DiploFoundation’s Capacity Development Programme in ICT Policy and IG for ACP countries


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Welcome to the homepage of DiploFoundation’s Capacity Development Programme in ICT Policy and IG for ACP countries. 

All our projects and activities have been completed, after two years of successful implementation and co-operation with our partners and donors. The programme achieved great results, especially in managing to expand the community of professionals from ACP countries. Over 500 new members from 60 ACP countries – representing governments, international, regional and sub-regional institutions, civil society, business, academy, and regulatory authorities – have benefited directly from our training. Many more have benefited from the programme by following our activities online, reading our publications, and engaging with our community in one way or another.  

This website is an online footprint of the programme. It will remind us, our programme partners and donors, and all those who benefited, of the projects, activities, results, and publications, which will remain accessible for public use. Yet, we are sure that the real footprint will be felt in years to come through the work and informed decisions taken by our community of professionals.

We will continue to work hard in the capacity development area by continuing to implement the successful methodology, and at the same time, improving our work based on the experiences we have gained from this programme. We hope that the impact of this programme will serve as an invitation and encouragement for other donors, governments, and the corporate sector to fund further activities and support the continuation of the capacity development programme.


DiploFoundation’s two-year Capacity Development Programme in ICT Policy and IG for ACP countries included several projects, courses, activities, and publications. Navigate through the menu on the left for more information, and read the News section for developments and updates. Contact us at diplo@diplomacy.edu for more information. 

The focus of this programme was on building capacity and community development in Information and Communication Policy (ICT) and Internet governance (IG). The 2009-2011 programme was designed for regional and sub-regional institutions in ACP countries (Africa, Caribbean and the Pacific).

With the collaboration of seven ACP partner institutions, the two-year project trained key beneficiaries and institutions who are dealing with Internet Governance and ICT policy issues at the national, regional, and global levels. The capacity development programme trained over 500 officials and specialist from 60 ACP countries. The 2009-2011 programme was financed by the EU @CP-ICT Programme, 9th European Development Fund (EDF), while a number of other international, regional and sub-regional institutions cooperated through sharing their expertise, networking, supporting the workshops and trainees, and collaborating in many other different ways. These institutions include the African Union Commission, UNECA, NEPAD, SPC, PICISOC, CTU, ICANN, and ITU.

We would like to express our appreciation to the following organisations: 

  • the ACP Secretariat and the EU, for their support;
  • our programme partners  – the Botswana Information Technology Society (BITS), the Burundi Youth Training Centre (BYTC), the Centre Africain de Complémentarité Scolaire Universitaire et de Promotion (CACSUP) of Congo, Young Americas Business Trust Haiti, ICT4D Jamaica Limited, the Multimedia University College of Kenya, and Sir Arthur Lewis Community College of St Lucia  – for their interest and engaging cooperation;
  • the many institutions with whom we cooperated during the programme, including the African Union Commission, UNECA, NEPAD, SPC, PICISOC, CTU, ICANN, ITU and others;
  • over 500 programme participants for their trust, persistence, great work and knowledge shared  – from which we all benefited; 
  • and last but not least, the Diplo team and associates, without whom this programme would not have been successful.

About the Programme

The project, which started in 2009 and ran till September 2011, included:

  • Online training courses, each lasting 12 weeks, in  Internet Governance and ICT strategy.
  • Advanced courses, in Infrastructure and Critical Internet Resources, Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Internet Security, and Privacy and Personal Data Protection, lasting 8 weeks.
  • ‘train the trainers’ programme for 15 trainers from ACP countries.
  • research phase to promote intra-ACP knowledge sharing and an active learning network.
  • Ten face-to-face workshops for decision-makers and ICT officials from ACP countries.
  • Awareness building and knowledge sharing on ICT policy and IG, using a range of media including posters, comic books and multimedia; particular focus will be on awareness building among youth, women, people with disabilities and others who are not sufficiently represented in IG/ICT policy forums.
  • Policy immersion fellowships aimed at providing practical experience in policy-shaping and policy-making. A number of participants are selected for short-term internships at international organisations and for participation in international ICT/IG meetings.

Key outcomes of the project included:

  • a community of IG and ICT policy-makers throughout all ACP countries, working together to develop good practice in ICT policy regulations and promote greater stakeholder awareness of IG and ICT issues;
  • a group of next generation ICT/IG policy-makers who have built their skills and confidence through the training of trainers component and are ready to facilitate the continued development of this area.

The project builds on DiploFoundation’s expertise in the field of Internet governance capacity building, and over ten years working in online learning and community building. Coupled with the national and regional ICT policy expertise of the ACP project partners and relevant experts, the project’s aim was to bring together a wealth of IG and ICT knowledge. Participants have been – and still are – active contributors in this project through their research work and the sharing of experiences and expertise through online and face-to-face discussions.

Internet governance (IG) and ICT Policy online course

The online courses in IG and ICT policy included several phases: a 12-week Foundation Course, 8-week Advanced Courses in specific topics, and a course on ICT policy and strategic planning. A total of 309 professionals completed the online courses during the 2009-2011 programme: 217 from Africa, 66 from the Caribbean, and 26 from the Pacific. As the main target group, the majority of participants represented governments, regional, sub-regional and international organisations (approx. 37%), ICT sector (approx. 20%), academia (approx. 20%), and civil society and media (approx. 23%).

Learning activities took place in online classrooms, and included the analysis of course materials, interactive group discussions using a variety of communication tools, assignments, and exams. Successful participants are awarded a certificate of completion.

The courses were conducted entirely online, and all interactions were text-based, requiring only a dial-up Internet connection. Most course activities could be completed whenever it was convenient to the participant, within a given weekly schedule. Real-time (synchronous) online interaction (attending online chat sessions) took place once a week, with the possibility of revisiting a session transcript if the participant was unable to meet for the session.

The online classrooms provided tools for online learning and interaction including a hypertext discussion system, blog message board, forum discussions, online chat sessions, and other important features.

The courses included studying and discussing textual materials under the guidance of experienced tutors and with the support from topic experts. A final, narrative exam assessed the level of understanding of issues covered.

