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Author: G20

New Delhi G20 Leaders’ Declaration

The G20 New Delhi Leaders' Declaration emphasizes digitalization and development, with several articles dedicated to digital issues. India's Presidency focused on digital public infrastructure to assist developing countries and address the gender digital divide. The declaration also discusses climate change, sustainable development, and commitments to accelerate actions for environmental protection. Multilateralism and the role of the United Nations in responding to global challenges are highlighted. Overall, the declaration covers a wide range of topics including economic growth, education, clean energy transitions, biodiversity conservation, disaster risk reduction, and plastic pollution mitigation.

Coverage of digital issues in the G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration

The G20 New Delhi Declaration reflects the high relevance of digitalisation for development during India’s G20 presidency. In the lengthy document, 11 out of 83 articles deal with various aspects of digitalisation. 

Development aspects prevailed in digital coverage with a relative decline in relevance of security issues (the prefix cyber was mentioned only 8 times), and the emergence of crypto featured high on the agenda with 13 mentions. 

Use of prefixes in the G20 New Delhi Declaration

chart 1

The declaration contains the following number of prefixes:
Digital – 69 | Data – 14 | Crypto – 11 | Cyber – 8 | AI – 6 | Online – 2 | Tech – 1 |

The main novelty in the Declaration is a set of proposals on digital public infrastructure focusing on assisting developing countries. This way, India addresses the digital public infrastructure gap in many developing countries while leveraging its cutting-edge technology and expertise.

The Declaration has also strong emphasis on gender digital divide with the set of concrete proposals and initiatives.

AI received ‘regular’ coverage with the calls for discussion on AI governance globally. Data was mentioned mainly in the context of the realisation of SDGs. Crypto issues raised relevance around the questions of financial stability.

Articles with the reference to digital issues are highlighted in yellow in the text of the Declaration (see bellow).

Text of the G20 New Delhi Declaration



1. We are One Earth, One Family, and we share One Future.  

2. We, the Leaders of the G20, met in New Delhi on 9-10 September 2023, under the  theme ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’. We meet at a defining moment in history where the  decisions we make now will determine the future of our people and our planet. It is with  the philosophy of living in harmony with our surrounding ecosystem that we commit to  concrete actions to address global challenges.  

3. G20 cooperation is essential in determining the course the world takes. Headwinds to  global economic growth and stability persist. Years of cascading challenges and crises  have reversed gains in the 2030 Agenda and its Sustainable Development Goals  (SDGs). Global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to increase, with climate  change, biodiversity loss, pollution, drought, land degradation and desertification  threatening lives and livelihoods. Rising commodity prices, including food and energy  prices are contributing to cost of living pressures. Global challenges like poverty and  inequality, climate change, pandemics and conflicts disproportionately affect women  and children, and the most vulnerable.  

4. Together we have an opportunity to build a better future. Just energy transitions can  improve jobs and livelihoods, and strengthen economic resilience. We affirm that no  country should have to choose between fighting poverty and fighting for our planet. We  will pursue development models that implement sustainable, inclusive and just  transitions globally, while leaving no one behind.  

5. As Leaders of G20, the premier global forum for international economic cooperation,  we resolve to act in concrete ways through partnerships. We commit to:  

a. Accelerate strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth.  

b. Accelerate the full and effective implementation of the 2030 Agenda for  Sustainable Development.  

c. Pursue low-GHG/low-carbon emissions, climate-resilient and environmentally  sustainable development pathways by championing an integrated and inclusive  approach. We will urgently accelerate our actions to address development and  climate challenges, promote Lifestyles for Sustainable Development (LiFE), and  conserve biodiversity, forests and oceans.  

d. Improve access to medical countermeasures and facilitate more supplies and  production capacities in developing countries to prepare better for future health  emergencies.  

e. Promote resilient growth by urgently and effectively addressing debt  vulnerabilities in developing countries.  

f. Scale up financing from all sources for accelerating progress on SDGs. 

g. Accelerate efforts and enhance resources towards achieving the Paris  Agreement, including its temperature goal.  

h. Pursue reforms for better, bigger and more effective Multilateral Development  Banks (MDBs) to address global challenges to maximise developmental impact.  

i. Improve access to digital services and digital public infrastructure, and leverage  digital transformation opportunities to boost sustainable and inclusive growth.  

j. Promote sustainable, quality, healthy, safe and gainful employment.  

k. Close gender gaps and promote the full, equal, effective and meaningful  participation of women in the economy as decision-makers.  

l. Better integrate the perspectives of developing countries, including LDCs,  LLDCs, and SIDS, into future G20 agenda and strengthen the voice of  developing countries in global decision making.  

6. Through these actions today, we are building towards a system that better empowers  countries to address global challenges, is human-centric, and brings prosperity and  well-being to humanity.  

For the Planet, People, Peace and Prosperity  

7. We note with deep concern the immense human suffering and the adverse impact of  wars and conflicts around the world.  

8. Concerning the war in Ukraine, while recalling the discussion in Bali, we reiterated our  national positions and resolutions adopted at the UN Security Council and the UN  General Assembly (A/RES/ES-11/1 and A/RES/ES-11/6) and underscored that all  states must act in a manner consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the UN  Charter in its entirety. In line with the UN Charter, all states must refrain from the threat  or use of force to seek territorial acquisition against the territorial integrity and  sovereignty or political independence of any state. The use or threat of use of nuclear  weapons is inadmissible.  

9. Reaffirming that the G20 is the premier forum for international economic cooperation,  and recognizing that while the G20 is not the platform to resolve geopolitical and  security issues, we acknowledge that these issues can have significant consequences  for the global economy.  

10. We highlighted the human suffering and negative added impacts of the war in Ukraine  with regard to global food and energy security, supply chains, macro-financial stability,  inflation and growth, which has complicated the policy environment for countries,  especially developing and least developed countries which are still recovering from the  COVID-19 pandemic and the economic disruption which has derailed progress towards  the SDGs. There were different views and assessments of the situation.  

11. We appreciate the efforts of Türkiye and UN-brokered Istanbul Agreements consisting  of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Russian Federation and the Secretariat of the United Nations on Promoting Russian Food Products and Fertilizers  to the World Markets and the Initiative on the Safe Transportation of Grain and  Foodstuffs from Ukrainian Ports (Black Sea Initiative), and call for their full, timely and  effective implementation to ensure the immediate and unimpeded deliveries of grain,  foodstuffs, and fertilizers/inputs from the Russian Federation and Ukraine. This is  necessary to meet the demand in developing and least developed countries,  particularly those in Africa.  

12. In this context, emphasizing the importance of sustaining food and energy security, we  called for the cessation of military destruction or other attacks on relevant infrastructure.  We also expressed deep concern about the adverse impact that conflicts have on the  security of civilians thereby exacerbating existing socio-economic fragilities and  vulnerabilities and hindering an effective humanitarian response.  

13. We call on all states to uphold the principles of international law including territorial  integrity and sovereignty, international humanitarian law, and the multilateral system  that safeguards peace and stability. The peaceful resolution of conflicts, and efforts to  address crises as well as diplomacy and dialogue are critical. We will unite in our  endeavour to address the adverse impact of the war on the global economy and  welcome all relevant and constructive initiatives that support a comprehensive, just,  and durable peace in Ukraine that will uphold all the Purposes and Principles of the UN  Charter for the promotion of peaceful, friendly, and good neighbourly relations among  nations in the spirit of ‘One Earth, One Family, One Future’.  

14. Today’s era must not be of war.  

A. Strong, Sustainable, Balanced, and Inclusive Growth  

Global Economic Situation  

15. Cascading crises have posed challenges to long-term growth. Facing an uneven  recovery, and cognizant of the need to boost long-term growth, we will implement well calibrated macroeconomic and structural policies. We will protect the vulnerable,  through promoting equitable growth and enhancing macroeconomic and financial  stability. Such an approach will help resolve the cost-of-living crisis and unlock strong,  sustainable, balanced, and inclusive growth.  

16. Global economic growth is below its long-run average and remains uneven. The  uncertainty around the outlook remains high. With notable tightening in global financial  conditions, which could worsen debt vulnerabilities, persistent inflation and  geoeconomic tensions, the balance of risks remains tilted to the downside. We,  therefore, reiterate the need for well-calibrated monetary, fiscal, financial, and structural  policies to promote growth, reduce inequalities and maintain macroeconomic and  financial stability. We will continue to enhance macro policy cooperation and support  the progress towards the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

We reaffirm that  achieving strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth (SSBIG) will require  policymakers to stay agile and flexible in their policy response, as evidenced during the  recent banking turbulence in a few advanced economies where expeditious action by  relevant authorities helped to maintain financial stability and manage spillovers. 

We  welcome the initial steps taken by the Financial Stability Board (FSB), Standard Setting Bodies (SSBs) and certain jurisdictions to examine what lessons can be learned from  this recent banking turbulence and encourage them to advance their ongoing work. We  will use macroprudential policies, where required, to safeguard against downside risks.  Central banks remain strongly committed to achieving price stability in line with their  respective mandates. They will ensure that inflation expectations remain well anchored  and will clearly communicate policy stances to help limit negative cross-country  spillovers. 

Central bank independence is crucial to maintaining policy credibility. We will  prioritise temporary and targeted fiscal measures to protect the poor and the most  vulnerable, while maintaining medium-term fiscal sustainability. Ensuring the overall  coherence of the monetary and fiscal stances remains important. We recognise the  importance of supply-side policies, especially policies that increase labour supply and  enhance productivity to boost growth and alleviate price pressures. We reaffirm the  April 2021 exchange rate commitment made by our Finance Ministers and Central Bank  Governors.  

17. We recognise the critical role of private enterprise in accelerating growth and driving  sustainable economic transformations. To this end, we resolve to work with private  sector to:  

i. Create inclusive, sustainable, and resilient global value chains, and support  developing countries to move up the value chain.  

ii. Facilitate investments including Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) towards  sustainable business models.  

iii. Devise pipelines of investible projects in developing countries, by leveraging  expertise of MDBs to mobilise investments.  

iv. Promote the ease and reduce the cost of doing business.  

18. We recognise that start-ups and MSMEs are natural engines of growth. They are key  to socio-economic transformation by driving innovation and creating employment. We  welcome the establishment of the Start-up 20 Engagement Group during India’s G20  Presidency and its continuation.  

