Yellow banner with pen and letters

Author: Stanko Nick

The role of the legal adviser in modern diplomatic services


The role of the legal adviser in modern diplomatic services. This paper discusses the role of the legal adviser in modern diplomacy services and the efforts that must go into preserving all possibilities, meagre as they may be, to raise his voice and keep making efforts which eventually could lead in the right direction.

Towards the end of the 1980s Yugoslavia started falling apart. At that time I was the chief legal adviser in the Federal Secretariat for Foreign Affairs. One of the last out of many interesting and pleasant jobs I had in that capacity was, by the way, participation in the first conference organised by the CSCE on peaceful settlement of disputes, here in Malta at the beginning of 1991. A few months later it was obvious that the disintegration of the country was imminent, so I decided to leave Belgrade for my native city of Zagreb and accept the position of the first legal adviser in the newly created Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the newly independent Republic of Croatia.

Upon my arrival I had a long interview with Professor Šeparovic’ who was then foreign minister. He asked me many questions about myself and my background, my past work and working experience. In those circumstances of armed conflict and strong mistrust I found it quite normal. As the minister seemed satisfied with my replies, I decided to ask him one question, almost as conditio sine qua non. I said that in my previous job as chief legal adviser, I always had the privilege to openly speak my mind to my boss, the federal foreign minister, who sometimes took my advice, and sometimes not. That was his right, of course, but my right and even my duty was to give him my opinion straight. I emphasised that I considered this way of working essential not only for my functioning, but also as a condition for any normal diplomatic service. The minister agreed fully and we were in business.

Let me add that I took care to reproduce the elements of this conversation to all those who succeeded Professor Šeparovi’in the post of Croatian foreign minister. They all agreed verbally with me, but some seem to have forgotten it soon afterwards…

I have chosen this true story as an opener to my subject, because it brings us immediately to the very basic element of the role and the position of the legal adviser in any diplomatic service in the world. The legal adviser usually has a rather unique status in the structure and the organogram of the Foreign Ministry. Mostly, he is subordinated only to the minister himself and his deputy. Very often he is the head of the service (division, sector, bureau or whatever it might be called) of international legal affairs, treaties, contentieux, etc. Sometimes he enjoys even fuller freedom and is completely independent from any organisational framework: at the disposal of the whole Foreign Service for opinion and advice, but responsible only to the very top of the ministry. Most probably he would have a correspondent diplomatic title (usually that of an ambassador). Sometimes the legal adviser does not even come from the diplomatic service, but stems from a previous successful academic career (almost without exception that of an eminent professor of public international law). Such a solution obviously has the advantage of a more profound theoretical knowledge of international law, but also the disadvantage of the lack of operative skills and practical diplomatic experience. Some countries try to overcome this problem by employing two persons, associating the services of a distinguished scholar to that of a senior diplomat who has international law background. This seems to be quite a good combination.

* * * * * *

What is, actually, the real work of a legal adviser? What occupational activities consume his working day?

The first and most important duty of the legal adviser, obviously, is to advise his minister, sometimes the government, Parliament or even the head of state, of the existing international law in respect to a particular issue, problem or situation. The purpose is, of course, to give the proper legal framework in making appropriate foreign political decisions, so that the country’s policy does not come in conflict with international law and the broad interests of the international community. It is significant that even countries and their leaders who bluntly break fundamental rules and principles of international law almost invariably make a considerable effort to wrap their acts in a legally presentable or at least justifiable form.

The second important part of the legal adviser’s work is connected with the conclusion of international treaties and their ratification. He and his service must take care not only of the conformity of a new treaty with general rules of international law (particularly ius cogens, norms that cannot be altered or modified) and of his country’s previously accepted legal commitments, but also of the legal-technical correctness and necessary precision of the text: clear and non-ambiguous formulation, appropriate final and transitory provisions, etc. In this context a special problem emerges in connection with various scheduled state visits: very often the treaty or legal division is put under pressure to finish the work on a draft agreement and prepare the text for signature “by Tuesday, 11:00 A.M.,” because the visitor shall then call on such-and-such a high official and it would be an excellent opportunity to sign the treaty that has been dragging on so long. . . It happens so more often if the visit is lacking in real content and both sides are trying to find some justification for spending their tax-payers’ money.

