Yellow banner with pen and letters

Author: Hannah Slavik

Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy


Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy is a collection of papers presented at two conferences: the 2003 Conference on Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy, and the 2004 Conference on Organisational and Professional Cultures and Diplomacy.

Topics covered include basic theory, intercultural communication in practice in diplomacy, negotiation and conflict resolution, professional and organisational cultures, and training for diplomats. The papers in this volume approach the topic of intercultural communication and diplomacy from a wide range of cultural perspectives, as the authors originate from 17 different countries and a variety of professional sectors, including foreign services, universities, businesses, and non-governmental organisations.


  1. Introduction – Hannah Slavik
  2. Diplomats as Cultural Bridge Builders – Geert Hofstede
  3. Lessons from Two Fields: A Diplomat and an Interculturalist Converse – Lewis R. Macfarlane and Heather Robinson
  4. Language, Culture and the Globalisation of Discourse – Diana M. Lewis
  5. Portraying the Religions of the Mediterranean – Peter Serracino Inglott
  6. The Impact of Cultural Diversity on Multilateral Diplomacy and Relations – Dietrich Kappeler
  7. On the Importance and Essence of Foreign Cultural Policy of States: The Interplay between Diplomacy and Intercultural Communication – Heinrich Reimann
  8. Cultural Content on the Websites of Diplomatic Systems – Valentin Katrandzhiev
  9. Diplomacy on a South-South Dimension: The Legacy of Mao’s Three-Worlds Theory and the Evolution of Sino-African Relations – Sandra Gillespie
  10. Asymmetry of Cultural Styles and the Unintended Consequences of Crisis Public Diplomacy – R. S. Zaharna
  11. Multiculturalism for the Masses: Social Advertising and Public Diplomacy Post-9/11 – Biljana Scott
  12. Making the “Other” Human: The Role of Personal Stories to Bridge Deep Differences – Nike Carstarphen
  13. Intercultural Communication in Macedonia: Different People, Different Stories – Marina Tuneva-Jovanovska
  14. Communication Barriers to Negotiation: Encountering Chinese in Cross-Cultural Business Meetings – Yunxia Zhu and Sun Zhu
  15. Jargon, Protocols and Uniforms as Barriers to Effective Communication – Stefano Baldi and Eduardo Gelbstein
  16. Organisational Culture of UN Agencies: The Need for Diplomats to Manage Porous Boundary Phenomena – Raymond Saner and Lichia Yiu
  17. Challenges Facing Women in Overseas Diplomatic Positions – Caroline Linse
  18. Roma Rights Activists and the Political Establishment: Communication Problems and Barriers – Valeriu Nicolae
  19. A Clash of Professional Cultures: The David Kelly Affair – Biljana Scott
  20. Misunderstood: The IT Manager’s Lament – A Case Study in Inter-Professional Miscommunication – Eduardo Gelbstein
  21. Diplomacy, International Intervention and Post-War Reconstruction: Interactions between States, International Organisations and Local Authorities in the Implementation of the Dayton Accords for Bosnia and Herzegovina – Nadia Boyadjieva and Kostadin Grozev
  22. The Birth and Evolution of a Diplomatic Culture – Dietrich Kappeler
  23. The Idea of Diplomatic Culture and its Sources – Paul Sharp
  24. Diplomatic Culture and its Domestic Context – Kishan S. Rana
  25. ‘Control Yourself, Sir!’: A Call For Research into Emotion Cultures in Diplomacy – Wynne Elizabeth Russell
  26. On Intercultural Training of Diplomats – Alena Korshuk
  27. An Intercultural Model for Diplomacy Training in New Zealand – Yunxia Zhu
  28. Intercultural Competence and its Relevance for International Diplomacy – Daniel J. Kealey, Doug MacDonald and Thomas Vulpe
  29. European Challenges to Cross Cultural Borders – Elena A. A. Garcea

You may also be interested in


Negotiating across cultures

The text is about the importance of understanding cultural differences in negotiations. It highlights the need for awareness of varying communication styles, etiquette, and values when engaging in cross-cultural negotiations. By acknowledging and respecting cultural nuances, negotiators can build trust, establish rapport, and achieve successful outcomes in diverse settings.