Unlocking Trade for Growth  

19. We reaffirm that a rules-based, non-discriminatory, fair, open, inclusive, equitable,  sustainable and transparent multilateral trading system, with WTO at its core, is  indispensable. We will support policies that enable trade and investment to serve as an  engine of growth and prosperity for all. Today, we:  

i. Renew our commitment to ensure a level-playing field and fair competition by  discouraging protectionism and market distorting practices, to foster a favourable  trade and investment environment for all. We reiterate the need to pursue WTO  reform to improve all its functions through an inclusive member-driven process, and  remain committed to conducting discussions with a view to having a fully and well 

functioning dispute settlement system accessible to all members by 2024. We  commit to work constructively to ensure positive outcomes at the WTO’s Thirteenth  Ministerial Conference (MC13). 

ii. Recognise challenges MSMEs, particularly in developing countries, face with  respect to access to information and thus, welcome Jaipur Call for Action for  enhancing MSMEs’ access to information to promote the integration of MSMEs into  international trade.  

iii. Welcome the adoption of G20 Generic Framework for Mapping Global Value Chains  (GVC) to help members identify risks and build resilience.  

iv. Welcome the High-Level Principles on Digitalization of Trade Documents and will  make efforts to encourage implementation, and encourage other countries to  consider these principles.  

v. Ensure that trade and environment policies should be mutually supportive,  consistent with WTO and multilateral environmental agreements.  

vi. Recognize the importance of WTO’s ‘Aid for Trade’ initiative to enable developing  countries, notably LDCs to effectively participate in global trade, including through  enhanced local value creation. We welcome all efforts to mobilize necessary  resources in this regard.  

Preparing for the Future of Work  

20. We commit to addressing skill gaps, promoting decent work and ensuring inclusive  social protection policies for all. Towards this aim, we:  

i. Recognise that well-integrated and adequately skilled workers benefit origin and  destination countries alike and commit to working towards ensuring well-managed,  regular and skills-based migration pathways.  

ii. Welcome efforts to map global skill gaps and the development of the G20 policy  priorities to address skill gaps globally, including through further strengthening our  national statistical data, extending the coverage of the ILO and OECD Skills for Jobs  Databases to G20 countries, as appropriate. We commit to effectively addressing  global skills for sustainable and inclusive economic development.  

iii. Commit to consider the development of an international reference classification of  occupations by skill and qualification requirements to facilitate cross-country  comparability and mutual recognition of skills and qualifications.  

iv. Welcome the comprehensive toolkit with adaptable frameworks for designing and  introducing digital upskilling and reskilling programmes.  

v. Aim to achieve sustainably financed universal social protection coverage and  consider portability of social security benefits through bilateral and multilateral  agreements.  

vi. Support progress on the implementation of the UN Global Accelerator on Jobs and  Social Protection for Just Transitions. 

vii. Acknowledge the economic significance and societal value of the cultural and  creative sector to support inclusive growth, sustainable development and decent  work.  

viii. Ensure adequate social protection and decent working conditions for gig and  platform workers.  

ix. Will increase our efforts for the elimination of child labour and forced labour along  global value chains. 

Advancing Financial Inclusion  

21. We welcome the 2023 Update to Leaders on Progress towards the G20 Remittance  Target and endorse the Regulatory Toolkit for Enhanced Digital Financial Inclusion of  Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). We endorse the voluntary and non binding G20 Policy Recommendations for Advancing Financial Inclusion and  Productivity Gains through Digital Public Infrastructure. 

We take note of the significant  role of digital public infrastructure in helping to advance financial inclusion in support of  inclusive growth and sustainable development. We also encourage the continuous  development and responsible use of technological innovations including innovative  payment systems, to achieve financial inclusion of the last mile and progress towards  reducing the cost of remittances.

We also support continuous efforts to strengthen  digital financial literacy and consumer protection. We endorse the G20 2023 Financial  Inclusion Action Plan (FIAP), which provides an action oriented and forward-looking  roadmap for rapidly accelerating the financial inclusion of individuals and MSMEs,  particularly vulnerable and underserved groups in the G20 countries and beyond.  

Fighting Corruption  

22. We reaffirm our commitment to zero tolerance for corruption.  

i. We endorse the three G20 High-Level Principles on:  

o Strengthening Law Enforcement related International Cooperation and  Information Sharing for Combating Corruption  

o Strengthening Asset Recovery Mechanisms for Combating Corruption  

o Promoting Integrity and Effectiveness of Public Bodies and Authorities  responsible for Preventing and Combating Corruption  

ii. Reaffirm our support to enhance global efforts to seize, confiscate and return  criminal proceeds to victims and states, in line with international obligations and  domestic legal frameworks, including through support to the Financial Action Task  Force (FATF) and operationalization of the GlobE Network.  

iii. Reaffirm our commitment to demonstrate and continue concrete efforts and share  information on our actions towards criminalizing foreign bribery and enforcing  foreign bribery legislation, in line with Article 16 of the United Nations Convention  against Corruption (UNCAC), and welcome Anti-Corruption Working Group’s efforts  in striving towards this goal. We look forward to enlarging participation to the OECD  Anti-Bribery Convention, as appropriate. 

B. Accelerating Progress on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)  

23. At the midway point to 2030, the global progress on SDGs is off-track with only 12  percent of the targets on track. During this Decade of Action, we will leverage the G20’s  convening power and its collective resolve to fully and effectively implement the 2030  Agenda and accelerate progress toward the SDGs, in a timely manner, to shape the  world we want to see for our future generations.  

Recommitting to Achieving SDGs  

24. To accelerate progress on SDGs, we commit to taking collective action for effective and  timely implementation of the G20 2023 Action Plan to Accelerate Progress on the  SDGs, including its High-Level Principles. We will ensure that no one is left behind. We  commend the efforts of the Indian Presidency to accelerate the implementation of the  2030 Agenda. To this end, we:  

i. Recognise the role of digital transformation, AI, data advances, and the need to  address digital divides. We endorse the G20 Principles on Harnessing Data for  Development (D4D) and welcome the decision to launch Data for Development  Capacity Building Initiative, and other existing initiatives.  

ii. We reaffirm our commitment towards the mobilisation of affordable, adequate and  accessible financing from all sources to support developing countries in their  domestic efforts to address bottlenecks for implementation of the 2030 Agenda and  the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. We call upon developed countries to fully deliver  on their respective ODA commitments that complements and encourages  development financing from all other sources, including public and private, domestic  and international, in a timely manner, and contribute to addressing the financing  needs of developing countries.  

iii. Highlight the crucial role of tourism and culture as a means for sustainable socio economic development and economic prosperity, and take note of the Goa  Roadmap for Tourism as one of the vehicles for achieving the SDGs.  

iv. Commit to enhancing G20 cooperation and partnerships to address challenges  being faced in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. We welcome ongoing efforts  at the UN, including the Secretary General’s efforts to address the SDG financing  gap through an SDG stimulus, and will provide full support to the United Nations  2023 SDG Summit, the United Nations Summit of the Future, and other relevant  processes.  

25. We reiterate our commitment to take action to scale up sustainable finance. In line with  the G20 Sustainable Finance Roadmap, we welcome the analytical framework for  SDG-aligned finance and voluntary recommendations for scaling up adoption of social  impact investment instruments and improving nature-related data and reporting,  informed by the stocktaking analyses, considering country circumstances. 

Eliminating Hunger and Malnutrition  

26. We commit to enhance global food security and nutrition for all in line with the G20  Deccan High-Level Principles on Food Security and Nutrition 2023. To achieve this,  we:  

i. We encourage efforts to strengthen research cooperation on climate-resilient and  nutritious grains such as millets, quinoa, sorghum, and other traditional crops  including rice, wheat and maize. We welcome the outcomes from the G20 members  engagement in the 12th G20 Meeting of Agriculture Chief Scientists (MACS).  

ii. Emphasize the importance of increasing access to, availability, and efficient use of  fertilizer and agricultural inputs, including through strengthening local fertilizer  production, and to improve soil health.  

iii. Commit to accelerating innovations and investment focused on increasing  agricultural productivity, reducing food loss and waste across the value chain, and  improving marketing and storage, to build more sustainable and climate-resilient  agriculture and food systems.  

iv. Commit to support developing countries’ efforts and capacities to address their food  security challenges, and work together to enable access to affordable, safe,  nutritious and healthy diets, and to foster the progressive realization of the right to  adequate food.  

v. Commit to facilitate open, fair, predictable, and rules-based agriculture, food and  fertilizer trade, not impose export prohibitions or restrictions and reduce market  distortions, in accordance with relevant WTO rules.  

vi. Commit to strengthening the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) and the  Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM), for  greater transparency to avoid food price volatility, supporting AMIS’s work on  fertilizers, its expansion to include vegetable oils, and for enhancing collaboration  with early warning systems.  

Macroeconomic impacts of food and energy insecurity  

27. While global food and energy prices have fallen from their peak levels, the potential for  high levels of volatility in food and energy markets remains, given the uncertainties in  the global economy. In this context, we take note of the G20 Report on Macroeconomic  Impacts of Food and Energy Insecurity and their Implications for the Global Economy.  We look forward to an ambitious replenishment of the International Fund for Agricultural  Development (IFAD) resources at the end of the year by IFAD members to support  IFAD’s fight against food insecurity.  