Very often the legal adviser takes part in (or heads) the delegation of his country to various bilateral or multilateral meetings: diplomatic conferences ranging from negotiations with a neighbouring state to the UN General Assembly sessions. He is also, through his function or in a personal capacity, appointed to a number of domestic bodies or member of various international forums, boards, and commissions. (If I may be excused for taking my own example, I am participating in the work of three or four Croatian national commissions, vice-president of the administrative board of the Regional Centre for Protection of the Mediterranean in Split, arbitrator to the European Tribunal for Peaceful Settlement of Disputes within the OSCE, member of the Council of Europe Committee of Legal Advisers – CAHDI, member of the Venice Commission “Democracy through Law,” etc.).

The legal adviser sometimes has to represent his government before the national courts and sometimes before international tribunals or arbitration commissions. This is always a very difficult and delicate task, particularly if the country’s position is precarious. It may well happen that such a situation occurs just because the legal adviser’s opinion was not valued, or maybe was not even sought. Even in such a case he must do his best to defend his country’s policy, in the same way a barrister has to scrupulously defend a murderer, although he may intimately strongly condemn the committed crime. The legal adviser, then, has an important role to play in the adoption of internal laws of the country dealing with international legal obligations or laws that have a certain international element (such as the law on conclusion and ratification of international agreements or the law on the protection of the rights of minorities).

Finally – and this may consume a great deal of the legal advisor’s time – he should be ready to give advice on practically any question or help to resolve any dilemma put to him by any department or section of his own ministry or any other one, whether it has a connection with international law or not. This may particularly be the case with new countries where the majority of public servants still lack knowledge and experience. Outside of his official duties, but obviously connected with his job and experience, the legal adviser is frequently asked to teach at universities at home and abroad, give lectures, and participate at scientific conferences like this one. (Forgive me for being personal again – I teach regularly at the Croatian Diplomatic Academy, at the Faculty of Law and also at the Faculty of Political Science in Zagreb, at the High Military-Diplomatic School of the Croatian Ministry of Defence, and occasionally at one or another university abroad). In his free time (!?) the legal adviser is free to write books, articles, give interviews to the press, or participate in public political and cultural life. . .

* * * * * *

The institution of the legal adviser may itself not be particularly old, but the customary rules and norms, and indeed international law, have been known and more or less respected for ages. There have always been experts, specialists, or people of knowledge and wisdom who could advise of its existence and its requirements. What could be new and modern in such a long-established practice? Is there anything one should investigate in the framework of our subject of modern diplomacy?
First of all, there is an ever-growing tendency to democratisation, transparency, and “glasnost” of foreign policy: democratisation both internally, from the point of view of the population of the country, its tax-payers, and externally, from the point of view of the third countries, and the international community as a whole. Secret diplomacy is not dead, but its scope is very much reduced. Good and sound legal advice is, therefore, so much more sought and needed. Secondly, there are entire new areas of international law which need to be thoroughly studied, followed on a daily basis, and almost constantly translated into the domestic legal system. A good example of this is the continuous development of norms protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms, rights of minorities, environmental law, communitarian law, etc. Such developments impose another important aspect on the work of a good legal adviser in a democratic, law-abiding country: that of contributing to the further development of international law. I shall quote my former British colleague Sir Arthur Watts who wrote very explicitly about it: “Since there is no legislature, it (international law) changes essentially through State practice – which means what Foreign Ministries do and what Foreign Ministry legal advisers advise their Ministries it is lawful for them to do. Since the law has to change in this way, it means that States can, and do, break new ground and so contribute to the creation of new law. A legal adviser, accordingly, may have to participate in this process; and he may certainly, in appropriate circumstances, advise that it will be lawful to do something which has never been done before, or which would involve the development in a new direction of an existing rule of international law. The circumstances of international life are pressing, and even though a situation may have novel elements it cannot be met with inaction; and novel situations may call for novel responses.” Finally, due to the spectacular development of technical and telecommunication tools – as we have just been so well enlightened by my old friend and dear colleague Jovan Kurbalija – there are entirely new possibilities of access to information, new ways to exchange views, dramatic increase in the speed of inter-communication and consultation, and therefore, immensely increased potential to reach consensus in bilateral negotiations or international conferences. Legal advisers of all countries of the world benefit from these new tools every day in the preparation of new treaties, in clearing many problems by phone, fax or through e-mail even before meeting to discuss legal matters, and even in obtaining ordinary information – be it a telephone number or an address – from each other.

