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Author: Dietrich Kappeler

The Birth and evolution of a diplomatic culture


Diplomats have often been blamed for failing to prevent the outbreak of the First World War.

This failure was, however, the result of their culture and of the expectations placed on them by their governments, which were mostly restricted to the conduct of ordinary and peaceful bilateral relations. They were not prepared for, nor instructed, to intervene actively in conflict prevention. This paper discusses the evolution of diplomatic culture as we know it.

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