Strengthening Global Health and Implementing One Health Approach  

28. We remain committed to strengthening the global health architecture, with the World  Health Organization (WHO) at its core, and building more resilient, equitable,  sustainable, and inclusive health systems to achieve Universal Health Coverage, implement One Health approach, enhance pandemic preparedness and strengthen  existing infectious diseases surveillance systems. To achieve this, we will:  

i. Focus on strengthening primary health care and health workforce and improving  essential health services and health systems to better than pre-pandemic levels,  ideally within the next 2-3 years, as well as continue progress towards polio  eradication and ending ongoing epidemics including AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria,  hepatitis and water-borne and other communicable diseases, also recognising the  importance of research on long COVID.  

ii. Promote the One Health-based approach driven by the Quadripartite’s One Health  Joint Plan of Action (2022-2026).  

iii. Enhance the resilience of health systems and support development of climate resilient and low-carbon health systems in collaboration with MDBs, and support the  work of the WHO-led Alliance for Transformative Action on Climate and Health  (ATACH).  

iv. Implement and prioritise tackling Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) following the One  Health approach, including through research and development, infection prevention  and control, as well as antimicrobial stewardship efforts within respective national  action plans through AMR and antimicrobial consumption surveillance.  

 v. Facilitate equitable access to safe, effective, quality-assured, and affordable  vaccines, therapeutics, diagnostics, and other medical countermeasures, especially  in Low-and Middle-income Countries (LMICs), LDCs and SIDS.  

vi. Look forward to a successful outcome of the ongoing negotiations at the  Intergovernmental Negotiating Body (INB) for an ambitious, legally binding WHO  convention, agreement or other international instruments on pandemic PPR (WHO  CA+) by May 2024, as well as amendments to better implement the International  Health Regulations (2005).  

vii. Recognize the potential role of evidence-based Traditional and Complementary  Medicine in health, and take note of international efforts in this direction, including  WHO’s global and collaborating centres, and clinical trial registries.  

viii. Support the WHO-led inclusive consultative process for the development of an  interim medical countermeasures coordination mechanism, with effective  participation of LMICs and other developing countries, considering a network of  networks approach, leveraging local and regional R&D and manufacturing  capacities, and strengthening last mile delivery. This may be adapted in alignment  with the WHO CA+.  

ix. Promote and improve access to mental health services and psychosocial support in  an inclusive manner.  

x. While highlighting the public health dimension of the world drug problem, call for  strong international counter-narcotics cooperation, free of unnecessary restrictions,  including information sharing and capacity building to disrupt production and proliferation of illicit drugs, including synthetic drugs, and precursor chemicals at  their origin, in transit and at destination points.  

Finance-Health Collaboration  

29. We remain committed to strengthening the global health architecture for pandemic  prevention, preparedness and response (PPR) through enhanced collaboration  between Finance and Health Ministries under the Joint Finance and Health Task Force  (JFHTF). Under the JFHTF, we welcome the participation of invited key regional  organisations in the Task Force meetings as they enhance the voice of low-income  countries. We welcome the discussion on the Framework on Economic Vulnerabilities  and Risks (FEVR) and the initial Report for Economic Vulnerabilities and Risks arising  from pandemics, created through collaboration between World Health Organisation  (WHO), World Bank, IMF, and European Investment Bank (EIB). We call on the Task  Force to continue refining this Framework over its multi-year work plan in order to  regularly assess economic vulnerabilities and risks due to evolving pandemic threats,  taking into account country-specific circumstances. 

We welcome the Report on Best  Practices from Finance Health Institutional Arrangements during Covid-19 that will  contribute towards joint finance-health sector readiness to support our response to  future pandemics. We welcome the Report on Mapping Pandemic Response Financing  Options and Gaps developed by the WHO and World Bank and look forward to further  deliberations on how financing mechanisms could be optimized, better coordinated  and, when necessary, suitably enhanced to deploy the necessary financing quickly and  efficiently, duly considering discussions in other global forums. We welcome the  conclusion of the first call for proposals by the Pandemic Fund and look forward to the  second Call for Proposals by the end of 2023, based on lessons learned from the first  Call for Proposals. We highlight the importance of securing new donors and co investment. We ask the Task Force to report back to Finance and Health Ministers in  2024 on its progress.  

Delivering Quality Education  

30. We are committed to inclusive, equitable, high-quality education and skills training for  all, including for those in vulnerable situations. We recognize the importance of  investment in supporting human capital development. To this end, we:  

i. Recognize the importance of foundational learning (literacy, numeracy, and socio emotional skills) as the primary building block for education and employment.  

ii. Reiterate our commitment to harness digital technologies to overcome the digital  divides for all learners.  

iii. Extend support to educational institutions and teachers to enable them to keep pace  with emerging trends and technological advances including AI.  

iv. Emphasize expanding access to high-quality Technical and Vocational Education  and Training (TVET).  

v. Reaffirm our commitment to promote open, equitable and secure scientific  collaboration and encourage mobility of students, scholars, researchers, and  scientists across research and higher education institutions. 

vi. Emphasize the importance of enabling life-long learning focused on skilling,  reskilling, and upskilling especially for vulnerable groups.  

Culture as a Transformative Driver of SDGs  

31. We call for the full recognition and protection of culture with its intrinsic value as a  transformative driver and an enabler for the achievement of the SDGs and advance the  inclusion of culture as a standalone goal in future discussions on a possible post-2030  development agenda. We reiterate our commitment to strengthen our fight against illicit  trafficking of cultural property at national, regional or international levels to enable its  return and restitution to their countries and communities of origin as relevant, and call  for sustained dialogue and action in that endeavour, with a view to strengthen cultural  diplomacy and intercultural exchanges, consistent with national law and relevant  UNESCO Conventions. We encourage the international community to protect the living  cultural heritage, including the intellectual property, notably with regard to the impact of  the over commercialization and misappropriation of such living heritage on the  sustainability and on the livelihoods of practitioners and community bearers as well as  Indigenous Peoples.  

C. Green Development Pact for a Sustainable Future  

32. Recognising that the prosperity and well-being of present and future generations  depends on our current development and other policy choices and actions, we resolve  to pursue environmentally sustainable and inclusive economic growth and development  in an integrated, holistic and balanced manner.  

33. We commit to urgently accelerate our actions to address environmental crises and  challenges including climate change. We recognize that the impacts of climate change  are being experienced worldwide, particularly by the poorest and the most vulnerable,  including in LDCs and SIDS. Mindful of our leadership role, we reaffirm our steadfast  commitments, in pursuit of the objective of UNFCCC, to tackle climate change by  strengthening the full and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement and its  temperature goal, reflecting equity and the principle of common but differentiated  responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances.  

We note with concern that global ambition and implementation to address climate  change remain insufficient to achieve the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement to  hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre  industrial levels, and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. We highlight the importance of ambitious action on all pillars of the  Paris Agreement, taking into account the best available science. Noting the IPCC  assessments, that the impacts of climate change will be much lower at a temperature  increase of 1.5°C compared with 2°C, we reiterate our resolve to pursue further efforts  to limit the increase to 1.5°C.

This will require meaningful and effective actions and  commitment by all countries, taking into account different approaches, through the  development of clear national pathways that align long term ambition with short and  medium-term goals, and with international cooperation and support, including finance  and technology and sustainable and responsible consumption and production as critical  enablers, in the context of sustainable development. 

We recognize that limiting global  warming to 1.5°C requires rapid, deep and sustained reductions in global GHG  emissions of 43% by 2030 relative to the 2019 levels. We also take note of the finding of the IPCC AR6 Synthesis Report, based on global modelled pathways and  assumptions, stating that “Global GHG emissions are projected to peak between 2020  and at the latest before 2025 in global modelled pathways that limit warming to 1.5°C  with no or limited overshoot and in those that limit warming to 2°C and assume  immediate action.” This does not imply peaking in all countries within this timeframe;  timeframes for peaking may be shaped by sustainable development, poverty  eradication needs, equity, and in line with different national circumstances. We further  recognize that technology development and transfer on voluntary and mutually agreed  terms, capacity building and financing can support countries in this regard.  

34. We urge all countries that have not yet aligned their NDCs with the temperature goal of  the Paris Agreement, to revisit and strengthen the 2030 targets in their NDCs, as  necessary, by the end of 2023, taking into account different national circumstances,  and we welcome those who have already done so. We recall the nationally determined  nature of NDCs and Article 4.4 of the Paris Agreement, which provides that “Developed  country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute  emission reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their  mitigation efforts, and are encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide  emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of different national circumstances.”  In this context, we commend those countries whose NDCs include economy-wide  targets covering all GHGs, and others are encouraged to include such economy-wide  targets in their upcoming NDC cycle(s), in the light of different national circumstances.  

We will contribute to a successful conclusion of the first global stocktake at COP28 in  Dubai, that drives enhanced climate action across mitigation, adaptation, and means of  implementation and support. We reiterate our commitment to achieve global net zero  GHG emissions/carbon neutrality by or around mid-century, while taking into account  the latest scientific developments and in line with different national circumstances,  taking into account different approaches including the Circular Carbon Economy, socio economic, technological, and market development, and promoting the most efficient  solutions.  

Macroeconomic risks stemming from climate change and transition pathways  

35. The macroeconomic costs of the physical impacts of climate change are significant both  at aggregate and country levels, and the cost of inaction substantially outweighs that of  orderly and just transitions. We recognise the importance of international dialogue and  cooperation, including in the areas of finance and technology, and timely policy action  consistent with country-specific circumstances. It is also critical to assess and account  for the short, medium and long-term macroeconomic impact of both the physical impact  of climate change and transition policies, including on growth, inflation, and  unemployment. We endorse the G20 Report on Macroeconomic Risks Stemming from  Climate Change and Transition Pathways. Building on analysis in this Report, we will  consider further work on the macroeconomic implications, as appropriate, particularly  as relevant for fiscal and monetary policies, drawing on the inputs from a diverse set of  stakeholders. 

Mainstreaming Lifestyles for Sustainable Development (LiFE)  

36. Based on the G20 High-Level Principles on Lifestyles for Sustainable Development, we  commit to robust collective actions that will enable the world to embrace sustainable production and consumption patterns and mainstream Lifestyles for Sustainable  Development. Relevant studies on it show that it could contribute to significant emission  reduction by 2030 for a global net-zero future. We support the creation of an enabling  policy environment to promote sustainable lifestyles for climate action. Towards this  end, we:  

i. Commit to implement the G20 High-Level Principles on Lifestyles for Sustainable  Development.  

ii. Support the implementation of the High-Level Principles (HLPs) through  international cooperation, financial support, and development, deployment and  dissemination of technology. We encourage International Organizations to  incorporate the HLPs into their programs, as appropriate.  

iii. Note the launch of “Travel for LiFE” and support the development of smart  destinations that are responsible and sustainable.  

Designing a Circular Economy World  

37. In order to endeavour to decouple our economic growth from environmental  degradation and enhance sustainable consumption and production, including primary  resource consumption while supporting economic growth, we acknowledge the critical  role played by circular economy, extended producer responsibility and resource  efficiency in achieving sustainable development. We thank the Indian presidency in  launching Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition (RECEIC). We  commit to enhance environmentally sound waste management, substantially reduce  waste generation by 2030, and highlight the importance of zero waste initiatives.  

