Hard diplomacy refers to the use of aggressive and coercive tactics to achieve diplomatic goals, typically involving the threat or use of force or economic sanctions. It may involve military intervention, economic pressure, or other forms of coercion to achieve diplomatic objectives, such as gaining concessions or compelling a foreign government to comply with international norms or treaties.
Hard diplomacy is often contrasted with soft diplomacy, which emphasises non-coercive measures such as diplomacy, dialogue, and cultural exchange. Hard diplomacy is typically used in situations where soft diplomacy has failed or is unlikely to be effective, and may be necessary to protect national security or advance national interests. However, it also carries significant risks and can have unintended consequences, such as escalating conflicts or damaging relationships with allies and partners.