* * * * * *

May I be allowed, however, to return to the problem which I announced very briefly in the beginning of my intervention. Almost all authors writing about the work and the role of the legal adviser pay special attention to his relationship with his superiors (be it the minister or the government). The minister is the head of the Foreign Service: not only of the Foreign Ministry, but also of a whole network of diplomatic, consular and other missions abroad (for example, the missions to the United Nations and their specialised agencies, military missions, information and cultural centres, special representations, ad hoc missions, delegations to the international conferences, ambassadors at large, special envoys, etc.). In making decisions, the foreign minister must take into consideration a whole array of various factors, from political ones (both internal and external), through economic and social arguments, up to security motivated requirements. He has to follow the instructions of the head of state and the prime minister, and the foreign policy guidelines set by Parliament, and also to take care of requests by various lobbies or the views expressed by an overzealous and active senator or member of the parliamentary foreign affairs committee. In the cacophony crescendo of such a chorus, the legal adviser’s voice can very easily get lost. The cynics among the lawyers say that it is almost normal, usually does no harm, and that the ministers get from their legal advisers exactly what they deserve.

The worst conceivable kind of relationship (and results) is that of a minister surrounded by “yes-men” and accustomed to that, expecting the same attitude from his legal adviser. It is not surprising that, in the end, the minister will get what he wants. (Even legal advisers are, after all, human. Should a very conscientious lawyer refuse to accept the role of the rubber-stamp, there will always be others to offer their “services.”) But in doing so, “the boss” loses the very best that a legal adviser can provide: his penetrating, critical, analytic, discriminating mind. Even the most autocratic medieval rulers and tyranic dictators used to keep at their palaces a buffoon, a jester or a court fool. The fools were paid to amuse their master, but more often than not their jokes contained sharp criticism and reasonable advice: many of those despots who did not tolerate any disapproval from the “cortiggiani” around them knew how to listen to the voice of good sense, even wisdom, coming from their “fools.”

Not only the position of the legal adviser, but also the scope and the quality of his work, its efficiency and usefulness, depend to the greatest extent on the political climate, the degree of democratic development of the society, and the existence and functioning of the rule of law in it. Even in countries where those values are, generally speaking, at a very high level, one can detect the problem of hypertrophic subordination normal in any administration (unhealthy servility and poltronism, lack of civic courage, absence of constructive criticism, etc.).

The problem is much worse in those countries where democracy remains a word on paper or just a distant goal, where every dissonant voice risks ostracism for high treason or at least dangerous deficiency of patriotism: precisely in those lands which are in most need of solid, unbiased, objective legal advice (and also of focused, well-intentioned criticism). As much as the normal work of the legal adviser is hardly possible under such circumstances, and in spite of the fact that the real solution cannot be sought in the limited microworld of the legal service or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs but rather in deep changes to the state and society as a whole – or perhaps just because of the above reason – the legal adviser must do his very best to “remain in saddle” and to preserve all the possibilities, meagre as they may be, to raise his voice and keep trying to put his obol to efforts which eventually could lead in the right direction. It is symptomatic that many authors from very different countries at various stages of the development of diplomatic services indicate the existence of this problem.

* * * * * *

I should not like to close my brief review by criticising the ministers; the opposite is also true. So, let me quote Robbie Sabel who says: Foreign ministers like to complain about their legal advisers. The complaints usually are that their legal advisers are pedantic, lack vision, are ultra-cautious and miss the bigger picture, but, like the well-known credit card, foreign ministers usually “don’t leave home without them.”

icon for right PDF

You may also be interested in


Reforming Diplomacy: Clear Choices, New Emphases

The message discusses the need for reform in diplomacy, emphasizing clear choices and new focal points.


Public diplomacy at the crossroads: Definitions and challenges in an ‘Open Source’ era

The message discusses the current state of public diplomacy and its challenges in an era of open source information.


Modern Diplomacy: Dialectics and Dimensions

The message ""Modern Diplomacy: Dialectics and Dimensions"" discusses the intricacies of diplomacy in the contemporary world, examining its complexities and various aspects. It sheds light on the evolving nature of diplomacy, the key role of communication, and the importance of understanding different perspectives and approaches in diplomatic relations. The message delves into the essence of diplomacy in the present-day context, emphasizing the need for adaptability, strategic thinking, and effective communication in navigating the ever-changing international landscape.