Implementing Clean, Sustainable, Just, Affordable & Inclusive Energy Transitions  

38. We commit to accelerating clean, sustainable, just, affordable and inclusive energy  transitions following various pathways, as a means of enabling strong, sustainable,  balanced and inclusive growth and achieve our climate objectives. We recognise the  needs, vulnerabilities, priorities and different national circumstances of developing  countries. We support strong international and national enabling environments to foster  innovation, voluntary and mutually agreed technology transfer, and access to low-cost  financing. To this end, we:  

i. Emphasise the importance of maintaining uninterrupted flows of energy from  various sources, suppliers and routes, exploring paths of enhanced energy security  and market stability, including through inclusive investments to meet the growing  energy demand, in line with our sustainable development and climate goals, while  promoting open, competitive, non-discriminatory and free international energy  markets.  

ii. Recognizing that developing countries need to be supported in their transitions to  low carbon/emissions, we will work towards facilitating low-cost financing for them.  

iii. Support the acceleration of production, utilization, as well as the development of  transparent and resilient global markets for hydrogen produced from zero and low-emission technologies and its derivatives such as ammonia, by developing  voluntary and mutually agreed harmonising standards as well as mutually  recognised and inter-operable certification schemes. To realise this, we affirm the  ‘G20 High Level Voluntary Principles on Hydrogen’, to build a sustainable and  equitable global hydrogen ecosystem that benefits all nations. We take note of the  Presidency’s initiative to establish the Green Hydrogen Innovation Centre steered  by the International Solar Alliance (ISA).  

iv. Will work towards facilitating access to low-cost financing for developing countries,  for existing as well as new and emerging clean and sustainable energy technologies  and for supporting the energy transitions. We note the report on “Low-cost Financing  for the Energy Transitions” prepared under the Indian Presidency and its estimation  that the world needs an annual investment of over USD 4 trillion, with a high share  of renewable energy in the primary energy mix.  

v. Will pursue and encourage efforts to triple renewable energy capacity globally  through existing targets and policies, as well as demonstrate similar ambition with  respect to other zero and low-emission technologies, including abatement and  removal technologies, in line with national circumstances by 2030. We also note the  ‘Voluntary Action Plan for Promoting Renewable Energy to Accelerate Universal  Energy Access’.  

vi. Pledge to advance cooperation initiatives to develop, demonstrate and deploy clean  and sustainable energy technologies and solutions and other efforts for innovation.  

vii. Take note of the ‘Voluntary Action Plan on Doubling the Rate of Energy Efficiency  Improvement by 2030’.  

viii. Recognize the importance of sustainable biofuels in our zero and low- emission  development strategies, and note the setting up of a Global Biofuels Alliance.  

ix. Support reliable, diversified, sustainable and responsible supply chains for energy  transitions, including for critical minerals and materials beneficiated at source, semi conductors and technologies. We take note of the Presidency’s “Voluntary High Level Principles for Collaboration on Critical Minerals for Energy Transitions”.  

x. For countries that opt to use civil nuclear energy, will collaborate on voluntary and  mutually agreed terms, in research, innovation, development & deployment of civil  nuclear technologies including advanced and Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), in  accordance with national legislations. These countries will promote responsible  nuclear decommissioning, radioactive waste and spent fuel management and  mobilizing investments, and share knowledge and best practices, through  strengthening international cooperation to promote nuclear safety globally.  

xi. Recognize the role of grid interconnections, resilient energy infrastructure and  regional/cross-border power systems integration, where applicable in enhancing  energy security, fostering economic growth and facilitating universal energy access  for all. 

xii. Will increase our efforts to implement the commitment made in 2009 in Pittsburgh  to phase-out and rationalise, over the medium term, inefficient fossil fuel subsidies  that encourage wasteful consumption and commit to achieve this objective, while  providing targeted support for the poorest and the most vulnerable.  

xiii. Recognise the importance to accelerate the development, deployment and  dissemination of technologies, and the adoption of policies, to transition towards  low-emission energy systems, including by rapidly scaling up the deployment of  clean power generation, including renewable energy, as well as energy efficiency  measures, including accelerating efforts towards phasedown of unabated coal  power, in line with national circumstances and recognizing the need for support  towards just transitions. 

Delivering on Climate and Sustainable Finance  

39. We welcome the Sustainable Finance Working Group (SFWG) recommendations on  the mechanisms to support the timely and adequate mobilisation of resources for  climate finance while ensuring support for transition activities in line with country  circumstances. We also recognise the significant role of public finance as an important  enabler of climate actions, such as leveraging much-needed private finance through  blended financial instruments, mechanisms and risk-sharing facilities to address both  adaptation and mitigation efforts in a balanced manner for reaching ambitious  Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), carbon neutrality and net-zero  considering different national circumstances. We welcome the SFWG  recommendations for scaling up blended finance and risk-sharing facilities, including  the enhanced role of MDBs in mobilizing climate finance. 

We underscore the  importance of maximizing the effect of concessional resources, such as those of the  multilateral climate funds, to support developing countries’ implementation of the Paris  Agreement and call for an ambitious second replenishment process of the Green  Climate Fund for its upcoming 2024-2027 programming period We will undertake work  to facilitate access to multilateral climate funds and enhance their leverage and ability  to mobilize private capital. Recognizing the importance of supporting the  commercialization of early-stage technologies that avoid, abate and remove  greenhouse gas emissions and facilitate adaptation, we note the recommendations on financial solutions, policies, and incentives to encourage greater private flows for the  rapid development, demonstration, and deployment of green and low-emission  technologies. We reiterate the importance of a policy mix consisting of fiscal, market  and regulatory mechanisms, including, as appropriate, the use of carbon pricing and  non-pricing mechanisms and incentives toward carbon neutrality and net zero.  

40. We endorse the multi-year G20 Technical Assistance Action Plan (TAAP) and the  voluntary recommendations made to overcome data-related barriers to climate  investments. We encourage the implementation of TAAP by relevant jurisdictions and  stakeholders in line with the national circumstances. We look forward to reporting on  the progress made in the implementation of the G20 Sustainable Finance Roadmap,  which is voluntary and flexible in nature, and call for further efforts to advance the  Roadmap’s recommended actions that will scale up sustainable finance, including,  among others, the implementation of the Transition Finance Framework. 

We look  forward to the 2023 G20 Sustainable Finance Report. We welcome the finalization of  the sustainability and climate-related disclosure standards published by the  International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) in June 2023, which provide the  mechanisms that address proportionality and promote interoperability. It is important  that flexibility, to take into account country-specific circumstances, is preserved in the  implementation of those standards. When put into practice as above, those standards  will help support globally comparable and reliable disclosures.  

41. We recognise the need for increased global investments to meet our climate goals of  the Paris Agreement, and to rapidly and substantially scale up investment and climate  finance from billions to trillions of dollars globally from all sources. In this regard, it is  essential to align all relevant financial flows with these objectives while scaling up  finance, capacity building and technology transfer on voluntary and mutually agreed  terms, taking into account the priorities and needs of developing countries. To achieve  this, we:  

i. Note the need of USD 5.8-5.9 trillion in the pre-2030 period required for developing  countries, in particular for their needs to implement their NDCs, as well as the need  of USD 4 trillion per year for clean energy technologies by 2030 to reach net zero  emissions by 2050.  

ii. We recall and reaffirm the commitment made in 2010 by the developed countries to  the goal of mobilizing jointly USD 100 billion climate finance per year by 2020, and  annually through 2025, to address the needs of the developing countries, in the  context of meaningful mitigation action and transparency in implementation.  Developed country contributors expect this goal to be met for the first time in 2023.  

iii. We will work to successfully implement the decision at COP27 on funding  arrangements for responding to loss and damage for assisting developing countries  that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, including  establishing a fund. We will support the Transitional Committee established in this  regard, and look forward to its recommendations on operationalization of the new  funding arrangements including a fund at COP28.  

iv. Call on Parties to set an ambitious, transparent and trackable New Collective  Quantified Goal (NCQG) of climate finance in 2024, from a floor of USD 100 billion  a year, taking into account the needs and priorities of developing countries in  fulfilling the objective of the UNFCCC and implementation of the Paris Agreement.  

v. Recalling para 18 of the Glasgow Climate Pact, we urge the developed countries to  fulfil their commitment to at least double their collective provision of adaptation  finance from 2019 levels by 2025, in the context of achieving scaled up financial  resources.  

vi. Call on all relevant financial institutions, such as MDBs and multilateral funds to  further strengthen their efforts including by setting ambitious adaptation finance  targets and announcing, where appropriate, revised and enhanced 2025  projections. 

vii. Acknowledge the vital role of private climate finance in supplementing public climate  finance and encourage the development of financing mechanisms such as blended  finance, de-risking instruments and green bonds for projects in developing  countries.  

Conserving, Protecting, Sustainably Using and Restoring Ecosystems  

42. We emphasize the importance of healthy ecosystems in addressing climate change,  biodiversity loss, desertification, drought, land degradation, pollution, food insecurity  and water scarcity. We commit to restoring by 2030 at least 30% of all degraded  ecosystems and scaling up efforts to achieve land degradation neutrality. To achieve  this, we:  

i. Commit to the swift, full and effective implementation of the Kunming-Montreal  Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), and encourage others to do the same, and  encourage actions to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030. We also call for  enhanced financial resources from all sources. To this end, we welcome the recent  establishment of the Global Biodiversity Framework Fund within the Global  Environment Facility (GEF).  

ii. Support the G20 ambition to reduce land degradation by 50% by 2040 on a  voluntary basis, as committed under the G20 Global Land Initiative (GLI) and note  the discussions on the Gandhinagar Implementation Roadmap and the  Gandhinagar Information Platform.  

iii. Recognize that forests provide crucial ecosystem services, as well as for climate  purposes acting as sinks, at the global and local levels for the environment, climate  and people. We will scale up efforts to protect, conserve and sustainably manage  forests and combat deforestation, in line with internationally agreed timelines,  highlighting the contributions of these actions for sustainable development and  taking into account the social and economic challenges of local communities and  indigenous peoples. In the context of forests, we will avoid discriminatory green  economic policies, consistent with WTO rules and multilateral environmental  agreements. We are committed to mobilizing new and additional finance for forests  from all sources, including concessional and innovative financing, in particular for  developing countries. We commit to prevention and mitigation of wildfires and  remediation of mining-degraded lands.  

iv. Call for enhancing global cooperation and sharing of best practices on water, and  welcome the deliberations at the UN 2023 Water Conference and G20 Dialogue on Water.  