The courses targeted the following categories of individuals:

  • officials in government ministries and departments dealing with Information Society, Internet and ICT-related issues (e.g., telecommunications, education, foreign affairs, justice);
  • officials in regulatory authorities or institutions dealing with Information Society, Internet and ICT-related issues;
  • postgraduate students, academics and researchers in the IG field (e.g., in telecommunications, electrical engineering, law, economics, development studies);
  • civil society activists in the IG and Information Society fields;
  • journalists covering IG issues; and
  • individuals in Internet-business fields (e.g. ISPs, software developers).

Course fees for all eligible participants from ACP countries were covered by the @CP-ICT Programme Budget, financed from the 9th European Development Fund (EDF).

Foundation Course: Introduction to Internet governance

The 12-week Foundation Course introduced IG policies, processes, and actors, and covered five thematic baskets. Each basket focused on a specific perspective addressing issues related to infrastructure and standardisation, legal aspects, economic perspectives, sociocultural issues, and development.

The course topics included:

  • Introduction to the IG process and actors (Evolution, Meaning, Negotiations, Classification)
  • Infrastructure and Standardisation Basket (Standards, TCP/IP, DNS and Root Zone Management, Internet Service and Bandwidth Providers, Economic Models, Security, Spam, Open Source)
  • Legal Basket (Legal Mechanisms, Jurisdiction, Arbitration, Intellectual Property Rights, Cybercrime)
  • Economic Basket (e-Commerce, Consumer Protection, Taxation, Digital Signatures, Customs, e-Payments)
  • Sociocultural Basket (Content Policy, Human Rights, Privacy, Multilingualism and Cultural Diversity, Public Goods, Education)
  • Development Basket (Digital Divide and Strategies, Universal Access)
  • The Internet Governance Process, Actors, Process, Negotiations, Internet Governance Forum

The online course welcomed professionals from diverse stakeholder backgrounds in IG and ICT-related fields. Bilingual classes in English and French were also available.  

Advanced Courses in IG and ICT Policy

The 8-week online Advanced Courses were added to the Foundation Course due to an overwhelming demand by participants who wished to gain in-depth knowledge on specific global IG and policy issues, and to focus more on national and regional issues of concern. Seventy-nine participants were accepted from those who successfully completed the Foundation Course. The aim was to help participants to move beyond the basics and to tackle issues more concretely with the help of qualified experts. Groups were created based on the interests of the selected participants in order to explore the issues, the actors, the policies, and the concerns in depth. The advanced topics were:

  • Infrastructure and Critical Internet Resources
  • Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
  • Internet Security
  • Privacy and Personal Data Protection


ICT Workshops

Ten face-to-face workshops took place in various ACP countries for IG/ICT policy officials. Several workshops were held in conjunction with major ICT-related conferences and were organised collaboratively with partners, experts and other interested organisations. A total of 253 participants took part in the ten workshops. Additionally, 143 participants took part in the three local events organised by programme partners in Burundi, Congo and Haiti. 

Each workshop received an overwhelming number of applicants with an average of over 40 applicants per session. The selection process followed the same procedure as that for the online courses; however, the main criterion was to focus on senior-level officials from regional and sub-regional institutions. In order to introduce greater interaction and dynamics in the workshop and encourage multistakeholderism, other target groups were accepted. For efficient learning and discussion process, a maximum of 20 to 25 participants were accepted to attend. 

  • 6-8 April 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    In co-operation with the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).

  • 12-14 April 2011, Pretoria, South Africa
    In co-operation with the NEPAD Planning and Co-ordinating Agency (NEPAD Agency). 

  • 12-13 November 2010, Tobago
    In co-operation with the Caribbean Telecommunication Union (CTU). 
  • 19-20 October 2010, Gaborone, Botswana
    In collaboration with our project partner institution, the Botswana Information Technology Society. 
  • 13 September 2010, Vilnius, Lithuania
    Held as a pre-event workshop to the 5th Internet Governance Forum. 
  • 1-2 September 2010, Suva, Fiji
    Held with the support from the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC).
  • 25 August 2010, Rarotonga, Cook Islands
    Held in conjunction with the Pacific Islands Chapter of the Internet Society (PICISOC) and ITU’s Numbering and Licensing Workshops. 
  • 30 June-1 July 2010, Kingston, Jamaica
    Held in conjunction with our project partner institution ICT4D Jamaica. 
  • 13-14 May 2010, Accra, Ghana
    Held as part of the pre-conference training programme of the Fourth African Conference on FOSS and the Digital Commons, IDLELO 4 Conference from 17-21 May 2010. 
  • 11-12 March 2010, Nairobi, Kenya
    Held during the 37th ICANN meeting with the assistance of ICT African specialists, IG experts and ICANN officials.

Other workshops

  • 28-29 June 2011, Bujumbura, Burundi
    Organised by the Burundi Youth Training Centre, in collaboration with DiploFoundation

  • 12 August 2011, Port au Prince, Haiti
    Held in co-operation with the partner institution, Young Americas Business Trust (YABT)

  • 10-11 August 2011, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
    Held in co-operation with the partner institution, Centre Africain de Complémentarité Scolaire-Universitaire et de Promotion (CACSUP)

Research Networks

The research programme was aimed at developing online research networks by enabling selected participants from the online training programme to further their work on ICT issues of interest by engaging in a group research project. Fifty-six of the most successful online course participants were accepted for the online research phase in Autumn 2010. 

The online course on policy research sought to address questions such as: What purpose does a policy paper serve? What is policy research? How is it carried out? Why do we need it? Thus, the research programme consisted of two components: the educational programme, which focused on introducing the concepts of policy and policy research, objectives, methodologies and techniques; and the practical policy research work which encouraged the best participants to produce relevant localised policy papers on topical ICT and IG issues.

By the end of the research phase, 23 papers on relevant IG and ICT policy were completed and published. The support of experts from various fields proved significant to the added value of the learning process. The work of the authors introduced a fresh breeze of thought into the already well-mapped thematic field of IG, and enabled the localisation of IG challenges and a better understanding of national or regional specificities that should be taken into account in future ICT planning.

Online Policy Research Course

In 2010, a preparatory online course on theoretical policy research and methodology was offered. The course introduced analytical insights in challenging ICT and IG topics that have an intra-ACP and developmental dimension, with the introduction of a case-study approach and local and regional content.

