and their diplomats are in demand to curb the excesses of globalization. The fight against terrorism also brought additional work for diplomac...
U.S. Public Diplomacy: State Department Efforts to Engage Muslim Audiences Lack Certain Communication Elements and Face Significant Challenges
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This essay provides a comprehensive analysis of the Chinese public diplomacy in the digital era.
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This essay examines how intercultural communication differences among nations can inadvertently magnify tensions during a crisis when nations rely on their own cultural style of public diplomacy to communicate with foreign publics. Beginning with posing the question of how American efforts to intensify its public diplomacy efforts resulted in declining support, public diplomacy is examined as a communication phenomenon, as opposed to a purely political phenomenon.
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We need a public diplomacy which fits our time. The policy issues which confront us are increasingly global. Systematic engagement with publics both at home and abroad will be required if we are to identify and implement solutions. Policy-makers and diplomats must work with a wider range of constituencies beyond government, moving towards a more open, inclusive style of policy-making and implementation. Understanding of complexity, difference, networks and cultural heritage will be needed, alongside more imaginative use of technology. Engagement, conducted with energy, ambition and cre...
This paper describes and discusses public diplomacy from the practitioner’s perspective.
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Efforts by governments to affect foreign public opinion through direct communication – and in competition with rival governments – have been a stable and consistent feature of international diplomacy since the turn of the twentieth century.
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The terrorist attacks of 9/11 have brought an old problem into new focus: how to unite a population potentially divided along racial, ethnic and denominational fault lines. In the light of unprovoked and indiscriminate racist attacks on Muslim-looking minorities, multi-media advertising campaigns were mounted in several countries in order to quell racism and sell multiculturalism. This paper examines the use of advertising campaigns as a medium for public diplomacy, and focuses on the promotion of national unity out of cultural diversity.
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It has been ten years since the first occasional paper by the Foreign Investment Advisory Service, Marketing a Country, was published. In that time Marketing a CountrY has become a standard text on the structure and functions of agzncies that promote foreign direct investment. I have seen copies of the paper in ministries and promotion agencies all over the -world. Usually pages are dog-eared, and the text is heavily underlined, indicating intense study of the contents. Marketing a Country created a languagTe for discussing the investment promotion function, and has provided a rationale fo...
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The new operational environment generated by the mass media revolution and the advent of the global information society lays the ground for a generalized re-emergence of public diplomacy (PD). After having been dismantled during the 1990s, this branch of foreign policy is undergoing a redevelopment phase within the chancelleries of many states around the globe. The growing salience of public opinion and the exponential development of the new information and communication technologies predispose this diplomacy of persuasion to play an increasing role at the forefront of twenty-first century int...
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The Positive Branding of Islam: A Case Study of Islamic Countries, their Public Diplomacy Efforts and Effectiveness
Abstract: This thesis examines if any attempts are made by the Muslim world to address the current negative image of Islam using public diplomacy (PD) and if these efforts are effective and successful. It is the aim of this research to show that the correct use of PD can result in a positive improvement of the image of Islam.
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The concept of applying branding principles and strategies to nation states has been around for decades. However, in recent years, the concept has occupied prime attention in academia and the business sector.
The Role of the Beijing Olympics in China’s Public Diplomacy and its Impact on Politics, Economics and Environment
The 2008 Beijing Olympics were ardently sought, lavishly staged and hugely successful, despite intense scrutiny, speculation and setbacks. Amplified by modern media, most controversies revolved around China's political repression, epitomised by Tibet brutality. Resultant protests threatened boycott and terror, putting internal cohesion, national image and Olympic dream at stake.
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The study explores the relationship between perceptions about products produced in a country and the country's reputation and image. It considers country-of-origin effect (COO) from an inverse perspective; rather than looking at how national reputation affects perceptions of products, it measures how brand image affects country image. It used a method that blends survey and experimental design to test the effects of brand association on country image using 488 subjects. The results indicate support for an inverse COO: knowledge of the country of origin of a brand can enhance the image of the c...
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There are two factors that have shaped Qatar’s integration and place in the international system. The first revolves around the constraints and problems of small states while the second is Qatar’s response — a strategy of branding the state for survival. This article discusses Qatar’s situation as a micro-state and analyzes the nature and success of its response.
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China and Public Diplomacy: A CPD Reader provides an overview of China’s approach to public diplomacy, an examination of China’s cultural diplomacy, its nation branding during the 2010 Shanghai Expo and media depictions of China. The blogs, articles, reports and essays featured in the eBook were originally published by CPD between October 2009 and August 2012.
China’s soft power in Africa: From the ‘Beijing Consensus’ to health diplomacy
China’s relations with Africa have steadily deepened and strengthened since the founding of “new China” in 1949. Evolving from ideologically-driven interactions during the Cold War, today’s China-Africa relations combine pragmatic economic and political means to achieve China’s objective of establishing a world order that is peaceful and conducive to continued economic growth and stability at home. In the 1960s and 1970s, China supported liberation movements in several African countries, gave aid to socialist nations to build stadiums, hospitals, railroads and other infrastructure, a...
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This paper examines the present Slovak PD with its positive and negative components and outlines the requirements for a modern and effective PD.
The United States and the Challenge of Public Diplomacy
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"The New Public Diplomacy: Soft Power in International Relations" is a thought-provoking and insightful book that delves into the realm of public diplomacy and its significance in the context of modern international relations. Authored by Jan Melissen, a renowned scholar in the field, this book offers a comprehensive analysis of the evolving nature of diplomacy and the growing importance of soft power.
Kosovo and the Metaphor War
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In a time where interaction with citizens is the key to diplomatic success, Morocco still lags behind other small states and does not yet pursue efficient strategies of public diplomacy and nation brand.
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Changing Minds, Winning Peace: A New Strategic Direction for US Public Diplomacy in the Arab and Muslim World
A reprint of the historic report of the Advisory Group on Public Diplomacy for the Arab and Muslim World, this document was submitted to the US Congress in 2003 as a first step toward reforming America's dilapidated strategic communication infrastructure. The bipartisan Advisory Group, chaired by Ambassador Edward P. Djerejian, made a series of recommendations in this report that helped re-shape US public diplomacy.
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The Diplomacy of Ancient Greece – A Short Introduction
Employed against a warlike background, the diplomatic methods of the ancient Greeks are thought by some to have been useless but by others to have been the most advanced seen prior to modern times.
Going Public: Diplomacy for the Information Society
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Humanitarian public diplomacy: International calls to action in the digital era
This dissertation examines IOs (IOs) as emerging stars in the constellation of diplomatic actors, as extra-state and supra-state entities that do not replace, but rather complement, align with and encourage states. Specifically focusing on humanitarian - those attentive to the needs of people - international organisations, the paper explores their use of calls to action as a public diplomacy tool that both activates the public and reflects the needs and desires of individuals and their communities, translated to policy context. Calls to action should be strategic, well-researched, authoritive,...
Diplo: Effective and inclusive diplomacy
Diplo is a non-profit foundation established by the governments of Malta and Switzerland. Diplo works to increase the role of small and developing states, and to improve global governance and international policy development.
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