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What is diplomacy?
Diplomacy is a crucial practice involving negotiation, communication, and representation between nations and global players. It champions national interests, nurtures peaceful relations, enhances cooperation, and avoids conflicts by resolving disputes and synchronising actions on numerous issues.
The term 'diplomacy' mirrors its critical function on the global stage, describing nearly 200 unique situations. It ranges from traditional bilateral diplomacy to more metaphorical forms, such as 'hedgehog diplomacy', showcasing the wide scope of diplomatic practices. Yet, all forms hinge on one key aim – the peaceful resolution of conflicts.
The art of diplomacy shines in its ability to find common ground amidst rival interests by seeking areas of agreement. It cultivates compromise where interests align and works to harmonise differences where they diverge. This balancing act performed by diplomats in the corridors of power, while often unseen, significantly shapes our ever-changing world.
What are the core diplomatic functions?
Diplomatic functions serve as the foundation for diplomats to progress their nation's interests and actualise foreign policy goals. These core functions, while adapting to a nation's specific context and its priorities, primarily encapsulate representation, negotiation, diplomatic communication, reporting and analysis, and providing consular services.
What is the difference between diplomacy and foreign policy?
Diplomacy and foreign policy often overlap in their usage and application. Figures like Henry Kissinger employed the term 'diplomacy' interchangeably with 'foreign policy' and 'international relations', while Hans Morgenthau describes diplomacy as the creation and enactment of foreign policy. This seemingly covers all aspects of foreign policy under the umbrella of diplomacy.
However, a more nuanced understanding differentiates foreign policy – the formulation of international objectives – from diplomacy, the means through which these objectives are achieved. Jacques Chazelle underscores this distinction, stating, 'Diplomacy is the set of methods and activities a State employs in service of its foreign policy'.
But is it too limiting to frame diplomacy as simply the execution arm of foreign policy? Peter Marshall argues that the dichotomy is an oversimplification and that the tactics of diplomacy can significantly shape foreign policy goals. José Calvet de Magalhães echoes this, warning against a definition that reduces diplomacy to the single, albeit crucial, task of foreign policy implementation.
In considering Marshall McLuhan’s medium theory, diplomacy emerges as the medium for conveying messages in international relations. Even while focusing on the medium (diplomacy), we should recognise the interplay between the message (international relations) and the medium, including the possibility that, sometimes, 'the medium is the message'. Therefore, while definitions that describe diplomacy as 'foreign policy execution' are accurate, they may be too narrow to fully encapsulate the role of diplomacy in contemporary international relations.
Eager to delve deeper into the diverse facets of foreign policy? Explore Diplo’s publications on this subject.
What is the etymology of the word diplomacy?
The term 'diplomacy', widely used in its modern context since the late 17th to the early 18th century, actually traces its roots back to Ancient Greek, where it means 'folded in two'. This gives birth to the word 'diploma', referring to documents issued by chancelleries formalising agreements between sovereigns.
Notably, Gottfried Leibniz was the first to use 'diplomacy' in its contemporary sense in his codex Juris Gentium Diplomaticus, published in 1593 in Hanover, to categorise documents on international relations. Similarly, Baron Jean C. de Dumont released a collection in 1725, titled Corps Universel Diplomatique du Droit des Gens.
However, the genesis of the term 'diplomacy' in its modern guise remains a subject of debate among historians. British scholars often trace the first written source to 1787 when the Annual Register in London utilised the term 'diplomatic' to describe personnel in overseas missions. The credit for popularising the modern usage of 'diplomacy' often goes to Edmund Burke, who in 1796 used it to characterise a group of foreign envoys in Paris.
What are the 200+ uses of the term 'diplomacy'?
The term 'diplomacy' boasts widespread use. It manifests in over 200 contexts, ranging from classic instances like 'multilateral' and 'bilateral diplomacy' to contemporary adaptations such as 'carpet' and 'ping-pong diplomacy'.
Discover more about the vast applications of 'diplomacy' on Diplo’s Types of Diplomacy page, showcasing over 200 unique uses of the term.
What is Diplo’s operational definition of diplomacy?