The course, held between 4 October and 26 November 2010, had several purposes::

  • to develop the online research skills of the participants;
  • to understand online research methodology, academic guidelines, modern research tools;
  • to promote a research network; and
  • to encourage online teamwork by collecting and analysing data, and drafting a comprehensive report. 

Based on the interest in certain topics, the participants were divided into eight smaller thematic groups of 5-10 participants, in order to allow each group to easily discuss and develop policy research plans related to the chosen topic, and to allow for more constructive group discussions. Each group was supervised by an experienced Diplo associate. The eight thematic groups were:

  • Infrastructure
  • e-Participation and development (two groups)
  • Security (two groups)
  • Strategy (two groups)
  • IPR and Privacy

As a result, the selected participants produced excellent research proposals on various issues that were impacted by ICT and IG. Proposals included analysis into the use of ICT in educational systems; ways in which the Internet could be made a safer place, especially for children; strategies to lower the cost of Internet provisions and the bridge the digital divide; and the adoption of e-health services in developing countries.

Research projects

Starting in January 2011, the participants were guided by qualified tutors and assisted by a pool of regional experts towards developing intra-ACP policy research projects relevant to their countries and regions. Emphasis was placed on promoting and maintaining cohesion in the research learning network groups. Twenty-three papers on relevant IG and ICT policy were completed and published by March 2011. Some research papers were written in French, to reflect the local needs identified by their authors. The abstracts of the papers were printed in a Book of Abstracts publication under the ACP Programme.

The Book of Abstracts, as well as all the individual abstracts, are available for download here

Train the Trainers Online Course

An online training programme for ICT policy and IG trainers ensured a continuation of the capacity development among ACP sub-regional and regional institutions.

In 2010, 15 of the most successful participants from ACP countries were selected from the ICT policy and IG online course. They were invited to take part in the Train the Trainers online course, which was held in June-July, 2010.

On 10 June, the Train the Trainers faculty lounge welcomed the participants who went through the theory of online course tutoring, including tutor-participant interaction and online communication. The course also dealt with the practical side of tutoring online courses, and included hands-on activities.

The second phase of the online Train the Trainers course took place in December 2010 and gathered the 15 participants from the first phase. This additional online course was introduced due to the necessity of teaching the practical components of online tutoring, so that theory is applied in a uniform manner; the need to assure that evaluation techniques are understood and implemented in an objective, but motivating and supportive manner; and the recognition that online tutoring is complex and of the need to communicate in a dynamic way without relying on ‘in person’ contact so that participants do not feel isolated.

Five of the newly certified online tutors were then asked to lead the groups during the online course on ICT policy and strategic planning in mid-2011. Supervised by senior Diplo tutors, they proved their excellence and ability to enhance the interactivity and knowledge-sharing in a solely online environment. Being from the ACP region themselves, with solid knowledge and experience with IG and ICT policy, they were also able to strengthen the regional dimension with emphasis on regional challenges and developments, which added value to the learning process.


ICT Policy and Strategic Planning online course

The ICT Policy and Strategic Planning online course focused on assisting selected ACP participants in developing, monitoring, and evaluating effective national and regional ICT strategies.

This online course was designed to address globally accepted best practices in ICT policies, regulations, and strategies. The course aimed at anchoring the policy challenges of the Internet with practical aspects of implementing national and regional national ICT policies and strategies. The course was conducted for 8 weeks, from 13 June to 12 August, 2011. Even though the call announced 75 places, a total of 116 participants were accepted for the course due to the importance and the considerable interest shown for this course. Out of 103 participants that have successfully completed the course and received a certificate of completion, 79 were new to programme, while the remaining 24 had already completed the IG Foundation Course in 2010 or 2011 when they decided to enroll for this course.


The content of this course was developed in conjunction with the partner institutions and focused on understanding ICT strategies from different stakeholder perspectives, as outlined in the following chapters:

  • Introduction to ICT strategy
  • National ICT policies and strategies, context, and background
  • ICT policy development
  • E-readiness assessment and ICT benchmarking
  • Development of ICT action plans (including actions, Pathfinder projects, funding, partners)
  • Implementation of an action plan (implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of national ICT strategies, scope, project plans, deliverables, roles and responsibilities, dependencies, risks and mitigation strategies, change management)
  • ICT governance and management of the implementation process (governance structures and the implementation process, including monitoring and follow-up of the strategy)
  • Additional reading – case studies

Structure and benefits

The course was conducted entirely online; all Interactions were text-based. Most course activities could be completed whenever convenient to the participant, within a given weekly schedule. Real-time (synchronous) online interaction (attending online chat sessions) took place once a week.

The online classroom provided Web 2.0 tools for online learning and interaction, including a hypertext discussion system, blog message board, forum discussions, online chat sessions, and other important features.

The course included studying and discussing textual materials under the guidance of experienced tutors and with the support from topic experts. A final, narrative exam assessed the level of understanding of issues covered.

Successful students are awarded a DiploFoundation Certificate for the respective course, and were invited to join Diplo’s Alumni, and the Internet governance online community of over 1,000 members.

Policy Immersion Fellowships

An important component in blended learning is the in situ involvement of selected beneficiaries in various policy immersion activities. Policy Immersion fellowships enabled the representatives of the ACP regional and sub-regional institutions and other stakeholders to participate actively and in-vivo in IG-related policy discussions. This included participation in or hosting of regional and national workshops, intra-ACP partnering activities, exchange programmes, and the running of local awareness building workshops by using the same IG policy course materials to targeted sector groups. Fellowships were granted to a number of the most successful ACP participants of the online courses. The selection was based on results from the online courses, successful development of the research project, and equal regional distribution.

The major aim and structure of this activity was to:

  • Provide practical experience in dealing with ICT and IG issues.
  • Select participants based on results from the online courses taking into consideration equal regional distribution and gender balance.
  • Facilitate participation at important national, regional and global meetings related to IG and ICT, including the Internet Governance Forum.

In 2010 and 2011, a number of fellowships were awarded to ACP sub-regional and regional institutions which enabled them to participate in IG-related policy discussions, as well as relevant international and regional events and IGF meetings. 

