Parallel diplomacy is a form of diplomatic activity that occurs outside of traditional government channels, often involving non-state actors such as NGOs, civil society organisations, private corporations, and individuals. It can be seen as a way for actors to pursue their interests or agenda in the international arena without relying on official government channels.
Parallel diplomacy can take various forms, such as informal negotiations, unofficial dialogues, or back-channel communication, and can occur at different levels of society, such as between individuals, civil society groups, or private companies.
Parallel diplomacy can complement or supplement traditional state diplomacy, providing a way for non-state actors to engage with foreign actors and potentially influence diplomatic outcomes. However, it can also be seen as a challenge to the authority and legitimacy of traditional diplomacy, as it can operate outside of state control and may not be subject to the same level of transparency and accountability as official diplomatic channels.