For three decades at Diplo, we've refined the multifaceted definition of diplomacy under the guidance of Diplo’s Founding Director, Jovan Kurbalija. Continuously evolving through feedback from our courses, conferences, and research, our definition highlights the peaceful nature of diplomacy as opposed to military diplomacy. Thus, diplomacy serves as the conduit for peaceful interactions between nations, communities, and diverse groups.
Narrowing the scope, diplomacy zeroes in on the role of official agents, characterised as the peaceful orchestration of international relations by official representatives of states, international organisations, and other global actors.
On closer inspection, we explore interstate diplomacy and diplomatic services, defining diplomacy as the management of relations between sovereign states via their respective diplomatic services.
Importantly, we distinguish between 'Diplomacy' with a capital 'D' and 'diplomacy' with a lowercase 'd'. 'Diplomacy' denotes official interstate relations, while 'diplomacy' encompasses all other modes of representation, negotiation, and engagement.
What is digital diplomacy?
Digital diplomacy refers to the interplay between digital technology and the practice of diplomacy, and encompasses the changing diplomatic environment, new policy domains, and innovative digital tools.
Visit Diplo’s dedicated Digital Diplomacy page now to discover this new topic!
How is diplomacy performed?
Diplomacy operates through representation and negotiations, while also safeguarding citizens, boosting trade and investment, and fostering cultural cooperation. To truly grasp the functions of diplomacy, consider Article 3 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961). It outlines the key duties of a diplomatic mission, inter alia:
- Representing the sending State in the receiving State
- Protecting the interests of the sending State and of its nationals in the receiving State, within limits permitted by international law
- Negotiating with the Government of the receiving State
- Ascertaining, by all lawful means, conditions and developments in the receiving State, and reporting thereon to the Government of the sending State
- Promoting friendly relations between the sending State and the receiving State, as well as developing economic, cultural, and scientific relations
The phrase inter alia suggests the potential for including additional diplomatic functions.
What is diplomatic representation?
Representation, among the earliest of diplomatic functions, ensures the state’s presence beyond its national boundaries and promotes its interests abroad. It articulates the state's stance on matters pertinent to its well-being and its citizens. States are typically represented via resident diplomatic missions, and occasionally through non-resident ambassadors.
What are diplomatic negotiations?
At the heart of diplomatic functions lies negotiation. Quincy Wright articulates diplomacy as 'the craft of negotiation, striving to achieve maximum group objectives with minimum costs, within a political system where war is plausible'. Hedley Bull views diplomacy as 'the administration of international relations through negotiation'.
G. R. Berridge emphasises negotiation as an alternative to force, stating: 'Diplomacy is the management of international relations via negotiation, as opposed to force, propaganda, or legal recourse. It also encompasses other peaceful methods (like information gathering or fostering goodwill) aimed directly or indirectly at promoting negotiation.'
Why is information gathering important in diplomacy?
Since the dawn of diplomacy, information gathering and analysis has been a key diplomatic function. While in the past, information acquisition posed significant challenges, today's digital age offers abundant data from sources like Wikipedia, social media, and other online platforms. However, the internet also presents hurdles in discerning and verifying reliable sources. How much can diplomatic services trust online data? How can diplomats assess, contextualise, and utilise this information effectively?
At Diplo, we tackle these challenges head-on through our dedicated focus on data and diplomacy work.
How to achieve the protection of interests and citizens abroad?
Diplomatic protection and consular protection are two primary means of safeguarding a state and its citizens abroad. Diplomatic protection involves diplomats from the sending state working via their foreign affairs ministry, while consular protection involves consular officers liaising directly with relevant authorities in the receiving state.
The principle of diplomatic protection, initiated in 17th and 18th century Europe and America to shield foreign investments, was established in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (Article 3). Notably, the Calvo Doctrine, named after an Argentinean jurist and widely applied, assigns jurisdiction in international investment disputes to the country where the investment is made.
The age-old consular function aims to protect the commercial and other interests of a sending state's citizens. The Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963) is a major legal source regulating consular relations, supplemented by numerous bilateral consular agreements and the European Convention on Consular Functions (1967), ratified by only four countries.
How is diplomatic communication defined?
Diplomacy is fundamentally about communication and information exchange. It's seen as 'transnational communication among global elites', according to Bhagevatula S. Murty. Similarly, Brian White views diplomacy as 'a dialogue and negotiation process among international actors aiming to resolve conflicts' and as 'an instrument for executing foreign policy'.