The events included the Programme’s IG and ICT Policy workshops held throughout 2010 and 2011 in collaboration with DiploFoundation’s project partners; the 5th Internet Governance Forum meeting in Vilnius, Lithuania, in September 2010, in which ACP fellows, together with other fellows from DiploFoundation, strengthened the voice of the institutions they represented by participating actively in the workshops during the meeting; the Pacific IGF in April 2011; the LAC IGF, the Central-African IGF, and the Southern-African IGF, in August 2011.

The events gave ACP participants the opportunity to act on behalf of their institutions, network, discuss issues, and raise policy initiatives. Although we received many good applications, we faced the tough decision of selecting those who could take greatest advantage from participating in these events and who could leave the strongest personal and institutional footprint in the ongoing process.

ICT Toolkit

The resources below have been produced by DiploFoundation over the years. Diplo has worked constantly to update these resources, and to introduce new materials, to reflect the latest developments in ICT policy and IG.

The book An Introduction to Internet Governance (4th ed.)

Jovan Kurbalija’s publication, An Introduction to Internet Governance (4th ed.) (2010), proposes a practical framework for the analysis, discussion, and resolution of the key problems in this field. The book has been translated to all UN languages. 

In summer of 2010, the fourth edition of Dr Kurbalija’s book was published. It builds upon years of research work and collaboration with various experts on IG issues. Contact us for a copy of the book, or view the online version here, where you can also download translated versions.

The second edition of book Introduction a la Gouvernance de l’Internet has also been published. The book is a translation of the fourth edition of An Introduction to Internet Governance. The new edition was translated by the Centre Africain de Complémentarité Scolaire, Universitaire et de Promotion (CACSUP) and the Burundi Youth Training Centre (BYTC). 

The Book of Abstracts and policy research papers

The Book of Abstracts presents the research work of some of the best participants of Diplo’s 2010/2011 educational and research programme. The authors of the featured research papers are practitioners representing various stakeholders. Their professional and cultural backgrounds have a broad reach. Their work thus reflects their policy work experience combined with accumulated knowledge, introducing a fresh breeze of thought into the already well-mapped thematic field of IG. 

The book Emerging Leaders for the Digital World

Emerging Leaders for the Digital World features the experiences of some of the most active emerging leaders in Internet governance and ICT policy. 

The leaders, identified and empowered by Diplo’s ACP programme, have played a remarkable role in furthering regional training and education, and in driving debates, better understanding, and more support, on the meaningful use of ICTs and the Internet. Visit the publication’s page.

Discussion on .Africa: online resources

The document .Africa – A summary of the online discussion is a summary of the online discussion on the ‘.Africa’ top-level Internet domain. The debate emerged after discussions took place during Diplo’s Addis Ababa and Pretoria workshops in 2011. The summary includes the contributions of over 50 contributors, and categorises them into six areas: Why ‘.Africa’; The involvement and benefit for all; Application and set-up; Policy issues; Alternatives and iDNs; Developing capacity and awareness building. The integral discussion, including all the online contributions, will remain available at https://discuss.diplomacy.edu/dotafrica. Read the press release here.  


The Internet governance DVD

The IG DVD (2010) is a multimedia tool that explores issues surrounding Internet governance. It may be used for training, research, and general awareness-building.

In 2010, a reproduction of the DVD with a video on Internet governance was produced for awareness building for high-level officials as a ‘short-and-sweet’ introduction to IG. It has been delivered as a background material in training workshops, and has been shared with project partners for further dissemination in their region.

Net Neutrality video 

The Net Neutrality animation, available on Diplo’s YouTube channel (shown in English; the dialogue is also translated into French), was created by Diplo’s multimedia team to visually explain the controversial issue of Net Neutrality. It plays on an analogy of a roadway system and the competing nature of road users. 

The video was promoted within the global IGF and regional (European) IG discussions, as well as through Diplo’s online professional community.

Comic book on Child Safety 

Child Safety Comic Book (2010) was created and printed in both English and French last year. 

It highlights the complexity of governance, regulations, and actors over the issue of Child Safety and the use of the Internet, presented from a user-centred perspective. The comic can be viewed here.


E-participation resources

International and regional policy forums are not just taking place inside conference centres, but also across the world via Internet tools such as remote participation and social media. Our e-participation resources are aimed at helping professionals involved in the process to use these tools in an effective way. 

The Social Reporting Handbook provides useful guidance on what social reporting is, why it is needed, and how to report from events. Embracing social media tools helps professionals extend their personal and institutional capabilities to listen to other inputs, share their own contributions efficiently, and engage with others. 

E-participation is fast become a necessary tool during global and regional policy-making processes. The Concept Note on E-participation goes a step further by describing concrete steps for joining existing e-participation initiatives or establishing new initiatives that facilitate e-participation during policy-making processes.

ICT Visualisation Materials

Click on the thumbnails for larger versions. The thumbnails are a selection of all our Internet governance-related illustrations. More illustrations are available on our online repository. Illustrations translated into French are available here.   


The Diplo Project Team

Vladimir Radunović, Project Co-ordinator

Vladimir Radunović has been the co-ordinator of the Internet Governance and Policy educational and training programmes with DiploFoundation since 2005. He has actively participated in the global process since the WSIS Geneva meeting in 2003, and has been a key resource person and speaker on Internet governance, ICT policy, capacity development, education of policy-makers and community building, at a number of international events. Mr Radunović holds a Diploma (dipl.ing.) in Electrical Engineering from the University of Belgrade, Serbia, and a Master in Contemporary Diplomacy from the University of Malta. His research interests are in capacity development and online learning, policy and process negotiations and planning, e-diplomacy, broadband and access policy, network neutrality, cyber-security and Internet safety, and strategies for bridging the digital divide. Mr Radunović is also managing director of AVAcom Ing, an ICT deployment company based in Belgrade, Serbia.

Virginia (Ginger) Paque, Internet Governance Capacity Building Co-ordinator
Virginia (Ginger) Paque was born in the United States, but has lived in Venezuela for the past 35 years. An educator and administrator by profession, she has 25 years’ experience in business and manufacturing systems consulting. As a board member of the United Nations Association of Venezuela, her work as the Venezuelan member of the World Federation of United Nations Associations Task Force on WSIS brought her into the world of Internet governance. She is currently IGCBP co-ordinator for DiploFoundation, enjoying the opportunity to extend online capacity building programmes to developing countries in different languages. The research and implementation of e-participation and online inclusion possibilities for global policy processes is an another important priority area.