Harnessing and Preserving the Ocean-based Economy  

43. We commit to conserving, protecting, restoring and sustainably using the world’s  ocean, marine ecosystems, and look forward to make progress and in this regard,  contribute to the 2025 UN Ocean Conference. To this end, we:  

i. Welcome the Chennai High-Level Principles for a Sustainable and Resilient  Blue/Ocean-based Economy. 

ii. Note the adoption of the new international legally binding instrument under the UN  Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) on the conservation and sustainable  use of marine Biological diversity of areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ) and  call on all countries for its early entry into force and implementation.  

iii. Support the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources  (CCAMLR), within the Antarctic Treaty system, to establish a representative system  of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the CCAMLR Convention area based on the  best available scientific evidence.  

iv. Reiterate our commitment to ending illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU)  fishing, as well as destructive fishing methods in accordance with international law.  

v. Support the role of Ocean 20 Dialogue in making progress to achieve this agenda.  Ending Plastic Pollution  

44. We are determined to end plastic pollution. In this context, we welcome the resolution  UNEP/EA.5/Res.14 which established an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee  (INC) to develop an international legally binding instrument on plastic pollution,  including the marine environment, with the ambition of completing its work by the end  of 2024. We will also build on the G20 Marine Litter Action Plan as elucidated in the  Osaka Blue Ocean Vision.  

Financing Cities of Tomorrow  

45. We emphasise the need for enhanced mobilisation of finances and efficient use of  existing resources in our efforts to make the cities of tomorrow inclusive, resilient, and  sustainable. To this effect, we endorse the G20 Principles for Financing Cities of  Tomorrow, which are voluntary and non-binding in nature and the G20/OECD Report  on Financing Cities of Tomorrow, which provides a financing strategy as well as  presents a compendium of innovative urban planning and financing models. We  encourage stakeholders, including the Development Financial Institutions and the  MDBs, to explore the potential of drawing upon these principles in their planning and  financing of urban infrastructure wherever applicable and share experiences from early  pilot cases. 

We note the progress in outlining the enablers of inclusive cities. We also  note the customisable G20/ADB Framework on Capacity Building of Urban  Administration to guide local governments in assessing and enhancing their overall  institutional capacity for the effective delivery of public services. We note the ongoing  pilot application of the voluntary and non-binding Quality Infrastructure Investment (QII)  Indicators and look forward to further discussion on their application considering  country circumstances.  

Reducing Disaster Risk and Building Resilient Infrastructure  

46. This year, the G20 Presidency has catalysed efforts on disaster risk reduction in the  G20 through institutionalization of the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Working Group  as noted by UNGA res. 77/289. We reaffirm the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) and recognize the need for accelerating its full implementation. To  this end, we:  

i. Urge for accelerating progress on Early Warning and Early Action through  strengthening national and local capacities, innovative financing tools, private sector  investment, and knowledge sharing.  

ii. Continue to support augmentation of capabilities of all countries, including emerging  economies, in particular developing countries, LDCs and SIDS, for promoting  disaster and climate resilience of infrastructure systems. We welcome the Global  Platform for DRR and take note of initiatives such as the Coalition for Disaster  Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) in furtherance of such collaboration and sharing.  

iii. Promote mutual learning of recovery experiences applying all the principles of  Sendai Framework.  

D. Multilateral Institutions for the 21st Century  

Reinvigorating Multilateralism  

47. The global order has undergone dramatic changes since the Second World War due to  economic growth and prosperity, decolonization, demographic dividends, technological  achievements, emergence of new economic powers and deeper international  cooperation. The United Nations must be responsive to the entire membership, faithful  to its founding purposes and principles of its Charter and adapted to carrying out its  mandate. In this context, we recall the Declaration on the Commemoration of the 75th  anniversary of the United Nations (UNGA 75/1) which reaffirmed that our challenges  are inter-connected and can only be addressed through reinvigorated multilateralism,  reforms and international cooperation. 

The need for revitalized multilateralism to  adequately address contemporary global challenges of the 21st Century, and to make  global governance more representative, effective, transparent and accountable, has  been voiced at multiple fora. In this context, a more inclusive and reinvigorated  multilateralism and reform aimed at implementing the 2030 agenda is essential.  

Reforming International Financial Institutions  

48. The 21st century also requires an international development finance system that is fit  for purpose, including for the scale of need and depth of the shocks facing developing  countries, in particular the poorest and most vulnerable. We are working to deliver  better, bigger and more effective MDBs by enhancing operating models, improving  responsiveness and accessibility, and substantially increasing financing capacity to  maximise development impact. Stronger MDBs will be important to our efforts to  mobilize financing from all sources for a quantum jump from billions to trillions of dollars  for development. We underscore the need for enhancing representation and voice of  developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial  institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate  institutions. The international finance system must deliver significantly more financing  to help developing countries and EMEs to fight poverty, tackle global challenges and  maximise development impact. 

49. We remain committed to pursuing ambitious efforts to evolve and strengthen MDBs to  address the global challenges of the 21st century with a continued focus on addressing  the development needs of low- and middle-income countries.  

50. We endorse the G20 Roadmap for Implementing the Recommendations of the G20  Independent Review of MDBs Capital Adequacy Frameworks (CAFs) and call for its  ambitious implementation, within MDBs’ own governance frameworks while  safeguarding their long-term financial sustainability, robust credit ratings and preferred  creditor status. We also call for a regular review of the progress of implementation on  a rolling basis including through engaging with MDBs, subject experts and  shareholders. We commend the MDBs for their progress in implementing the CAF  recommendations, especially with respect to adapting definitions of risk appetite and  financial innovation. 

We appreciate the ongoing collaboration among MDBs on the  timely release of Global Emerging Markets (GEMs) data and the launch of GEMs 2.0  as a stand-alone entity by early 2024. Going forward, we also encourage MDBs to  collaborate in areas such as hybrid capital, callable capital, and guarantees. We  appreciate the enhanced dialogue between the MDBs, Credit Rating Agencies and  shareholders and encourage continued transparency in the exchange of information  and rating methodologies. We take note that initial CAF measures, including those  under implementation and consideration, could potentially yield additional lending  headroom of approximately USD 200 billion over the next decade, as estimated in the  G20 CAF Roadmap. While these are encouraging first steps, we will need to give an  additional push for continued and further impetus on CAF implementation.  

51. Furthermore, we call on the MDBs to undertake comprehensive efforts to evolve their  vision, incentive structures, operational approaches and financial capacities so that  they are better equipped to maximize their impact in addressing a wide range of global  challenges while being consistent with their mandate and commitment to accelerate  progress towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We welcome the World  Bank’s progress on their Evolution Roadmap and look forward to further steps by the  IMF/WBG Annual Meetings in Marrakesh and beyond. Recognising the urgent need to  strengthen and evolve the MDB ecosystem for the 21st century, we appreciate the  efforts of the G20 Independent Expert Group on Strengthening MDBs in preparing  Volume 1 of the Report and look forward to its examination in conjunction with Volume  2 expected in October 2023. 

We take note of Volume 1’s recommendations and the  MDBs may choose to discuss these recommendations as relevant and appropriate,  within their governance frameworks, in due course, with a view to enhancing the  effectiveness of MDBs. We support the upcoming G20 High-Level Seminar, on the  sidelines of the Fourth G20 FMCBG in October 2023 on strengthening the financial  capacity of MDBs. Scaling up investment to meet development needs and global  challenges requires a big push on investments and, in this context, we ask the IMF and  the World Bank, in coordination with other relevant international institutions, to support  efforts at enhancing domestic resource mobilisation in EMDEs. We call on the MDBs  to also leverage private capital through innovative financing models and new  partnerships to maximise their development impact. Recognizing other multilateral  efforts, we take note of the Summit for a New Global Financing Pact. 


52. Recognizing the imperative of achieving the SDGs, we will collectively mobilize more headroom and concessional finance to boost the World Bank’s capacity to support low  and middle-income countries that need help in addressing global challenges, with a  clear framework for the allocation of scarce concessional resources, and to provide  strong support for the poorest countries. Therefore, we are exploring options that will  deliver a powerful boost to IBRD headroom, reduce the cost of investments addressing  global challenges, and increase the capacity of the IDA crisis response window. We  also look forward to an ambitious IDA21 replenishment to increase IDA financing  capacity. We acknowledge the concluding report on the 2020 Shareholding Review of  the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and look forward to  the 2025 Shareholding Review.  

53. We reiterate our commitment to a strong, quota-based, and adequately resourced IMF  at the centre of the global financial safety net. We remain committed to revisiting the  adequacy of quotas and will continue the process of IMF governance reform under the  16th General Review of Quotas (GRQ), including a new quota formula as a guide, and  ensure the primary role of quotas in IMF resources, to be concluded by December 15,  2023. In this context, we support at least maintaining the IMF’s current resource  envelope. We welcome the landmark achievement of the global ambition of USD 100  billion of voluntary contributions (in SDRs or equivalent) and USD 2.6 billion of grants  in pledges for countries most in need and call for the swift delivery of pending pledges.  We welcome the progress achieved under the Resilience and Sustainability Trust  (RST) and Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT). 

We call for further voluntary  subsidy and loan pledges to the PRGT and will continue to monitor the effectiveness of  RST supported programs. We look forward to the preliminary analysis by the IMF of the  range of options to put the PRGT on a sustainable footing with a view to meeting the  growing needs of low-income countries in the coming years. The G20 reiterates its  continued support to Africa, including through the G20 Compact with Africa. We look  forward to further progress on the exploration of viable options for voluntary channelling  of SDRs through MDBs, while respecting relevant legal frameworks and the need to  preserve the reserve asset character and status of SDR. We look forward to review of  precautionary arrangements and take note of the discussions held on the IMF  surcharge policy.  

Managing Global Debt Vulnerabilities  

54. We re-emphasise the importance of addressing debt vulnerabilities in low and middle income countries in an effective, comprehensive and systematic manner. We continue  to stand by all the commitments made in the Common Framework for Debt Treatments  beyond the DSSI, including those in the second and final paragraphs, as agreed on  November 13, 2020, and step up the implementation of the Common Framework in a  predictable, timely, orderly and coordinated manner. To this end, we call for continued  discussion on policy-related issues linked to the implementation of the Common  Framework for making appropriate recommendations. We welcome the recent  agreement between the Government of Zambia and the official creditor committee on  debt treatment and look forward to a swift resolution. We welcome the formation of the  official creditor committee for Ghana and look forward to an agreement on a debt  treatment as soon as possible. 