This crucial role of communication in diplomacy is encapsulated by Trần Văn Dĩnh, who compares communication to the lifeblood of diplomacy: 'Communication is to diplomacy what blood is to the human body. When communication stops, the diplomatic process - the body of international politics - either succumbs to violent conflict or withers.'
Other scholars like Constantiou and James Alan characterise diplomacy as 'a regulated communication process' and 'the communication system of international society', respectively.
What is the future of diplomatic meetings?
The COVID-19 pandemic has catapulted us into a digital age, driving everyday activities from offline to online. The shift has seen a surge in online lectures, meetings, and conferences. With this rise, we've seen new conferencing platforms spring up, with existing ones gaining momentum.
In response to these changes, Diplo hosted its pioneering Future of Meetings online conference in May 2020, drawing almost 600 participants. The conference dove into the five crucial facets of the future of meetings: technology, security, moderation, behaviour, and diplomacy. A digest of these enlightening discussions is accessible in the report here.
For a deeper dive into this subject, explore Diplo's dedicated Future of Meetings page.
How can AI assist diplomats in their daily work?
Rapid advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) are poised to bring seismic shifts across various sectors, garnering attention from governments, the tech community, and global private sector players. The question on everyone's mind is: How do we navigate these unprecedented changes?
Diplo's cutting-edge AI and Data Lab is tackling this challenge head-on. As a comprehensive initiative, it explores AI policy through research and analysis, builds capacity in AI and related fields, delivers timely reports from key AI events and discussions, examines AI's impact on diplomacy, and much more.
The rising importance of AI cannot be overstated, especially in the sphere of international relations. AI is presenting new topics to the global agenda, reshaping geostrategic relations, becoming a powerful tool for diplomats and negotiators, and bringing forth opportunities and challenges in protecting human rights.
Explore this fascinating interplay between AI and diplomacy in greater detail on Diplo’s dedicated AI Diplomacy page.
Why is diplomacy vital for humanity?
The spectre of wars and escalating conflicts threaten the very existence of humanity, making diplomacy not just a strategic necessity, but a lifeline for our collective future. In our highly interconnected world, diplomacy serves as the critical gear in the machinery of global society and economy. Without it, the intricate web of our mutual dependencies could unravel in an instant. Simply put, diplomacy isn't just about managing international relations – it's about safeguarding our shared future.
Is diplomacy in crisis today?
Absolutely. Today, diplomacy stands at a vital intersection in the context of evolving global relations. Amid the rising geopolitical conflicts among the world's superpowers, the deteriorating structure of multilateralism, and the growing societal polarisation, the role of diplomacy as a peaceful resolution mechanism for conflicts is being seriously tested. In these uncertain times, the indispensable role and significance of diplomacy are more apparent than ever. As an essential strategy for cultivating peace, encouraging collaboration, and addressing global challenges, diplomacy, as championed by Diplo, emerges as our most reliable beacon in navigating the volatile waters of the contemporary international relations landscape.
How can compromise, the core of diplomacy, gain more relevance?
The art of compromise is growing in significance through various, albeit challenging, methods, such as fostering a culture of transparent and constructive dialogue among nations, emphasising mutual interests and collective objectives, adopting a long-term perspective (even when it entails short-term sacrifices), and reinforcing or restructuring multilateral institutions and frameworks that encourage cooperation and compromise.
In order to make compromise a successful diplomatic tool, it's crucial to provide diplomats with the necessary skills and training in negotiation and conflict resolution techniques, along with communication skills. These are integral to promoting the spirit of compromise in international relations.
Do you want to learn more about the power of compromise in diplomacy? Dive into the blog post What is the true meaning of compromise? penned by our director, Jovan Kurbalija, an expert in promoting compromise for effective diplomacy.
Don't forget to check out our Diplo Academy courses that empower diplomats with negotiation and conflict resolution techniques, underlining the importance of compromise in shaping the future of diplomacy.
The relevance of digital diplomacy
The relevance of digital diplomacy, sometimes named cyber diplomacy, in the digital era, is underscored by several key factors:
- Navigating a transforming geopolitical and geo-economic landscape: Diplomats today operate in an environment profoundly shaped by digital technology's impact on national sovereignty, the rising prominence of cyber conflicts, as well as economic and political power shifts. The mastery of digital diplomacy skills is essential for diplomats to effectively traverse this new terrain.