Jovan Kurbalija, Director of DiploFoundation, IG Expert and Project Advisor 
Jovan Kurbalija is the founding director of DiploFoundation. He is a former diplomat with a professional and academic background in international law, diplomacy, and Information Technology. Since the late 1980s he has been involved in research into ICT and law. In 1992, he established the Unit for IT and Diplomacy at the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies in Malta. In 2003, after more than 10 years of successful work in the field of training, research and publishing, the Unit evolved into DiploFoundation. Jovan currently directs online learning courses on ICT and diplomacy and lectures in academic and training institutions in Switzerland, the United States, Austria, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Malta. His main areas of research are diplomacy and the development of an international Internet regime, the use of hypertext in diplomacy, online negotiations, and diplomatic law.

Eva Tanner, Project Reporting Co-ordinator 
Ms Tanner directs DiploFoundation’s development of new projects and is responsible for identifying strategic partnerships. She has been associated with DiploFoundation since 1992 when it first started as the Unit for IT and Diplomacy at the Mediterranean Academy for Diplomatic Studies, as a conference assistant for the Unit in Malta. Ms Tanner is now based in Geneva and works extensively with the diplomatic and international community, particularly with developing country missions and NGOs working with the various specialised UN agencies. She has experience in resource mobilisation, finance and communication while working with the Quakers UN Office Geneva. Her educational background includes Business Administration, Psychology, and Transportation Planning and Engineering.

Hannah Slavik, Educational Programmes Director 
Hannah Slavik is the educational programmes director for DiploFoundation. She has eight years of experience in designing educational methodology, planning educational policy, co-ordinating materials development, and evaluating online learning programmes in the fields of diplomacy, international relations, and human rights. Her regular travels and encounters with different cultures have made her particularly sensitive to intercultural issues in course design. Hannah holds a Postgraduate Diploma in Online and Distance Education and an MA in Linguistics. She has edited and co-edited three recent DiploFoundation publications: Language and DiplomacyIntercultural Communication and Diplomacy and Roma Diplomacy.

Dejan Dinčić, Project Technical and Online Architect Director 
Dejan Dinčić is technical director of DiploFoundation, where he designs software and co-ordinates technical activities supporting innovative online learning and research programmes. With a professional and academic background in information and educational technologies, Dejan has more than 20 years of experience in information architecture and management, online communications, and systems design. Before joining DiploFoundation, he worked on harnessing the potential of ICT in the developing world. His major research interests include software usability, instructional design and online communities’ facilitation.

Martin Aquilina, Accounts Manager 
A Fellow of the Malta Institute of Accountants and a Certified Public Accountant, Martin has been with DiploFoundation since its incorporation in 2002. For a number of years he was the Financial Controller and a non-voting executive board member of the National Tourism Organisation – Malta following which he was the General Manager of various service-related enterprises. He is also a 2 star CMAS & FUAM diving instructor, a writer for diving-related magazines and was also the joint co-ordinator of the Blue Dolphin of Malta international underwater photographic competition.

The Tutors

Emmanuel Edet, Tutor and Content Specialist 
Emmanuel Edet is a lawyer, currently heading the Legal Unit of the National Information Technology Development Agency in Nigeria. He has been involved in pioneering activities in the development of legal and institutional framework for Information Technology in Nigeria. He holds a bachelor’s degree in law and has additional qualifications in Internet Governance, e-Government Policy and Strategy Development and Cybercrime Investigations and Prosecution. His interests includes technology contracting, outsourcing, Internet governance, Information Technology policy and strategy development and electronic commerce issues. He is also involved with capacity building in the area of Internet governance as a tutor with DiploFoundation on the Internet Governance Capacity Building Programme (IGCBP). 


Adela Danciu, Tutor 
Adela Danciu is a Law and Political Sciences graduate of the University of Bucharest. She holds an MA in International and EU Law. She worked for nine years as a legal expert on the Committee for IT&C of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies. Adela was a student of the IGCBP in 2006, and has since then become more involved by tutoring and co-ordinating subsequent phases, writing course texts, and participating in IGF and EuroDIG meetings, as well as participating in the European Summer School on IG in Meissen, 2007, as a Diplo fellow. Her Internet governance interests focus on human rights and legal issues.

Marsha Guthrie, Tutor 
Marsha Guthrie is from the island of Jamaica, and is currently an Online Market Research Executive with PricewaterhouseCoopers. She is a graduate of the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados, and the University of Westminster, London, where she obtained an MA in Applied Social and Market Research. She has been a tutor with the DiploFoundation on the Internet Governance Capacity Building Programme since 2006, and has contributed in various fora on Internet governance issues over the years. Her specific areas of interest are Internet security and the use of technology for sustainable development.

Tracy Hackshaw, Tutor
Tracy Hackshaw is an alumnus of DiploFoundation’s Internet Governance Capacity Building Programme (2008), and an ICANN Fellowship Alumni at both the Sydney and Seoul meetings (2009), and at the Cartagena meeting (2010). Tracy was an Internet Society (ISOC) Ambassador to the 4th IGF in Sharm-el Sheikh (2009), and returned as an ISOC Ambassador for the 5th IGF in Vilnius (2010). He is the vice-chair of the ISOC Trinidad and Tobago Chapter (in formation) and a member of DiploFoundation’s research and teaching faculty. Tracy is a national of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and has been educated at first-degree level in Sociology and Psychology at the University of the West Indies (St Augustine) and at graduate level in International Management at the University of London (Royal Holloway). Professionally, he is the Chief Solution Architect and Team Lead of the Solution Architect Office for the Government of Trinidad and Tobago’s National ICT Company (iGovTT). He is part of a team providing ICT thought leadership to iGovTT, and by extension, the Government, in several areas falling under the rubric of Internet Governance including the flagship and award-winning ‘ttconnect Multi-Channel Service Delivery initiative’.