We also call for a swift conclusion of the debt treatment  for Ethiopia. Beyond the Common Framework, we welcome all efforts for timely  resolution of the debt situation of Sri Lanka, including the formation of the official creditor committee, and we call for the resolution as soon as possible. We encourage  the efforts of the Global Sovereign Debt Roundtable (GSDR) participants to strengthen  communication and foster a common understanding among key stakeholders, both  within and outside the Common Framework, for facilitating effective debt treatments.  We welcome joint efforts by all stakeholders, including private creditors, to continue  working towards enhancing debt transparency. We note the results of the voluntary  stocktaking exercise of data sharing with International Financial Institutions. We  welcome the efforts of private sector lenders who have already contributed data to the  joint Institute of International Finance (IIF)/OECD Data Repository Portal and continue  to encourage others to also contribute on a voluntary basis.  

E. Technological Transformation and Digital Public Infrastructure  

55. Technology can enable rapid transformations for bridging the existing digital divides  and accelerate progress for inclusive and sustainable development. Digital public  infrastructure (DPI), as an evolving concept and as a set of shared digital systems, built  and leveraged by both the public and private sectors, based on secure and resilient  infrastructure, and can be built on open standards and specifications, as well as  opensource software can enable delivery of services at societal-scale. In our voluntary  efforts to make digital public infrastructure interoperable, we recognize the importance  of data free flow with trust and cross-border data flows while respecting applicable legal  frameworks. We also reaffirm the role of Data for Development.  

Building Digital Public Infrastructure  

56. We recognize that safe, secure, trusted, accountable and inclusive digital public  infrastructure, respectful of human rights, personal data, privacy and intellectual  property rights can foster resilience, and enable service delivery and innovation. To this  end, we: 

i. Welcome the G20 Framework for Systems of Digital Public Infrastructure, a  voluntary and suggested framework for the development, deployment and  governance of DPI.  

ii. Welcome India’s plan to build and maintain a Global Digital Public Infrastructure  Repository (GDPIR), a virtual repository of DPI, voluntarily shared by G20 members and beyond.  

iii. Take note of the Indian Presidency’s proposal of the One Future Alliance (OFA), a  voluntary initiative aimed to build capacity, and provide technical assistance and  adequate funding support for implementing DPI in LMICs.  

COMMENTS: Digital public infrastructure (DPI) is India’s digital priority during the G20 presidency. India can leverage its advancements in digital public infrastructure internationally. Through the Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDPIR) and One Future Alliance (OFA), India aims to support the development of digital public infrastructure in Low-and Middle-income Countries (LMICs). You can consult the Bengalure declaration of G20 Digital Ministers for more on digital public infrastructure initiatives.

Building Safety, Security, Resilience and Trust in the Digital Economy  

57. An enabling, inclusive, open, fair, non-discriminatory and secure digital economy is increasingly important for all countries and stakeholders while respecting applicable  legal frameworks. We will share our approaches and good practices to build a safe, secure and resilient digital economy. To this extent, we: 

i. Welcome the non-binding G20 High-level Principles to Support Businesses in  Building Safety, Security, Resilience, and Trust in the Digital Economy.  

ii. Welcome the G20 Toolkit on Cyber Education and Cyber Awareness of Children  and Youth.  

COMMENTS: The declaration focuses on cyber safety, in particular, of children and youth. There is an absence of coverage of cybersecurity issues. Interestingly, there is no reference to cybercrime despite current negotiations in the UN on a new cybercrime convention. For more detailed coverage, you can consult the Bengalure Outcome Document and Chair Summary of G20 Digital Ministers.

Crypto-assets: Policy and Regulation  

58. We continue to closely monitor the risks of the fast-paced developments in the crypto asset ecosystem. We endorse the Financial Stability Board’s (FSB’s) high-level  recommendations for the regulation, supervision and oversight of crypto-assets  activities and markets and of global stablecoin arrangements. We ask the FSB and  SSBs to promote the effective and timely implementation of these recommendations in  a consistent manner globally to avoid regulatory arbitrage. 

We welcome the shared  FSB and SSBs workplan for crypto assets. We welcome the IMF-FSB Synthesis Paper,  including a Roadmap, that will support a coordinated and comprehensive policy and regulatory framework taking into account the full range of risks and risks specific to the  emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) and ongoing global  implementation of FATF standards to address money laundering and terrorism  financing risks. Our Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors will discuss taking  forward the Roadmap at their meeting in October 2023. We also welcome the BIS  Report on The Crypto Ecosystem: Key Elements and Risks.  

Central Bank Digital Currency  

59. We welcome discussions on the potential macro-financial implications arising from the  introduction and adoption of Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs), notably on  cross-border payments as well as on the international monetary and financial system.  We welcome the BIS Innovation Hub (BISIH) Report on Lessons Learnt on CBDCs and  look forward to the IMF Report on Potential macro-financial implications of widespread  adoption of CBDCs to advance the discussion on this issue.  

Fostering Digital Ecosystems  

60. We resolve to deploy all available digital tools and technologies and spare no effort in  fostering safe and resilient digital ecosystems, and ensuring that every citizen on our  planet is financially included. To support this, we:  

i. Commit to promote responsible, sustainable and inclusive use of digital technology  by farmers and an ecosystem of Agri-Tech start-ups and MSMEs.  

ii. Welcome the establishment of the Global Initiative on Digital Health (GIDH) within  a WHO-managed framework to build a comprehensive digital health ecosystem in  compliance with respective data protection regulations.  

iii. Will leverage digital technologies for the protection and promotion of culture and  cultural heritage and adopt digital frameworks for the development of cultural and  creative sectors and industries. 

Harnessing Artificial Intelligence (AI) Responsibly for Good and for All  

61. The rapid progress of AI promises prosperity and expansion of the global digital  economy. It is our endeavour to leverage AI for the public good by solving challenges  in a responsible, inclusive and human-centric manner, while protecting people’s rights  and safety. To ensure responsible AI development, deployment and use, the protection  of human rights, transparency and explainability, fairness, accountability, regulation,  safety, appropriate human oversight, ethics, biases, privacy, and data protection must  be addressed. To unlock the full potential of AI, equitably share its benefits and mitigate  risks, we will work together to promote international cooperation and further discussions on international governance for AI. To this end, we:  

i. Reaffirm our commitment to G20 AI Principles (2019) and endeavour to share  information on approaches to using AI to support solutions in the digital economy.  

ii. Will pursue a pro-innovation regulatory/governance approach that maximizes the  benefits and takes into account the risks associated with the use of AI.  

iii. Will promote responsible AI for achieving SDGs. 

F. International Taxation  

62. We reaffirm our commitment to continue cooperation towards a globally fair,  sustainable and modern international tax system appropriate to the needs of the 21st  century. We remain committed to the swift implementation of the two-pillar international  tax package. Significant progress has been made on Pillar One including the delivery  of a text of a Multilateral Convention (MLC), and work on Amount B (framework for  simplified and streamlined application of the arm’s length principle to in-country  baseline marketing and distribution activities) as well as the completion of the work on  the development of the Subject to Tax Rule (STTR) under Pillar Two. 

We call on the  Inclusive Framework to resolve swiftly the few pending issues relating to the MLC with  a view to preparing the MLC for signature in the second half of 2023 and completing  the work on Amount B by the end of 2023. We welcome the steps taken by various  countries to implement the Global Anti-Base Erosion (GloBE) Rules as a common  approach. We recognise the need for coordinated efforts towards capacity building to  implement the two-pillar international tax package effectively and, in particular,  welcome a plan for additional support and technical assistance for developing  countries. We note the 2023 update of the G20/OECD Roadmap on Developing  Countries and International Taxation. 

We call for the swift implementation of the Crypto Asset Reporting Framework (“CARF”) and amendments to the CRS. We ask the Global  Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes (“Global  Forum”) to identify an appropriate and coordinated timeline to commence exchanges  by relevant jurisdictions, noting the aspiration of a significant number of these  jurisdictions to start CARF exchanges by 2027 and to report to our future meetings on  the progress of its work. We note the OECD Report on Enhancing International Tax  Transparency on Real Estate and the Global Forum Report on Facilitating the Use of  Tax-Treaty-Exchanged Information for Non-Tax Purposes. 

G. Gender Equality and Empowering All Women and Girls  

63. The G20 reaffirms that gender equality is of fundamental importance, and that investing  in the empowerment of all women and girls, has a multiplier effect in implementing the  2030 Agenda.  

Enhancing Economic and Social Empowerment  

64. We encourage women-led development and remain committed to enhancing women’s  full, equal, effective, and meaningful participation as decision makers for addressing  global challenges inclusively and in contributing as active participants in all spheres of  society, across all sectors and at all levels of the economy, which is not only crucial for  achieving gender equality, but also for contributing to global GDP growth. To this end,  we:  

i. Reaffirm our commitment to achieving the Brisbane Goal to reduce the gap in labour  force participation and implementing the G20 Roadmap Towards and Beyond the  Brisbane Goal ‘25 by 25’ and ask the ILO and OECD to report progress annually.  

ii. Ensure equal access to affordable, inclusive, equitable, safe and quality education  from early childhood through higher education to lifelong learning and support the  greater enrolment, participation and leadership of all women and girls, including  those with disabilities, in STEM fields and in emerging digital technologies.  

iii. Take steps to promote the full and meaningful participation of women in a  transitioning world of work by enabling inclusive access to employment  opportunities, with a focus on closing the gender pay gap and ensuring women’s  equal access to decent work and quality jobs.  

iv. Promote investment in the availability and accessibility of social protection, and to  affordable care infrastructure to address the unequal distribution in paid and unpaid  care and domestic work and to promote the continued participation of women in  education and employment.  

v. Commit to eliminate gender-based violence including sexual violence, harassment,  discrimination and abuse against women and girls both online and offline, and  ensure safe workplaces in this regard.  

vi. Promote women’s inclusion into the formal financial system by strengthening their  access to economic resources, particularly through digital finance and microfinance.  

vii. Eliminate gender stereotypes and biases, and change norms, attitudes and  behaviours that perpetuate gender inequality. 