- Addressing new diplomatic policy topics: With the surfacing of over 50 digital policy issues – like e-commerce, cybersecurity, and AI governance – diplomats find themselves needing to negotiate with a diverse group of stakeholders, including tech specialists and scholars. Acquiring novel knowledge and competencies is key to effectively tackling these emerging digital and cyber policy challenges.
- Adopting digital tools in diplomatic practice: Diplomats now leverage social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook as vital assets for public diplomacy. The recent COVID-19 crisis has highlighted the significance of online conferencing tools like Zoom and Teams. Further, diplomats are increasingly harnessing the power of big data and AI to garner insights into negotiations and enhance their country's promotion.
Discover more about the critical importance of digital diplomacy and cyber diplomacy in our contemporary era on our dedicated Digital Geopolitics page.
Who are diplomats?
Traditionally, diplomats have been officials hailing from ministries of foreign affairs, whose primary role was to represent their countries. However, in the dynamic landscape of the modern era, the understanding of who qualifies as a 'diplomat' has significantly broadened. Today, the sphere of diplomacy includes not only state officials but also parliamentarians, tribal leaders, and activists. These individuals, representative of a diverse set of groups, effectively perform diplomatic roles as they engage in negotiations and advocacy on their constituents' behalf. With an expanded range of diplomatic actors, we recognise the multidimensional nature of diplomacy and affirm that it's not an exclusive field reserved for traditional diplomats alone. As the world navigates complex international relations, every diplomatic actor's contribution becomes increasingly vital – diplomacy, indeed, is too crucial to be left solely to conventional diplomats!
Whom do diplomats represent?
Diplomats represent their countries in the realm of international relations. However, the dynamics of global engagement are rapidly evolving, prompting the need for broader representation that includes local authorities, communities, businesses, and other non-state actors.
As highlighted by Susan Strange, contemporary diplomacy extends beyond government-to-government interactions to encompass negotiations with business enterprises and various organisations. This shift reflects the increasingly complex interdependence among global actors.
In their influential paper, Complex Interdependence, scholars Robert O. Keohane and Joseph Nye identify 'multiple channels' as a key characteristic of our interconnected world. This term encapsulates the rise of diverse diplomatic actors such as businesses, NGOs, individuals, and professional bodies, all of whom contribute to the intricate web of international relations.
Further expanding this trend, domestic governmental departments like finance, trade, environment, and health are forging direct international contacts, bypassing traditional diplomatic pathways facilitated by ministries of foreign affairs. This emerging paradigm has led to such fluidity and dynamism in the field of diplomacy that some authors find it challenging to define diplomatic actors conclusively.
This evolving diplomatic landscape underscores the need for flexibility, adaptability, and inclusivity in global engagement, necessitating the continuous development and refinement of diplomatic practices.
What do diplomats do?
Diplomats serve as the cornerstone of a nation's foreign affairs, acting as official representatives of their countries in international arenas. Their chief mandate involves conducting diplomacy. This encompasses fostering diplomatic ties, orchestrating negotiations, and championing their nation's standpoints on diverse issues.
The specific responsibilities and roles of diplomats often fluctuate, contingent on their assigned rank, the nation they are tasked with representing, and the precise context of their diplomatic endeavours. The profound complexity and the far-reaching influence of a diplomat's role is encapsulated in the words of Nobel laureate in Literature and former diplomat, Ivo Andric, whose insights provide a unique perspective on the profession.
What are key diplomatic knowledge, skills, and talents?
Diplomacy calls for a robust blend of diplomatic knowledge, skills, and aptitudes, which include:
- Effective communication skills: Diplomats must master the art of persuasive communication, negotiation, and engagement with counterparts from diverse cultures and backgrounds.
- Interpersonal skills: Building and nurturing relationships, fostering trust, and effectively navigating diplomatic networks requires empathy, cultural sensitivity, tact, and the ability to thrive in multicultural settings.
- Negotiation and mediation skills: Achieving consensus, resolving conflicts, and reaching agreements necessitates proficiency in negotiation techniques, problem-solving, consensus-building, and crafting win-win solutions.