Anju Mangal, Tutor 
Anju Mangal is a tutor for DiploFoundation’s ICT Strategy Course, a research expert and an active member of DiploFoundation’s research and teaching faculty. Anju is an alumni of the IGCBP 2009. She was an ISOC Ambassador to the IGF in 2008 in Hyderabad, India, and a Commonwealth IGF fellow in Sharm El-Sheikh, and was on the UN IGF Secretariat team. She was chosen to represent her country and work as a fellow at the UN IGF Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland. Anju was a board member of the Pacific Islands Chapter of the Internet Society (PICISOC) and is currently the chairwoman of the PICISOC Women and ICT working/special interest group. Anju holds an MA in Governance, and a BSc in Information systems, GIS and Geography. Anju is affiliated with the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC); she is the information specialist and co-ordinator for the development of ICT and IKM activities in SPC and oversees, and provides an advisory role to the staff on the implementation of ICT-IKM activities. She also provides leadership, and is a trainer, on the use of ICT and e-learning platforms in the Pacific. Her role is to co-ordinate and develop new regional capacity building programmes in information, communication and knowledge management, and ICT for development. She provides leadership on Internet governance issues to youths and stakeholders in the Pacific. She has assisted with the formulation of the youth in agriculture strategy towards fostering ICT for development. She also provides an advisory and support role to the Youth and Agriculture Co-ordinator for administering and delivering programs for youth and ICT in the community. 

Sheba Mohammid, Tutor 
Sheba Mohammid, from Trinidad and Tobago, is interested in multi-disciplinary and transformative strategies for ICT4D. Her work is focused on Digital Inclusion in Small Island Developing States. She serves as a Research Expert on the Internet Governance Africa Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Programme, a Commonwealth fellow and an ACP fellow to the IGF where she has presented and moderated panels on Media Literacy and ICT4D. She is also a trainer in Internet Governance and ICT Policy and Strategy for DiploFoundation. Sheba continues research on Human Behaviour on the Internet, Youth Use of Social Media, and Futurist Deployment of ICT as a Catalyst for Development. Sheba works in Trinidad where she is an ICT Policy Specialist. Here she has responsibility for major considerations in creating an enabling Policy and Legislative Environment. Her work has spanned issues of an emerging Knowledge Society such as ICT Strategies, ICT Governance, A2K, e-Waste, Multi-Channel Service Delivery, Data Protection and e-Transactions. 

Benson Ncube, Tutor 
Benson Ncube is an alumnus of DiploFoundation’s IGCBP 2010, and a fellowship recipient for IGF 2010 in Vilnius, Lithuania, and the Southern African IGF 2011. He was a facilitator during the ICT Policy training workshop, organised by Diplo and the Botswana Information Technology Society (BITS) in Gaborone, Botswana, in October 2010. Benson was instrumental in the discussions that lead to the birth of the Southern African IGF. He currently sits on the Ad Hoc Working Group that was mandated to spearhead the establishment of the regional forum. In early professional years, he was one of two engineers that established the modern Zimbabwean Internet Backbone that immediately gave Internet access to the Zimbabweans. He was the first Technical Point of Contact for the Country Code Top-Level-Domain for Zimbabwe (ccTLD .zw). He was appointed on the Research Council of Zimbabwe from 2006 until 2008, and served as vice-chairperson for the Informatics Standing Committee within the Council. Benson was educated in Zimbabwe, where he attained his first degree in Electrical Engineering (1992) and an MBA (2003) from the University of Zimbabwe. In 1996, he undertook training in Advanced Planning of Telecommunications projects in Germany under the sponsorship of Carl Duisburg Gesellschaft. He currently works for an ICT service provider in Botswana, and tutors on Security for the IGCBP Advanced Phase.

Mwende Njiraini, Tutor 
Mwende Njiraini has been a tutor of the IGCBP for the Africa Region since 2006, having graduated from the IGCBP in 2005. Mwende has represented her country, Kenya, at the IGF in Athens, Hyderabad, Sharm el Sheikh, and Lithuania and has been a facilitator in both the national and East African IGFs. Mwende is a Telecommunication Engineer by profession, and currently works at the Kenyan Communications Commission, the communications regulator in Kenya. She holds a Master of Communications Management with Merit in Business Management, Coventry University, and a Master of Communications Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.

Jean Paul Nkurunziza, Tutor

Jean Paul Nkurunziza, from Bujumbura, Burundi, works as a consultant and is involved in different civil society organisations registered in Burundi, including the Burundi Youth Training Centre, ISOC Burundi and Burundi Community Telecentre Network. After his graduation in Educational Sciences from the University of Burundi in 2001, he became interested in ICT issues. His began dealing with IG-related issues in 2007, when he attended the Internet Governance Capacity Building Programme as a participant. After taking part in the Training for Tutors programme soon after, he joined DiploFoundation as a tutor in 2008. He was granted a six-month fellowship with the IGF Secretariat in 2010.

Ulemu Nyasulu, Tutor 

Ulemu Nyasulu holds a Bachelor of Science (Computer Science) from the University of Malawi, and a Master of IT (Networking) from James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. Her career has spanned from lecturing in Computer Science, working as a fellow at the secretariat for the IGF, and tutoring at DiploFoundation. She spends most of her time doing research on ICT issues in Africa, so that she can be well prepared for her tutoring duties, and can participate meaningfully in different ICT forums, on a national, regional and global level. Ulemu has also been involved in the formation of the National Research and Education Network (NREN) of Malawi. NRENs are blossoming throughout Africa with the aim of interconnecting local higher education centres with fibre so that they can collaborate in research, and share e-resources and ‘real’ resources, such as lecturers via video conferencing. Since completing the IGCBP, Ulemu has a more balanced approach to her ICT career, with a better understanding of legal, socio-economic, and policy issues.


Judy Okite, Tutor 

Judy Okite lives in Nairobi, Kenya. She first participated in the Diplo IGCBP in 2008, and was awarded a fellowship to attend the third IGF meeting in Hyderabad, India. She later attended the fifth IGF in Vilnius, Lithuania. Judy is an open source activist. She is a certified Linux/UNIX network administrator, web designer and an ICT consultant. Judy has remained active in the IG world: she is a member of the Kenya Internet Governance forum, East Africa Internet Governance Forum, Secretariat, and is the Internet governance co-ordinator at FOSSFA, the co-ordinating organisation for the West Africa Internet Governance Forum.