Bridging the Gender Digital Divide  

65. We commit to halve the digital gender gap by 2030. To this end, we will:  

i. Address gender norms and barriers to accessibility, affordability, adoption, and  usage of digital technologies. 

ii. Promote regulatory policy frameworks that enable all women and girls to actively  participate in the formulation and implementation of national digital strategies,  including enhancing digital literacy and skills.  

iii. Identify and eliminate all potential risks that women and girls encounter from  increased digitalization, including all forms of online and offline abuse, by  encouraging the adoption of safety-by-design approaches in digital tools and  technologies.  

iv. Promote and implement gender-responsive policies to create an enabling, inclusive,  and non-discriminatory digital economy for women-led and -owned businesses,  including MSMEs.  

v. Encourage and support initiatives by identifying, funding, and accelerating proven  solutions, thereby improving women’s livelihoods and income security.  

vi. Welcome initiatives to support women empowerment in the digital economy. 

Driving Gender Inclusive Climate Action  

66. Acknowledging the disproportionate impact of climate change, biodiversity loss,  desertification and pollution on all women and girls, accelerating climate action must  have gender equality at its core. To this end, we will:  

i. Support and increase women’s participation, partnership, decision-making and  leadership in climate change mitigation and adaptation, and disaster risk reduction  strategies and policy frameworks on environmental issues.  

ii. Support gender-responsive and environment-resilient solutions, including water,  sanitation and hygiene (WASH) solutions, to build resilience to the impact of climate  change and environmental degradation.  

Securing Women’s Food Security, Nutrition, and Well-Being  

67. Women’s food security and nutrition is the cornerstone of individual and community  development as it lays the foundation for women’s health, as well as that of her children,  family and general well-being of the community. To this end, we will:  

i. Encourage investments in inclusive, sustainable and resilient agriculture and food  systems. Support accessible, affordable, safe and nutritious food and healthy diets  in school meal programmes. Promote innovation for inclusive agri-value chains  and systems by and for women farmers.  

ii. Support gender-responsive and age-sensitive nutrition and food system  interventions by leveraging innovative financing instruments and social protection  systems in ending hunger and malnutrition. 

Creation of a Working Group on the Empowerment of Women  

68. We agree to create a new Working Group on Empowerment of Women to support the  G20 Women’s Ministerial and look forward to the convening of its first meeting during  the Brazilian G20 Presidency.  

H. Financial Sector Issues  

69. We continue to strongly support the work of the FSB and SSBs to address  vulnerabilities and enhance the resilience of non-bank financial intermediation (NBFI)  from a systemic perspective while monitoring evolving developments in NBFI. We  welcome the FSB’s consultation report on revisions to the FSB 2017 recommendations  on addressing liquidity mismatch in open-ended funds and the FSB report on the  financial stability implications of leverage in NBFI, and we support work to promote  implementation of the FSB money market fund proposals. 

We welcome the FSB’s  recommendations to achieve greater convergence in cyber incident reporting, updates  to the Cyber Lexicon and Concept Note for a Format for Incident Reporting Exchange  (FIRE). We look forward to the FSB’s further work on FIRE and ask the FSB to develop  an action plan with appropriate timelines. We welcome the FSB’s consultation Report  on Enhancing Third-party Risk Management and Oversight. 

We expect the toolkit to  support efforts in enhancing the operational resilience of financial institutions,  addressing the challenges arising from their growing reliance on critical third-party  service providers, including BigTechs and FinTechs, as well as reducing fragmentation  in regulatory and supervisory approaches across jurisdictions and in different areas of  the financial services sector.  

70. We reaffirm our commitment to the effective implementation of the prioritised actions  for the next phase of the G20 Roadmap for Enhancing Cross-border Payments to  achieve global targets for faster, cheaper, more transparent and inclusive cross-border  payments by 2027 and welcome the initiatives undertaken by SSBs and international  organisations in this direction. We welcome the successful conclusion of the G20  TechSprint 2023, a joint initiative with the BIS Innovation Hub, which will promote  innovative solutions aimed at improving cross-border payments.  

71. We welcome the annual progress report on the FSB’s Roadmap for Addressing  Financial Risks from Climate Change. We endorse the revised G20/OECD Principles  of Corporate Governance with the aim to strengthen policy and regulatory frameworks  for corporate governance that support sustainability and access to finance from capital  markets, which in turn can contribute to the resilience of the broader economy. We  reiterate our commitment to promote sustainable capital flows. To this effect, we take  note of the OECD’s Report, “Towards Orderly Green Transition – Investment  Requirements and Managing Risks to Capital Flows”.  

I. Countering Terrorism and Money laundering  

72. We condemn terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, including those on the basis  of xenophobia, racism and other forms of intolerance, or in the name of religion or belief,  recognizing the commitment of all religions to peace. It constitutes one of the most  serious threats to international peace and security. 

73. We strongly condemn all terrorist acts against critical infrastructure, including critical  energy facilities, and against other vulnerable targets. All acts of terrorism are criminal  and unjustifiable, regardless of their motivation, wherever, whenever and by  whomsoever committed. Effective counterterrorism measures, support for the victims  of terrorism and the protection of human rights are not conflicting goals, but  complementary and mutually reinforcing. A holistic approach on the basis of  international law can effectively counter terrorism. Efforts to increase the effectiveness  of international cooperation should be strengthened to deny terrorist groups safe haven,  freedom of operations, movement and recruitment, as well as financial, material or  political support.  

74. We also express concern about illicit trafficking and diversion of small arms and light  weapons. International cooperation among States is critical to combat these  phenomena, including export, import controls, and tracing.  

75. We commit to supporting the increasing resource needs of the Financial Action Task  Force (FATF) and FATF Style Regional Bodies and encourage others to do the same,  including for the next round of mutual evaluations. We remain committed to the timely  and global implementation of the revised FATF Standards on the transparency of  beneficial ownership of legal persons and legal arrangements to make it more difficult  for criminals to hide and launder ill-gotten gains. We welcome the ongoing work of the  FATF to enhance global efforts to recover criminal proceeds, in particular, the progress  made by the FATF towards revising its standards on asset recovery and reinforcing  global asset recovery networks. 

We reiterate the importance of countries developing  and implementing effective regulatory and supervisory frameworks to mitigate risks  associated with virtual assets in line with FATF Standards, especially for terrorism  financing, money laundering, and proliferation financing risks. In this regard, we support  the FATF’s initiative to accelerate the global implementation of its standards, including  the “travel rule”, and its work on risks of emerging technologies and innovations,  including decentralised finance (DeFi) arrangements and peer-to-peer transactions. 

J. Creating a More Inclusive World  

76. We welcome the African Union as a permanent member of the G20 and strongly believe  that inclusion of the African Union into the G20 will significantly contribute to addressing  the global challenges of our time. We commend the efforts of all G20 members which  paved the way for accession of the African Union as a permanent member during  India’s Presidency of the G20. Africa plays an important role in the global economy. We  commit to strengthen our ties with and support the African Union realise the aspirations  under Agenda 2063. We also reiterate strong support to Africa, including through the  G20 Compact with Africa and G20 Initiative on supporting industrialization in Africa and  LDCs. We are supportive of further discussing the deepening of cooperation between  the G20 and other regional partners.  

77. We reaffirm our commitment to support migrants, including migrant workers and  refugees in our efforts towards a more inclusive world, in line with national policies,  legislations and circumstances, ensuring full respect for the human rights and their  fundamental freedoms regardless of their migration status. We also recognize the  importance of preventing irregular migration flows and the smuggling of migrants, as part of a comprehensive approach for safe, orderly and regular migration while  responding to humanitarian needs and the root causes of displacement. We support  strengthening cooperation between countries of origin, transit and destination. We will  continue the dialogue on migration and forced displacement during future Presidencies.  

78. We note the UNGA Resolution A/RES/77/318, particularly its commitment to promote  respect for religious and cultural diversity, dialogue and tolerance. We also emphasize  that freedom of religion or belief, freedom of opinion or expression, the right to peaceful  assembly, and the right to freedom of association are interdependent, inter-related and  mutually reinforcing and stress the role that these rights can play in the fight against all  forms of intolerance and discrimination based on religion or belief. In this regard, we  strongly deplore all acts of religious hatred against persons, as well as those of a  symbolic nature without prejudice to domestic legal frameworks, including against  religious symbols and holy books.  

79. We will continue to integrate the perspectives of the developing countries into the G20  agendas and appreciate the G20 members’ initiatives in this regard.  


80. We thank India for successfully hosting the 18th G20 Summit in New Delhi, for its warm  welcome to delegates, and for its valuable contributions to the strengthening of the G20.  We appreciate the successful conclusion of various G20 Working Groups and  Ministerial meetings and welcome their outcomes as annexed. We also congratulate  India on the successful landing on the moon on 23 August 2023.  

81. We reiterate our commitment to the G20 as the premier forum for global economic  cooperation and its continued operation in the spirit of multilateralism, on the basis of  consensus, with all members participating on an equal footing in all its events including  Summits. We look forward to meeting again in Brazil in 2024 and in South Africa in  2025, as well as in the United States in 2026 at the beginning of the next cycle. We  welcome Saudi Arabia’s ambition to advance its turn for hosting the G20 Presidency in  the next cycle. We also look forward to the Paris Olympic and Paralympic Games in  2024 as a symbol of peace, dialogue amongst nations and inclusivity, with participation  of all.  

82. We thank international organizations for their participation and support. We thank the  Engagement Groups of B20, S20, SAI20, Startup20, T20, U20, W20, Y20, C20, P20  and L20 and the Initiatives, namely, EMPOWER, Research Initiative, Space Economy  Leaders Meeting (SELM), Chief Science Advisers’ Roundtable (CSAR) and the G20  Cybersecurity Conference for their valuable recommendations.  

83. Recalling our collective actions to stem earlier global crises, we are determined to steer  the world out of its current challenges and build a safer, stronger, more resilient,  inclusive and healthier future for our people and the planet. 