- Analytical and research abilities: A diplomat should have the ability to dissect complex political, economic, and social issues, gather and analyse information, understand differing perspectives, identify trends, and assess risks and opportunities. These critical research skills underpin the creation of accurate, timely reports and policy recommendations.
- Cultural awareness: Understanding the customs, traditions, and values of different countries aids in forging stronger relationships and avoiding misunderstandings. Knowledge of foreign languages enhances communication and diplomatic interactions.
- Strategic thinking: Diplomats must be capable of long-term implication analysis, informed decision-making, and strategic planning in alignment with their nation's interests. Balancing competing interests, evaluating risks, and understanding the wider geopolitical context are also essential.
- Emotional intelligence and resilience: Managing stress, handling difficult situations, and maintaining composure in high-pressure environments require emotional intelligence and resilience. Adaptability and a positive, professional attitude are also indispensable.
To delve deeper into the subject of diplomacy and how to acquire diplomatic skills, read our insightful blog post Key skills for the next generation of diplomats.
How to train diplomats?
Acquiring diplomatic knowledge, mastering the art of diplomacy, and nurturing diplomatic skills demands an immersive mix of education, hands-on training, and real-world experience. Embarking on a journey of diplomatic training should ideally encompass practical assignments at embassies, international organisations, and relevant government sectors. These engagements offer diplomats real-time exposure to the intricate mechanics of diplomatic operations, enabling them to apply their learning and skills in tangible situations.
Aimed at producing proficient diplomats, such training should be dynamic, well-rounded, and encompassing multiple disciplines. Diplomatic training instils diplomats with the necessary knowledge, skills, and mindset to adeptly represent their country's interests, helping them to seamlessly navigate the complex matrix of international relations and handle the ever-evolving challenges of global diplomacy.
For an in-depth exploration of the role and structure of diplomatic training, read our blog post Diplomatic training: Combining tradition and innovation.
Interested in joining the diplomatic service and/or improving your skills on the mentioned topics?
Visit the Diplo Academy page to learn more about the specialised courses and training we offer!
When did diplomacy begin?
There is a saying that diplomacy dates back to the time when the first human societies decided that ‘it was better to hear the message than to shoot the messenger’. The first archaeological evidence of negotiation and diplomacy have their roots embedded in Mesopotamia, illuminating the age-old nature of diplomatic history.
Modern diplomacy started to emerge in the 1450s with the first official embassy. The formation of the first ministry of foreign affairs in 1678, a significant milestone in the evolution of diplomacy, is credited to Richelieu. In 1815, the Vienna Congress set the cornerstone for current diplomatic protocol and systems, thus shaping the trajectory of the diplomatic history we recognise today.
What is the oldest recorded reference to diplomatic relations?
Tracing the history of international relations takes us back to the cradle of civilisation in ancient Mesopotamia around 2500 BC. The city-states of Sumer, including Lagash, Umma, and Kish, were early pioneers in conducting diplomatic activities, with the earliest known written records of diplomatic correspondence etched on clay tablets, reflecting the onset of international relations.
A remarkable milestone in the history of international relations is the Treaty of Kadesh from the 13th century BC. This treaty, between Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II and Hittite King Hattusili III, stands as one of the earliest recorded peace treaties in human history. It served to establish a peaceful coexistence and guide the relations between these two significant powers.
Diplo’s Historical Timeline of Diplomacy and Technology offers a more in-depth look at the evolution of international relations over the centuries.
What marked the beginning of modern diplomacy?
The dawn of modern diplomacy is widely attributed to the Peace of Westphalia, a series of pivotal treaties signed in 1648 that marked the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War in Europe. These treaties introduced fundamental principles and practices that served as the cornerstone for modern diplomacy and continue to inform today's diplomatic landscape.
The Peace of Westphalia introduced the critical concept of state sovereignty. It enshrined the principle that states possess the right to govern their internal affairs free from external interference. This idea of sovereign equality has since been a linchpin principle in the realm of international relations and diplomacy.
Not only did the Peace of Westphalia formalise diplomatic negotiations and agreements among independent states, but it also marked the institutionalisation of diplomatic protocols and practices. Diplomats started to be mutually exchanged among states to facilitate negotiations, culminating in the signing of treaties.