Kwasi Adu-Boahen Opare, Tutor 

Kwasi Adu-Boahen Opare is an assistant lecturer at the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana. He holds an MSc in Telecommunication Engineering and a BSc in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, all from the same university where he lectures. Prior to his appointment as assistant lecturer, Kwasi worked as an ICT tutor and systems analyst (network/systems administrator) at the university. His interests include data communication networks and protocols, Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and electronic voting. He is also involved in the activities of the Ghana Network Operators Group (ghNOG) as a trainer. Kwasi successfully took part in IGCBP 2009, and was awarded a fellowship to attend the 2009 IGF meeting in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.

Stephanie Psaila, Tutor 

Stephanie Borg Psaila is on Internet governance with DiploFoundation. She joined Diplo in 2005, first as a participant in the IGCBP then as tutor/supervisor. She attended WSIS and the inaugural IGF in Athens in 2006, and the IGF meetings in Tunis, Sharm El-Sheikh, and Vilnius, and has been involved in various DiploFoundation and other IG-related conferences. Stephanie holds a Bachelor’s degree in Law and Communication, a Master’s in Contemporary Diplomacy, and a Doctorate in Law (LL.D.). Her doctorate dissertation was on the jurisdictional problems of the Internet, while her areas of interest include legal aspects, freedom of speech, and human rights on the Internet. She is a former journalist with more than five years’ work experience with The Sunday Times of Malta, and a former columnist on education with The Times of Malta.


About ACP Partners

acp map


OUR ACP Partners: OUR ACP Partners:

bits Botswana Information Technology Society (BITS)
bytc Burundi Youth Training Centre (BYTC)
congo Centre Africain de Complémentarité Scolaire Universitaire et de Promotion (CACSUP), République du Congo
haiti Young Americas Business Trust Haiti
jamaica ICT4D Jamaica Limited
kenya The Multimedia University College of Kenya
(formerly known as Kenya College of Communications Technology)
stlucia Sir Arthur Lewis Community College, St. Lucia




Discussing .Africa: summary of key contributions


The key contributions posted during the debate on the ‘.Africa’ top-level Internet domain have been summarised, and are now available in .Africa – A summary of the online discussion


The online discussion emerged after debates took place during Diplo’s Addis Ababa and Pretoria workshops in 2011. The first call for online contributions attracted over 70 contributions, whereas by the end of the second call, 52 contributors had posted their feedback. 


The summary categorises the contributions into six areas: Why ‘.Africa’; The involvement and benefit for all; Application and set-up; Policy issues; Alternatives and iDNs; Developing capacity and awareness building. It was prepared by Jean Paul Nkurunziza, representing Burundi Youth Training Center and ISOC Burundi. 


The digital version was shared with African Union professionals and other institutions in Africa in the lead-up to the IGF meeting in Nairobi last month. The integral discussion, including all the online contributions, will remain available at https://discuss.diplomacy.edu/dotafrica


5 October 2011


Diplo launches two new publications


Diplo launched two publications – Emerging Leaders for the Digital World, and the Book of Abstracts – last week during the 6th Internet Governance Forum in Nairobi. 


Ms Neelie Kroes, Vice-president of the European Commission, and European Commissioner for Digital Agenda, presided over the launch of Emerging Leaders for the Digital World at a special event on Wednesday, 28th September. The launch was also broadcast online. In her address to the Emerging Leaders, the Commissioner encouraged them to take up new opportunities. ‘You are already leaders in your communities’, she said, inspiring them to continue fostering this leadership role. She described the Emerging Leaders as a ‘hope’ for their countries.


Emerging Leaders for the Digital World features the experiences of some of the most active emerging leaders in Internet governance and ICT policy. They are playing a remarkable role in furthering regional training and education, and in driving debates, better understanding, and more support, on the meaningful use of ICTs and the Internet.


The Book of Abstracts presents the research work of some of the best participants of Diplo’s 2010/2011 educational and research programme. The authors are practitioners representing various stakeholders. Their professional and cultural backgrounds have a broad reach. Their work thus reflects their policy work experience combined with accumulated knowledge, introducing a fresh breeze of thought into the already well-mapped thematic field of IG.


To download a copy of Emerging Leaders for the Digital World, as well as individual extracts of the book, visit https://www.diplomacy.edu/resource/emerging-leaders-for-the-digital-world To download a copy of the Book of Abstracts, as well as full-text papers of many of the published abstracts, visit https://www.diplomacy.edu/resource/book-of-abstracts-internet-governance


3 October 2011



Second draft of ‘.Africa’ debate available for comments


After attracting more than 70 contributions, the second version of the online discussion on the ‘.Africa’ debate is now available for further comments and recommendations. 


Diplo invites all those interested in the ‘.Africa’ debate to post comments and reflections on an issue which ‘should play a significant role in bringing Africans one step closer’. The new draft is available at https://discuss.diplomacy.edu/dotafrica


The introduction and management of  the ‘.Africa’ domain was discussed during two workshops on Internet Governance and ICT Policy (held in Addis Ababa on 6-8 April 2011, and in Pretoria on 12-14 April 2011), organised under Diplo’s Capacity Development Programme for ACP countries. 


Due to the many questions and dilemmas which the issue raised, Diplo undertook the initiative of hosting an online discussion while inviting comments from alumni, the broader Internet community, government representatives, international organisations, civil society, media and others interested in the introduction of the ‘.Africa’ domain.


The comments, reflections and recommendations received on the second draft of the ‘.Africa’ discussion will be presented during the 6th IGF in Nairobi. The September meeting will be an excellent opportunity to present the African experts’ and professionals’ inputs. 


8 August 2011



Upcoming regional IGF meetings

Regional IGF meetings are gathering momentum as the 6th IGF approaches, and are expected to attract a good number of stakeholders from each region.

Diplo will support these meetings by providing educational material on Internet governance, and by awarding a number of fellowships to the best participants of Diplo’s IG courses to attend the regional meetings.

The 4th West Africa IGF is taking place this week, on 27-29 July, in Lagos, Nigeria. It is being organised by the WA-IGF Consortium, led by the Free Software and Open Source Foundation for Africa (FOSSFA). Other members of the consortium include AfriNic, Panos West Africa, IISD, APC, ISOC, and ECOWAS). 

