Below are the chapters from the publication Language and Diplomacy (2001). 

Language and Diplomacy is a collection of papers presented at the February 2000 Second International Conference on Knowledge and Diplomacy and the January 2001 Conference on Language and Diplomacy. The book examines traditional aspects of language in diplomacy: diplomatic signaling, rhetorical patterns and ambiguities; as well as new issues raised by information technology. The publication is available online and in print.

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Academic papers
This article presents some reflections based on almost ten years of research on the use of hypertext in diplomacy and international law.1 As part of our attempt to validate theory through practice, we have developed a hypertext software application f...

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Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): The final paper in this volume, by Jovan Kurbalija, is based on the experience of ten years of research and development work in the field of information technology and diplomacy. Kurbalija explains the relevance and potential of hypertext software tools for the field of diplomacy. With a number of case studies drawn from the hypertext system developed by Diplo and illustrated with screen shots, Kurbalija illustrates exactly why diplomatic activities are so well suited to hypertext. He concludes with a question: "why, with all of its potential in diplomacy and other fields, has hypertext not yet been adopted on a large scale?"

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Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
 Jovan Kurbalija, 2001
 

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Interpretation is in itself a diplomatic endeavour. The interpreter's job is very different to that of a translator. Translators work alone, facing a white sheet of paper and a text. They recreate the text by becoming its second author, understanding...

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Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Conference interpreters Vicky Cremona and Helena Mallia outline the different types of conference interpretation, difficulties in interpretation, preparation and techniques, and team work. On the topic of diplomatic conferences they point out that "confidence in the interpreters is essential. The underlying tensions which may arise between delegates or country representatives can worsen if the interpreters are not trusted..." Cremona and Mallia finish with the observation that diplomatic skills are not only the realm of the diplomat or the interpreter in diplomatic conferences, but also necessary for the interpreter of other types of discussions including religion, culture, heritage, sales, and marketing.

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Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
 Vicky Ann Cremona, Helena Mallia, 2001
 

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With current available information technology each of us can now create our own system for practicing second-language writing skills in a supportive reference environment: a word processor using an international alphabet, with an online dictionary in...

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Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Dr Donald Sola asks whether software innovation can make a contribution to the needs of those learning the world "languages of wider communication". He presents his work in developing computer-assisted language learning software, a multi-disciplinary activity not based simply on technology but also on the theory and practice of education and linguistics. Excellent software development tools, the far-reaching distribution potential of the Internet, and growing understanding of relevant sociolinguistic and learning-environment considerations allow for successful language software development.

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Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
 Donald Sola, 2001
 

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INTRODUCTION: VIEWS OF COMMUNICATION As one of the key-concepts in human linguistic life, "communication" has prompted several definitions for linguists, for example, that term can broadly refer to every kind of mutual transmission of information ...

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Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Dr Francisco Gomes de Matos applies what he calls the "Pedagogy of Positiveness" to diplomatic communication. He proposes a checklist of tips for diplomats to make their communication more positive, emphasising respect and understanding of the other side, and keeping in mind the ultimate goal of avoiding conflict. Gomes de Matos finishes with a number of pleas, including one for the adoption of the study of human linguistic rights and the pedagogy of positiveness into the education of diplomats.

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Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
 Francisco Gomes de Matos, 2001
 

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THE BACKGROUND The particular structure of the Order of St. John is quite intriguing to linguists. As it progressed from its early function of a convent with a hospital to the status of a princely state, it had to tackle a number of administrative...

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Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): In his examination of the languages used by the Knights of St John in Rhodes and Malta during the 14th to 16th centuries, Professor Joseph Brincat applies the methodology of historical linguistics. As an international and multi-lingual entity, the Order faced difficulties with its administrative methods intimately linked to linguistic issues. Brincat follows the transition in the official written language of the knights through French, Latin and Italian, examining the social, political and linguistic reasons for these changes. He points out that the problems faced by the Knights in choosing and adopting a common language are relevant in our times: they are similar to problems faced in present-day Brussels.

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Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
 Joseph M. Brincat, 2001
 

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We are here to speak about language. The statement just uttered should be inoffensive. It is, after all, a truism. All of the participants during this session of the conference are here to speak about language. If diplomacy in that statement is el...

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Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Ivan Callus and Ruben Borg apply a very different set of tools to the analysis of diplomatic discourse. Their paper applies the discourse of deconstruction, a form of literary criticism, to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. The purpose and function of deconstruction, and its potential contribution to diplomatic language, is "to force the discipline to which it applies itself to look at its own language and to develop an almost pathological awareness of its own linguistic strategies."

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Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
 Ivan Callus, Ruben Borg, 2001
 

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A superficial debate often places speech and action in opposition. This is, of course, an artificial debate and one which tends to lead to simplistic caricatures. The great spirits who enlightened humanity exercised an action, deep and long-lasting, ...

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Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Edmond Pascual interprets diplomatic communication with the linguistic tools of pragmatics. He begins by reminding us that while the diplomat is a "man of action," the particular nature of the diplomat's action is that it consists of speech. Pascual applies three concepts of pragmatics to diplomatic discourse: speech as an intentional act; the effects of the act of speech; and the role of the unsaid in the act of speech. He attempts to answer the question, posed by the French linguist Ducrot, "Why is it possible to use words to exert influence, why are certain words, in certain circumstances, so effective?"

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Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
 Edmond Pascual (Translation from French by Helena Mallia), 2001
 

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Louis Decazes, duc de Glücksberg, is not a name with which either students or practitioners of contemporary diplomacy might be expected to be familiar. Even in his day, when foreign minister of France in the mid-1870s, he was overshadowed by his more...

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Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Rather than individual documents, Dr Keith Hamilton looks at the process and purpose of compiling collections of documents. He focuses on his own experience as the editor of Documents on British Policy Overseas, and particularly on his work publishing a collection of documents concerning the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe from 1972 until 1975.

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Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
 Keith Hamilton, 2001
 

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Written texts are an essential element of diplomacy. Texts provide powers and accreditation for the diplomat. Texts contain his instructions and negotiating briefs. Texts are the main outcome of negotiations. For certain texts - or parts of texts - t...

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Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Professor Dietrich Kappeler provides an overview of the various types of formal written documents used in diplomacy, pointing out where the practices surrounding these documents have changed in recent years. He also discusses multi-language treaties, including the difficulties of translation and interpretation. Kappeler concludes with an examination of the impact of information technology: its use in the preparation and preservation of documents, its effect on the form of documents, and the problems it brings for guaranteeing the authenticity of texts.

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Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
 Dietrich Kappeler, 2001
 

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In this paper I will talk about ambiguous language as it is used in peace agreements. I use the term "peace agreement" somewhat broadly to refer to agreements that resolve conflicts of interest of any kind, not only those that put a close to war. ...

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Part of Language and Diplomacy (2001): Drazen Pehar looks specifically at the use of ambiguities in peace agreements. Pehar explains why ambiguities are so often used and why diplomats and others involved in international relations may think it best to eliminate ambiguities from peace agreements altogether. He goes on to demonstrate, however, with numerous examples, that while ambiguities have led to a continuation or re-starting of hostilities in some cases, in many other cases they have provided the only bridge between conflicting parties and allowed for a cessation of violence. Pehar presents and discusses in detail pros and cons for the use of ambiguities in peace agreements, providing a number of guidelines and considerations for their successful use.

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Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
 Drazen Pehar, 2001
 

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