The establishment of territorial boundaries and state recognition was another consequential outcome of the Peace of Westphalia. It acknowledged the independence and territorial integrity of states, moulding the contemporary state-centric system of international relations prevalent today.
Furthermore, the treaties endorsed the idea of religious tolerance, recognising the rights of diverse religious groups within states. This acceptance of religious diversity and the principle of coexistence led to the enshrining of non-interference in the internal affairs of states, a principle integral to modern diplomacy.
Keen on delving deeper into the inception of modern diplomacy? Explore our Senior Fellow Aldo Matteucci’s blog post titled What’s all the fuss about the Westphalia Settlement?, a guide to understanding the profound impact of these first treaties on diplomatic history.
How has technology influenced diplomacy?
The interplay between technology and diplomacy traces back centuries, demonstrating a persistent and transformative influence on diplomatic practices. Technology has shaped how diplomats engage, gather information, and perform their duties. Even the establishment of reliable postal systems in ancient civilisations marked a significant advancement, enabling diplomatic communication over great distances. This was further bolstered by innovations like the telegraph, telephone, and fax machines.
However, it was the emergence of the internet and email in the late 20th century that revolutionised diplomacy on an unprecedented scale. Diplomats were now empowered to communicate instantaneously across the globe, share documents electronically, and tap into an enormous repository of information. Email swiftly became the primary conduit of diplomatic communication, significantly enhancing efficiency and responsiveness.
The ascendancy of social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook in the early 21st century presented diplomats with innovative avenues for global engagement. These platforms have allowed diplomats to disseminate information, advocate policies, and participate in dialogues with citizens directly, sidestepping traditional media channels.
Keen on exploring the intricate relationship between diplomacy and technology across history? Visit Diplo's comprehensive History of Diplomacy and Technology page for a deep dive into the enduring impact of technological advancements on the field of diplomacy.
Where does diplomacy take place?
Diplomacy is exercised in a wide range of environments, anywhere that negotiations or communications between different groups occur. More formally, international diplomacy is typically conducted at official events, within dedicated diplomatic spaces, and at international organisations.
The significance of state capitals in bilateral relations
State capitals hold an intrinsic importance in diplomatic relationships, primarily due to their roles as the epicentres of national governance. This makes them ideal locations for setting up diplomatic missions such as embassies.
The invaluable local insights and extensive network connections that diplomats can foster by being stationed in these capitals, interacting with both public and private sectors, as well as with foreign diplomats, make these cities indispensable hubs for cultivating diplomatic relationships.
To further explore the nuances of bilateral diplomacy, visit Diplo's specialised page on Bilateral Diplomacy.
The vital role of the United Nations and international organisations in diplomacy
Global platforms such as the United Nations (UN) and various international organisations are instrumental in shaping diplomatic practices. They offer states the opportunity to engage in diplomatic activities, negotiate agreements, and address global challenges.
While the UN acts as a broad forum for diplomacy, specialised international organisations concentrate on particular areas of global diplomatic interest. To delve deeper into the realm of multilateral diplomacy, visit Diplo's Multilateral Diplomacy page.
The impact of summits and conferences on diplomatic interactions
Summits act as significant diplomatic epicentres, convening leaders from diverse countries for high-level discussions and negotiations. This convergence of world leaders fosters immediate and direct communication, enhancing the efficiency of diplomatic exchanges.
The presence of influential decision-makers in one location allows for effective, high-stakes dialogue on pressing issues. Additionally, these gatherings often incorporate informal events, offering opportunities for building personal relationships and setting a tone conducive to successful diplomatic negotiations.
Given their media reach and public visibility, summits also offer leaders the chance to disseminate their positions and messages to a global audience, lending public diplomacy a pivotal role during such events.
Our favourite quotes on diplomacy
'The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.'
― Sun Tzu
'A diplomat who says 'yes' means 'maybe', a diplomat who says 'maybe' means 'no', and a diplomat who says 'no' is no diplomat.'
― Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand
‘Tact is the knack of making a point without making an enemy.’
― Isaac Newton
‘Look and see which way the wind blows before you commit yourself.’
‘Be a craftsman in speech that thou mayest be strong, for the strength of one is the tongue, and speech is mightier than all fighting.’