The 7th Caribbean IGF, and 4th LAC Preparatory Meeting for IGF, will take place on 9-11 August, at Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. It is being organised by the Caribbean Telecommunications Union, the Association for the Progress of Communications (APC), the Internet Society, the NUPEF Institute, and the Regional Internet Address Registry for Latin America and the Caribbean (LACNIC). More info: 

The 3rd Central African IGF is taking place 10-11 August in Brazzaville, Congo. It is being organised by the Centre Africain de Complémentarité Scolaire, Universitaire et de Promotion (CACSUP), and the Congolese ISOCchapter. 

The first Southern Africa IGF is scheduled to take place from 1-3 September in Johannesburg. Discussions about the setting up of this regional IGF had been initiated during Diplo’s ICT training workshop in Pretoria in April. The regional IGF is now being organised by the Association for Progressive Communications (APC), NEPAD e-Africa Programme, and the Southern African NGO Network (SANGONeT). More info: 

A full list of regional IGFs is available at 

25 July 2011

Webinar on ‘The (remaining) challenges of Network Neutrality’


Should Internet service providers be allowed to place restrictions on access, or discriminate according to content, services, or applications? 


Should telecom providers be allowed to block access to Skype or other VoIP services to give preference to their own voice services? Chile and the Netherlands have already passed legislation prohibiting restrictions or discrimination on traffic. Will other countries follow suit?


The webinar, ‘The (remaining) challenges of Network Neutrality’, was hosted by Vladimir Radunovic on 5 July and was attended by Diplo students, alumni, and other professionals, from 21 different countries.


The webinar was organised under Diplo’s Capacity Development Programme in ICT Policy and IG for ACP countries, supported by the European Commission and ACP Secretariat.


12 July 2011



ACP participants undergoing training in ICT policy and strategic planning


Diplo’s classrooms have once again welcomed participants from Africa, Caribbean and Pacific countries to discuss Internet governance issues.


Over 100 participants are taking part in ICT Policy and Strategic Planning, the online course which aims to assist participants in developing, monitoring, and evaluating effective national and regional ICT strategies.


The participants are grouped in six classes, and are being tutored by IG experts from ACP countries who successfully completed the Train the Trainers course. 


The online course aims to provide participants with a practical toolkit for advancing their regional and national ICT programmes. The course focuses on discussing and applying the various stages, approaches, methodologies, techniques and tips that are required for successfully designing and implementing national ICT agendas.


22 June 2011



IG training workshop in Burundi


DiploFoundation is assisting the Burundi Youth Training Centre (BYTC) in organising the ‘Internet Governance Training Workshop’, which takes place in Bujumbura, Burundi, on 28-29 June 2011.


The Internet Governance Training Workshop is aimed at raising awareness among participants on Internet governance issues, especially issues of local and regional significance.


BYTC helps young people in Burundi become competitive in the labour market by training them in ICT and Internet use, and by educating young people on aspects related to the information society. BYTC also offers IT support to the Collectif pour la Promotion des Association de Jeunes (CPAJ), an association of 22 youth organisations.


The Internet Governance Training Workshop will also benefit from the assistance of Centre Africain de Complémentarité Scolaire, Universitaire et de Promotion (CACSUP), from the Republic of Congo. 


Representatives from BYTC and CACSUP, as well as other regional organisations, will conduct the training. It will be delivered in French. 


22 June 2011



Online courses in Internet governance and ICT policy 


DiploFoundation is pleased to announce a call for applications for the online course in ICT Policy and Strategic Planning. The objective of the course is to provide participants with a practical toolkit for advancing their regional and national ICT programmes. The course will focus on discussing and applying the various stages, approaches, methodologies, techniques and tips that are required for successfully designing and implementing national ICT agendas. 


In addition, the following courses will also be offered: 

  • Cyber-Security 
  • Online Privacy and Data Protection 
  • Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) 
  • Infrastructure and Critical Internet Resources (CIRs) 

The courses offer in-depth (advanced) understanding on a wide range of topics. A full list of topics for each course is available at https://www.diplomacy.edu/courses/IGCBP


The courses will take place from 13 June to 12 August 2011 and will be conducted online. They will take place on a web-based virtual classroom with Web 2.0 interaction tools (hypertext discussion tool, forums, message boards, real-time discussions, etc), allowing participants to complete most course activities whenever convenient within a given weekly schedule. 


A number of scholarships are available for ACP nationals. More details about the ICT Policy and Strategic Planning course, including topics, benefits, methodology and structure, scholarships, as well as the online application form, are available at www.diplomacy.edu/links/ICTstrategy. The deadline for applications is 24 May 2011, midnight GMT. For queries, contact us at diplo@diplomacy.edu


9 May 2011


ICT policy and IG discussed during two workshops in Africa
Over 60 officials from government, local and regional organisations, diplomats and representatives from the business sector recently took part in two ICT Policy and Internet Governance workshops in Africa.

The first, which took place in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 6-8 April, was organised by Diplo in collaboration with the United Nations Economic Commission in Africa. The second, which took place in Pretoria, South Africa, on 12-14 April, was organised by Diplo in collaboration with NEPAD. Both were organised under Diplo’s Capacity Development Programme in ICT Policy and IG for ACP countries, supported by the European Commission and the ACP Secretariat.

The workshops focused on issues and actors in Internet governance with a special focus on regional priorities. The participants discussed the need for setting up IXPs in Africa, promoting local services and content, and attracting companies to provide their caching servers in Africa; possible relations between ICANN and international organisations; legal aspects including the link between individuals and territorial law, and authentication; and the protection of personal data.

Both workshops also discussed the launch of the Africa Internet Governance Forum, after its foundations were laid during the Addis Ababa workshop.

Participants who tweeted updates from the workshop were joined by remote observers who interacted via Twitter. 

The photo gallery for the Addis Ababa workshop is available here, while the gallery for the Pretoria workshop is available here.

2 May 2011


E-diplomacy workshop held in Addis Ababa

A workshop on e-diplomacy was recently organised by Diplo for African diplomats accredited to the UN in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

During the workshop, on 6 April, participants learned about the impact of the Internet on diplomacy and international relations, and ways in which the Internet can assist diplomats representing small and developing countries to perform their jobs more effectively. Participants also learned more about the Internet as a new topic on diplomatic agendas, and on its impact on African countries.

The workshop was organised in partnership with the African Union and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). It was organised under Diplo’s Capacity Development Programme in ICT Policy and IG for ACP countries.

2 May 2011