List of Documents Annexed to the G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration

2023  Ministerial Meetings and Working Group Documents:  

1. G20 Agriculture Ministers’ Meeting Outcome Document and Chair’s Summary (16-17  June 2023, Hyderabad)  

i. G20 Deccan High Level Principles on Food Security and Nutrition 2023  ii. Stocktaking of G20 Initiatives in Agriculture – Presidency’s Summary Statement  

2. G20 Anti-Corruption Ministers’ Meeting Outcome Document and Chair’s Summary (12  August 2023, Kolkata)  

i. G20 High-Level Principles on Strengthening Law Enforcement related International  Cooperation and Information Sharing for Combatting Corruption  

ii. G20 High-Level Principles on Strengthening Asset Recovery Mechanisms for  Combatting Corruption  

iii. G20 High-Level Principles on Promoting Integrity and Effectiveness of Public Bodies  and Authorities Responsible for Preventing and Combatting Corruption  iv. Accountability Report 2023 on Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA)  

v. Compendium of Good Practices in Enhancing the Role of Auditing in Tackling  Corruption  

3. G20 Culture Ministers’ Meeting Outcome Document and Chair’s Summary – Kashi  Culture Pathway (26 August 2023, Varanasi)  

i. G20 Culture Working Group Terms of Reference  

4. G20 Development Ministers’ Meeting Outcome Document and Chair’s Summary (12  June 2023, Varanasi)  

5. G20 2023 Action Plan on Accelerating Progress on the SDGs (12 June 2023, Varanasi)  i. G20 High Level Principles on Harnessing Data for Development (D4D) to Accelerate  Progress on the SDGs  

ii. Implementing Sustainable, Inclusive and Just Transitions Globally, while leaving no  one behind  

iii. G20 Action Plan on Sustainable Development through Gender Equality on  Sustainable Development through Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women  

6. G20 High Level Principles on Lifestyles for Sustainable Development (12 June 2023,  Varanasi)  

7. G20 Digital Economy Ministers’ Meeting Outcome Document and Chair’s Summary (19  August 2023, Bengaluru)  

i. G20 Framework for systems of Digital Public Infrastructure  

ii. G20 High Level Principles to Support Business in Building Safety, Security,  Resilience, and Trust in the Digital Economy  

iii. G20 Toolkit on Cyber Education and Cyber Awareness of Children and Youth  iv. G20 Toolkit for Designing and Introducing Digital Upskilling and Reskilling Programs  v. G20 Roadmap to Facilitate the Cross-Country Comparison of Digital Skills  

8. G20 Disaster Risk Reduction Working Group Meeting Outcome Document and Chair’s  Summary (24- 25 July 2023, Chennai) 

9. G20 Environment & Climate Ministers’ Meeting Outcome Document and Chair’s  Summary (28 July 2023, Chennai)  

i. Chennai High Level Principles for a Sustainable and Resilient Blue/Ocean-Based  Economy  

ii. Presidency’s Gandhinagar Implementation Roadmap (GIR) And Gandhinagar  Information Platform (GIP) For strengthening the G20 Global Land Initiative.  iii. Compendium of Best Practices on Restoration of Mining Affected Areas.  iv. Compendium of Best Practices on Restoration of Forest Fire Affected Areas  v. Best Practices for Water Management  

vi. Technical Study on Accelerating the Transition to a Sustainable and Resilient Blue  Economy  

vii. G20 Report on Actions Against Marine Plastic Litter – Fifth Information Sharing  Based on G20 Implementation Framework  

viii. Knowledge Exchange on Circular Economy in Steel Sector  

ix. Knowledge Exchange on Extended Producer Responsibility for Circular Economy  x. Knowledge Exchange on Circular Bioeconomy  

xi. Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition (RECEIC)  

10. G20 Education Ministers’ Meeting Outcome Document and Chair’s Summary (22 June  2023, Pune)  

i. G20 EdWG Report: Education Policies and Programmes in G20 Countries  ii. G20 EdWG Compendium: Education Policies and Programmes in G20 Countries  

11. G20 Energy Transitions Ministers’ Meeting Outcome Document and Chair’s Summary  (22 July 2023, Goa)  

i. G20 High-Level Voluntary Principles on Hydrogen  

ii. Voluntary High-Level Principles for Collaboration on Critical Minerals for Energy  Transitions  

iii. Voluntary Action Plan on Doubling the Global Rate of Energy Efficiency  Improvement by 2030  

iv. Voluntary Action Plan for Lowering the Cost of Finance for Energy Transitions  v. Voluntary Action Plan for Promoting Renewable Energy to Accelerate Universal  Energy Access.  

12. G20 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting Chair’s Summary and Outcome Document (1-2 March  2023, New Delhi)  

13. First G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting Chair’s Summary and  Outcome Document (24 – 25 February 2023, Bengaluru)  

i. IMF G20 Note on the Macro financial Implications of Crypto Assets  ii. FSB Chair’s Letter to G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, February  2023.  

iii. FSB Report on the Financial Stability Risks of Decentralised Finance  iv. FSB Report on the Financial Stability Aspects of Commodities Markets  v. FSB report: G20 Roadmap for Enhancing Cross-border Payments – Priority actions  for achieving the G20 targets  

vi. OECD Secretary-General’s Tax Letter to G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank  Governors, February 2023. 

vii. OECD Secretary-General Tax Report to G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank  Governors  

14. Third G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting Outcome Document  and Chair’s Summary (17-18 July 2023, Gandhinagar)  

i. G20 Report on Macroeconomic Impacts of Food and Energy Insecurity and their  implications for the global economy  

ii. G20 Report on Macroeconomic risks stemming from climate change and transition  pathways  

iii. G20 Roadmap for implementing the recommendations of the G20 Independent  Review of MDBs Capital Adequacy Frameworks (CAFs)  

iv. Volume 1 of the G20 Expert Group on Strengthening MDBs  

v. IMF Report on potential macro-financial implications of widespread adoption of  CBDCs  

vi. BIS Innovation Hub (BISIH) Report on “Lessons learnt on CBDCs”  vii. OECD’s report on “Towards Orderly Green Transition – Investment Requirements  and Managing Risks to Capital Flows  

viii. G20 note on the total global ambition of USD 100bn of voluntary contributions for  countries most in need  

ix. G20 Principles for Financing Cities of Tomorrow: inclusive, resilient and sustainable  x. G20/OECD Report on Financing Cities of Tomorrow  

xi. G20/ADB Framework on Capacity Building of Urban Administration  xii. G20 Sustainable Finance Working Group Deliverables, 2023  

xiii. Framework on Economic Vulnerabilities and Risks (FEVR) and the initial Report for  economic vulnerabilities and risks arising from pandemics  

xiv. Report on Best Practices from Finance Health Institutional Arrangements during  Covid-19  

xv. Report on Mapping Pandemic Response Financing Options and Gaps developed  by the WHO and World Bank  

xvi. G20/OECD Roadmap on Developing Countries and International Taxation Update  2023  

xvii. OECD Report on ‘Enhancing International Tax Transparency on Real Estate’  xviii. Global Forum Report on ‘Facilitating the Use of Tax-Treaty-Exchanged Information  for Non-Tax Purposes’  

xix. Global Forum Update on the implementation of the 2021 Strategy on Unleashing  the Potential of Automatic Exchange of Information for Developing Countries  xx. FSB Chair’s Letters to G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, April  and July 2023  

xxi. FSB’s global regulatory framework for crypto-asset activities: Umbrella public note  to accompany final framework  

xxii. FSB’s high-level recommendations for the regulation, supervision, and oversight of  crypto-asset activities and markets  

xxiii. FSB’s high-level recommendations for the regulation, supervision, and oversight of  global stablecoin arrangements  

xxiv. BIS Report on “The crypto ecosystem: key elements and risks”  xxv. FSB Consultation Report on addressing liquidity mismatch in open-ended funds Revisions to the FSB 2017 policy recommendations  

xxvi. FSB Consultative document on Enhancing Third-Party Risk Management and  Oversight: A toolkit for financial institutions and financial authorities 

xxvii. FSB Roadmap for Addressing Financial Risks from Climate Change: 2023 Progress  Report  

xxviii. FSB Recommendations to Achieve Greater Convergence in Cyber Incident  Reporting: Final Report  

xxix. FSB Concept Note on Format for Incident Reporting Exchange (FIRE) – A possible  way forward  

xxx. Revised G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance  

xxxi. IMF-FSB Synthesis Paper: Policies for Crypto-Assets  

xxxii. FSB progress report on enhancing the resilience of NBFI  

xxxiii. FSB report on the financial stability implications of leverage in NBFI  xxxiv. G20 Policy Recommendations for Advancing Financial Inclusion and Productivity  Gains through Digital Public Infrastructure  

xxxv. 2023 Update to Leaders on Progress towards the G20 Remittance Target 

xxxvi. Regulatory Toolkit for Enhanced Digital Financial Inclusion of Micro, Small and  Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)  

xxxvii. G20 2023 Financial Inclusion Action Plan  

xxxviii. 2023 Updated GPFI Terms of Reference  

xxxix. 2023 GPFI Progress Report to G20 Leaders  

xl. G20 Financial Inclusion Action Plan Progress Report 2021-23  

xli. FATF Report- Countering Ransomware Financing Report (March 2023)  xlii. Targeted Update on the Implementation of the FATF Standards for Virtual Assets  (June 2023)  

xliii. FATF Report on Guidance on Beneficial Ownership Transparency for Legal Persons  (March 2023)  

15. G20 Health Ministers’ Meeting Outcome Document and Chair’s Summary (18-19 August  2023, Gandhinagar)  

16. G20 Labour & Employment Ministers’ Outcome Document and Chair’s Summary (21  July 2023, Indore)  

i. List of reports prepared by International Organizations  

17. G20 Policy Priorities on Strategies to Address Skill Gaps Globally (21 July 2023, Indore)  

18. G20 Policy Priorities on Adequate and Sustainable Social Protection and Decent Work  for Gig and Platform Workers (21 July 2023, Indore)  

19. G20 Policy Options for Sustainable Financing of Social Protection (21 July 2023, Indore)  

20. G20 Meeting of Agricultural Chief Scientists (MACS) Chair’s Summary and Outcome  Document (17-19 April 2023, Varanasi)  

i. G20 Millet and other Ancient Grains International Research Initiative (MAHARISHI)  

21. G20 Tourism Ministers’ Meeting Outcome Document and Chairs’ Summary (21 June  2023, Goa)  

i. G20 Goa Roadmap for Tourism as a Vehicle for Achieving the Sustainable  Development Goals  

22. G20 Trade & Investment Ministers’ Meeting Outcome Document and Chairs’ Summary  (25 August 2023, Jaipur) 

i. G20 Generic Framework for Mapping GVCs  

ii. Jaipur Call for Action for enhancing MSMEs’ Access to Information 

iii. High Level Principles on Digitalization of Trade Documents  

23. G20 Ministerial Conference on Women Empowerment – Chair’s Statement (2-4 August  2023, Gandhinagar)  

24. G20 Chief Science Advisers Round Table – Outcome Document and Chairs’ Summary  (28 August 2023, Gandhinagar)  

25. G20 Research Ministerial Meeting – Outcome Document and Chairs’ Summary (5 July  2023, Mumbai)