Sub-state diplomacy refers to the diplomatic activities that are conducted by non-state actors such as cities, regions, local governments, and other governance structures short of states with international recognition. City diplomacy is the most advanced form of sub-state diplomacy.
Some practices of sub-state diplomacy include:
– Sister city agreements: These are agreements between two cities in different countries to promote cultural, economic, and educational exchange.
– Regional cooperation: This involves collaboration between local governments in neighbouring regions to promote economic development and address common issues such as transportation, environmental protection, and public safety.
– Cross-border cooperation: This involves collaboration between local governments in different countries that share a border to promote economic development, trade, and cultural exchange. For example, the border between Canada and the United States has several cross-border initiatives that encourage cooperation and exchange.
– Climate action: Local governments have increasingly been taking steps to address climate change through sub-state diplomacy. They have been forming alliances and networks to share best practices and push for more aggressive climate policies at the national and international levels.