Multiculturalism for the masses: Social advertising and public diplomacy post-9/11

The terrorist attacks of 9/11 have brought an old problem into new focus: how to unite a population potentially divided along racial, ethnic and denominational fault lines. In the light of unprovoked and indiscriminate racist attacks on Muslim-looking minorities, multi-media advertising campaigns were mounted in several countries in order to quell racism and sell multiculturalism. This paper examines the use of advertising campaigns as a medium for public diplomacy, and focuses on the promotion of national unity out of cultural diversity.

On intercultural training of diplomats

Today the world is becoming smaller and smaller - distances shrink and become irrelevant, information flows are immense and very fast. People tend to speak foreign languages and, to their surprise, find out that this is not enough. There is more to it, and it is culture. It is of paramount importance to educate a generation of people capable of communicating effectively and working together with representatives of other cultures.


Diplomats as cultural bridge builders

Diplomats are people who are on the fringe somewhere, because they are either permanently living in or at least dealing with alien cultures, cultures with different values. The success of a diplomat depends on this brinkmanship because, on the one hand, they must remain credible with their superiors back home and, on the other hand, they must have access to the leaders in the country where they are posted. This paper discusses the role of diplomats as cultural bridge-builders.


Intercultural competence and its relevance for international diplomacy

The changing nature of international diplomacy requires new knowledge and awareness of intercultural and other skills needed to perform effectively in the role of diplomat. The research presented in this paper serves to inform current and future planning for the selection, training, and evaluation of international diplomats.


An intercultural model for diplomacy training in New Zealand

This paper develops a model of diplomacy training based on intercultural competence and situated learning and applies the model to intercultural encounters.


Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy

Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy is a collection of papers presented at two conferences: the 2003 Conference on Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy, and the 2004 Conference on Organisational and Professional Cultures and Diplomacy.


Lessons from two fields

A conversation between a diplomat and an interculturalist, combining real-life examples from the diplomatic field with intercultural theory.


Jargon, protocols and uniforms as barriers to effective communication

This paper presents a number of case studies illustrating the role of jargon, protocols and uniforms in creating communication problems. The authors provide some pointers for improving communication and are conscious of the fact that in the five thousand years of recorded history, extensive research in philosophy, biology, sociology, psychology and other disciplines has offered few answers to the problems of effective communication across cultures and professions. However, some measures do work, when there is a will from all parties for them to work.


Theatre of Power: The Art of Signaling

Theatre of Power: The Art of Signaling discusses how strategic signaling plays a vital role in navigating power dynamics. Leaders can use various techniques to convey strength and influence, such as body language, attire, and other symbols. Mastering the art of signaling can help individuals assert dominance and command respect in various settings.


Cultural content on the websites of diplomatic systems

The text discusses the importance of including cultural content on diplomatic systems' websites to promote understanding and build relationships between countries.


Intercultural communication in Macedonia: Different people, different stories

This papers examines how the Macedonians and the Albanians live in Macedonia. How do they communicate? Is there friendship everywhere? How do the two nations, live together, how do they communicate. The answer to this question coming from two different people may reveal two opposite viewpoints, the optimistic and the pessimistic. This paper focuses on communication between the Macedonians and the Albanians, considering that these are the two largest ethnic groups in the Macedona and even more, that these two groups were involved in the military conflict in 2001.


Challenges facing women in overseas diplomatic positions

This paper identifies challenges that women face when working overseas in diplomatic positions, a professional environment that historically has been male dominated and that can be characterised in some ways as an 'old boys' network. It identifies some of the significant issues from the perspective of women who are serving or have served their countries’ foreign missions.

Summitry as intercultural communication

In one of his last essays before his premature death in 1972, Martin Wight described international conferences as ‘the set pieces punctuating the history of the European states-system, moments of maximum communication’.