E-diplomacy and Diplomatic Law in the Internet Era

Peacetime Regime for State Activities in Cyberspace (ed by Katharine Ziolkowski) covers in a multi-disciplinary approach the technical, legal, policy and diplomacy aspects of State activities in cyberspace during peacetime. It consists of 23 chapters of academic nature, elaborated by 24 authors specialised in the respective areas of expertise. Diplo's Dr Jovan Kurbalija contributed this chapter on E-diplomacy and Diplomatic Law in the Internet Era.


Barriers to conflict resolution in Africa: Mediating beyond power and ethnicity in the EAC and SADC countries through a Kenyan case study

This paper assesses the relevance of ethnicity and power in conflicts occurring in the EAC and SADC regions through a case study of Kenya. It engages with elites’ power contestation and the manner in which power has historically caused violence and instability in Kenya. Further, an account of researches on ethnicity and its inducing of violence is made. Through this, one discovers the importance of ethnicity beyond that of being a channel for the upsurge of violence.


The Counter-Revolution in Diplomacy, and Other Essays

This book brings together for the first time a large collection of essays (including three new ones) of a leading writer on diplomacy. They challenge the fashionable view that the novel features of contemporary diplomacy are its most important, and use new historical research to explore questions not previously treated in the same systematic manner.


The 21st Century Ambassador: Plenipotentiary to Chief Executive

Ambassador Kishan Rana, a diplomatist for four decades, is now a noted scholar and theorist of international relations and the new diplomacy that has evolved.


Assessing feasibility for a binding international legal instrument on cyberweapons: A maturity model approach

Cyberwarfare has emerged from the expeditious expansion of the Internet as a new mode of conflict that can anonymously and remotely disrupt the core functions of a state.


To joke or not to joke: A diplomatic dilemma in the age of internet

Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): The first paper, presented by Prof. Peter Serracino-Inglott as the keynote address at the 2001 conference, examines the serious issue of diplomatic communication in a playful manner, through one of the most paradigmatic and creative examples of language use: joking.


21st Century Diplomacy: A practitioner’s guide

Kishan Rana is a man of lengthy and varied experience in the Indian Foreign Service, ending his career as ambassador to Germany. Since then he has spent many years as a globe-trotting trainer of junior diplomats on behalf of DiploFoundation. Few people, therefore, are as well placed to write a practitioners’ guide to the diplomatic craft; and, insofar as concerns the content of his book, which can be found described here, he has not disappointed.


Modern Diplomacy – Opening address

Opening address of the Honourable Dr. George F. Vella, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Environment of Malta.


The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century

The message is a summary of the book "The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century.


Diplomacy for the New Century

The message discusses the importance of diplomacy in the modern era, emphasizing the need for updated approaches and strategies in international relations. Diplomacy plays a crucial role in addressing global challenges and fostering cooperation among nations in the 21st century.


Contemporary Diplomacy: Representation and Communication in a Globalized World

The message discusses how diplomacy has evolved in the present globalized world, focusing on representation and communication.


The New Diplomacy

Shaun Riordan was a British diplomat for 16 years before resigning in 2000 to take up private consultancy work and journalism in Spain, where he had ended his diplomatic career as political officer in the embassy. He has written a conceptually flawed, often vague, sometimes contradictory, and essentially polemical attack on 'traditional diplomacy'. It is also peppered with New Labour jargon ('stakeholders', 'global governance', 'civil society'), has its fair measure of superficially examined mantras, misquotes Clausewitz, and sports a shop-soiled title - is he not aware that Abba Ebban publish...


Diplomacy: Theory and Practice, Fifth Edition

In 2005, I reviewed the third edition of Diplomacy: Theory and Practice by G.R. Berridge as essential reading for Robinson Crusoe, had he been a student of diplomacy. We all know that eventually Crusoe ended his assignment on the foreign island and returned to his native country where he found himself a wealthy man for whom bibliography no longer had a role to play … unlike the rest of us, who have continued to practise diplomacy and read books about it.


21st Century Diplomacy

The text will support a summary. Please provide the content you would like summarized.


Quick Diplomatic Response

In the increasingly interdependent world, diplomacy is our only alternative. Wars do not provide solutions for modern problems, whether these are regional crises, environmental challenges, such as climate change, or the risk of global pandemics. Compromise and consensus are not only the most ethical approach, but necessity. This interesting comic presents one day in life of an e-diplomat.

The birth and the existence of Lesotho: A diplomatic lesson

The dissertation will focus on the birth and present state of existence of Lesotho, as a nation state, a state inside another state, looking at how diplomacy is at the centre of all this. The research will examine the history of South Africa and the events that led to the emergence of a territory that became a chiefdom known as Basutoland (land of the Basuto/Basotho people) and, ultimately, became the kingdom of Lesotho.


Internet Guide for Diplomats

The Internet Guide for Diplomats is the first guide specifically conceived and realised to assist diplomats and others involved in international affairs to use the Internet in their work. The book includes both basic technical information about the Internet and specific issues related to the use of the Internet in diplomacy. Examples and illustrations address many common questions including web-management for diplomatic services, knowledge management and distance learning.


Modernising Dutch Diplomacy

The Dutch government is making investments in the modernization of its diplomatic services to enhance its efficiency, effectiveness, and digital capabilities. This upgrade aims to position the Netherlands as a leader in global diplomacy by adapting to the changing international landscape and embracing innovation.


On the manner of practising the new diplomacy

The traditional model of diplomacy, founded on the principles of national sovereignty and of statecraft, is becoming less relevant as a field of new, influential actors enter the international system.


The Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Diplomacy and Diplomatic Service

Rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICT) has lead to significant changes in social, economical and political relations of the modern society.


The role of the legal adviser in modern diplomatic services

The role of the legal adviser in modern diplomatic services. This paper discusses the role of the legal adviser in modern diplomacy services and the efforts that must go into preserving all possibilities, meagre as they may be, to raise his voice and keep making efforts which eventually could lead in the right direction.


The impact of the Internet on diplomatic reporting: how diplomacy training needs to be adjusted to keep pace

Over the last 20 years, the Internet has changed the ways in which we work, how we socialise and network, and how we interact with knowledge and information.


“Control yourself, Sir!”: A call for research into emotion cultures in diplomacy

This essay examines and seeks to explode the notion that diplomats are, or should be, immune to emotion in the conduct of their duties. It also discusses the concept of emotion cultures - cultural rules governing the experience and expression of emotion and suggests the possibility that modern diplomacy, perhaps a distinctive culture in itself, encourages the socialisation of diplomats into a distinctive, ostensibly global diplomatic emotion culture.


The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy

The message provides information on modern diplomacy from The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy.


Data Diplomacy: Mapping the Field

The adoption of open data policies and the standardization of data collection were among the recommendations made during DiploFoundation's Data Diplomacy Roundtable: Mapping the Field, a brainstorming event that took place on 5 April 2017 – on the role of (big) data in international affairs and diplomacy.


The Role of Diplomacy in Achieving Representation and Participation for the Roma

In his dissertation Valeriu Nicolae takes the position that conventional diplomacy needs not only reform, but also the development of efficient approaches towards the prevention and negotiation of interstate/intrastate ethnic conflict. He proposes that a European Roma diplomatic corps may offer a solution in negotiating more sustainable European inclusion policies as well as in resolving inter-ethnic conflicts and in bringing about a change of attitudes within not only diplomatic and political circles, but also within the majority populations in regard to Roma.


European Union external action structure: Beyond state and intergovernmental organisations diplomacy

This dissertation analyses the organisation of the external action structures of the European Union. As an international actor which is beyond a state, but also different to traditional international organisations, the EU has created a “diplomatic constellation” in which diplomacy from member states is not substituted but complemented by EU external action.


A United Nations for the Twenty-First Century

The United Nations needs to be reformed to effectively address global challenges in the modern era. More representation, increased funding, and a focus on prevention rather than reaction are crucial for the organization to be successful in the twenty-first century.


Internet governance (IG) as a diplomatic priority

This dissertation demonstrates that IG is a significant, emerging diplomatic process that should be studied and addressed seriously by diplomats to prepare them to manage the implications it has for future impact on global governance of the Internet.


Trends in Diplomatic Communication: A Case Study of Uganda

The aim of this research was to examine the communication trends in diplomacy with a focus on Uganda.


Modern Diplomacy

Modern Diplomacy is a collection of papers presented in Malta at the International Conference on Information Technology and Diplomacy (May 1997) and the International Conference on Modern Diplomacy (February 1998). Papers examine technological development, new actors in international relations, the decline in the sovereignty of states, public diplomacy and globalisation. This publication is only available online.


Futures for diplomacy: Integrative Diplomacy in the 21st Century

The message discusses Integrative Diplomacy in the 21st century, emphasizing the importance of adapting traditional diplomacy to current global challenges and opportunities. Diplomacy is viewed as a tool for addressing complex issues through collaboration and integration, fostering mutual understanding and sustainable solutions. The changing dynamics of international relations require a more inclusive and interconnected approach, focusing on partnerships and cooperation in order to navigate the complexities of the contemporary world. Diplomacy is seen as essential in shaping the future of glob...


Diplomacy at the Cutting Edge

I started writing a memoire in 1998, but on a long train journey in Germany (Stuttgart to Essen), accompanied by my wonderful wife Mimi, a thought came that it might be much more interesting to write about how the Indian diplomatic system works – or does not really work. That became my first book, Inside Diplomacy (1999). Diplomacy at the Cutting Edge, first published in 2015, is that delayed memoire.


Diplomatic Reporting in the Internet Era

Paper delivered by Ambassador Victor Camilleri during the E-diplomacy panel on Diplomatic Reporting in the Internet Era after WikiLeaks, held on 9 February, 2011.


Virtual Diplomacy: Diplomacy of the Digital Age

Olesya Grech investigates the impact of information and communication technologies on the conduct of modern diplomacy.


Modern Diplomacy: A preface

The Mediterranean Academy of Diplomacy has recently organised two international conferences addressing the future of diplomacy. The first was the International Conference on Information Technology and Diplomacy (May 1997) and the second was the International Conference on Modern Diplomacy (February 1998). The papers featured in this volume were presented at these conferences. The contributors are professors, diplomats and officials involved in international relations, coming from a wide variety of countries.


21st century health diplomacy: A new relationship between foreign policy and health

The 21st century sees a shift towards the integration of foreign policy and health, emphasizing the importance of health diplomacy in global affairs.


Connectivity and networks rule: Virtuality, public diplomacy and the foreign ministry

The message discusses the impact of connectivity and networks on public diplomacy and foreign ministries, emphasizing the importance of virtual communication in today's world.


Multistakeholder Diplomacy – Challenges and Opportunities

This book is a collection of papers from Diplo’s February 2005 conference in Malta and from research interns involved in our Multistakeholder Diplomacy internship programme.


Hands on digital diplomacy

The text "Hands on digital diplomacy" suggests a practical approach to engaging in diplomatic efforts using digital tools and platforms.


21st Century Diplomacy: A Practitioner’s Guide

In the 21st century, new kinds of challenges resulting from interdependence among states and globalisation have had a determining impact of the conduct of diplomacy. Diplomacy has become multifaceted, pluri-directional, volatile and intensive, due to the increased complexity in terms of actors, dialogues subjects, modes of communication, and plurality of objectives. This unique text, written by a leading scholar and Foreign Service expert, examines all such factors to provide the definitive guide to diplomacy as it is practiced today. With a multitude of examples from around the world, includi...


Diplomacy of tomorrow

The time of diplomacy is far from over. This paper discusses how its role will become ever more central as most important affairs will have to be handled at global, regional and sub-regional levels.


Roma Diplomacy

Roma Diplomacy is a collection of papers written or inspired through Diplo’s 2005/2006 Roma Diplomacy project.

Mapping e-Diplomacy

This list of themes and topics is an attempt to map the field of e-diplomacy. It is work in progress, and all comments welcomed.


The waning of the state and the waxing of cyberworld

This paper discusses whether IT is functioning mainly as an instrument of states in their quest for power and wealth or is principally operating as a transformative agent by market forces and various sectors of civil society.


Foreign Ministries: Change and adaptation

The message talks about how foreign ministries need to adapt and change to meet the demands and challenges of the modern world.


The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century

One mark of a great book is that it makes you see things in a new way, and Mr. Friedman certainly succeeds in that goal," the Nobel laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz wrote in The New York Times reviewing The World Is Flat in 2005. In this new edition, Thomas L. Friedman includes fresh stories and insights to help us understand the flattening of the world. Weaving new information into his overall thesis, and answering the questions he has been most frequently asked by parents across the country, this third edition also includes two new chapters--on how to be a political activist and social entreprene...