Professor Dietrich Kappeler served as Director of the Diplomatic Studies Programme of the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva from 1993 to 1998. He was the founding director of the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies at the ...

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Welcome to the portal dedicated to Intercultural Communication Read also: Language and Diplomacy An Internet search on the topic of intercultural communication or cross-cultural communication yields over three million results. In recent years p...

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Welcome to the portal dedicated to Language and Diplomacy It has often been said that language is not only an instrument of communication, but the very essence of diplomacy. Diplomats engage in negotiations, persuasion, presentation, and communica...

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Humanitarian diplomacy is persuading decision makers and opinion leaders to act, at all times, in the interests of vulnerable people, and with full respect for fundamental humanitarian principles. The rapid expansion of the number of humanitar...
Start date:   14 Sep 2020
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This journey through persuasion in diplomacy was initiated by Professor Kappeler’s long experience in both practicing diplomacy and in training diplomats. When the bells and whistles of diplomacy settle down, what remains, according to Prof. Kappeler...
Author: Various Authors

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The book Persuasion, the essence of diplomacy was presented to Prof. Dietrich Kappeler during a seminar organised in Geneva on 3 April 2013 by DiploFoundation and the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies. In a lively debate, academics, diploma...
 4 Apr 2013

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'Persuasion is much more than the rhetoric it is often associated with. It defines us as humans. It is an essential part of our social fabric', says Dr Jovan Kurbalija, editor of the book Persuasion, the essence of diplomacy. According to the...
 3 Apr 2013

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Today, Diplo gathers to discuss “Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy.” I am intrigued by the conference contributions. Reading about the conference topic also inspired some new thinking on metaphors, an issue that has been my companion o...
 2 Apr 2013

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From the faraway days when representatives of fighting tribes tried to arrange for a truce, thereby risking their head, to the often derided endless discussions within present day international frameworks, the common aim of diplomacy has remained persuasion. The better a diplomat is at persuading, the more successful he will be in furthering the cause he represents.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Dietrich Kappeler , 2008

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Dr George Vella, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Malta, argues that persuasion is central not only to diplomacy but also to society in general. He highlights three aspects of persuasion. First is the high importance of trust for persuasion: trust creates the context in which persuasion can be used. Second is the relevance of persuasion for small states: while for major powers persuasion could be an option, for small states it is the main, very often the only, tool they can use in international affairs. Third, Dr Vella stresses the limits of computers in persuasion. Persuasion is one of the areas of human activity where, in spite of technology, the direct input of people will remain essential.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 George Vella , 2013

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Dr Paul Meerts discusses persuasion in the context of the Vienna Congress (1814–1815), one of the most successful diplomatic events in history. The Vienna Congress created long-lasting peace and set the basic rules of multilateral diplomacy and protocol. Dr Meerts’s paper focuses on how the Vienna Congress addressed one of the main challenges of any negotiations: the more actors you have around the table, the less effective those negotiations are. The Congress created a delicate balance between inclusion and exclusion. It was inclusive inasmuch that all players at the time were invited to Vienna, but it was exclusive as actors had different roles divided in circles and committees. The core circle included the five great powers (France, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Britain). Other circles gradually expanded, to the outermost circle, which had close to 200 representatives including dukes and other local rulers. Committees focused on specific issues and were open to all players. For those who were not present at the negotiating table, a space for persuasion was created in the lively Viennese social life.

The question of exclusion/inclusion remains as relevant today as it was two centuries ago. Legitimacy can be achieved only through inclusion of not only of 193 UN member states, but also by other increasingly relevant stakeholders. At the same time, efficient negotiations can include a limited number of actors; according to our research and simulations, say, 12–15 as a maximum. Some attempts to address this ‘efficiency’ problem through various Gs (G8, G20) are criticised for their exclusivity and lack of legitimacy. Global policy-making is searching for the winning participatory formula. Can e-participation address this eternal dilemma of diplomacy and achieve both inclusion and efficiency?

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Paul Meerts , 2013

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Professor Andre Liebich approaches the potential and limits of persuasion through the analysis of the use of coercion in political life. Two concepts – persuasion and coercion – are usually seen in binary way, as Dr Vella indicates in his article Persuasion is winning over by argument; coercion is subjecting by compulsion. Prof. Liebich situates this interplay between coercion and persuasion in the analysis of how China and the Soviet Union reacted to the need for transition. He starts with two events in 1989: Tiananmen Square and the fall of the Berlin Wall. China used force; the Soviet Union did not. He focuses on Gorbachev’s role in these events by relying on views of two classic authors (Vilfredo Pareto and Niccolo Machiavelli) on coercion and political methods, including persuasion. Prof. Liebich’s contribution provides an analysis of the interplay between coercion and persuasion by following Gorbachev’s blended approach of not using force (Berlin) and using it (Vilnius and Baku). From a distance of 20 years, this article provides a realistic and evidence-based reflection on coercion and persuasion.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Andre Liebich , 2010

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It is fascinating to see how Russia entered the heart of Europe as a consequence of the Napoleonic defeat, was thrown out again after the Revoluation and the end of World War I, came back in as a consequence of German defeat in World War II, and thre...
 16 Mar 2013

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Dr Biljana Scott’s article on framing an argument introduces the linguistic and rhetoric aspects of persuasion. The way in which we frame an issue largely determines how that issue will be understood and acted upon. By dissecting Obama’s Nobel Prize acceptance speech of December 2010, Dr Scott illustrates the main techniques for framing an argument. ‘This speech can be seen as epitomizing the exercise of framing, given the implausible task of using a peace prize as a venue in which to advocate war.’ Dr Scott’s analysis of Obama’s speech starts with the use of logic in the framing of the argument, followed by the importance of storytelling, and concludes with the interplay between reason and emotion.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Biljana Scott , 2013

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Dr Milan Jazbec, a practitioner and researcher in diplomacy, positions a discussion on persuasion in the sociology of diplomacy. Social context determines both diplomacy and persuasion. Dr Jazbec makes a distinction between pressure and persuasion. In a rather counter-intuitive view to dominant discourse, he argues that genuine persuasion cannot be public. As soon as it becomes public, it immediately becomes pressure. Effective persuasion requires a certain level of secrecy in order to create an open, trusting, and reliable atmosphere among negotiators. Persuasion is much more effective when actors do not have to play to the gallery back home (high publicity) but instead concentrate on the interlocutor on the other side of the table. Dr Jazbec concludes that high interdependence in the Internet era creates a context which makes more space for diplomacy and persuasion than the use of force. In the same time, the high relevance of pressure for transparency and openness in modern society may limit the space for genuine persuasion.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Milan Jazbec , 2013

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Aldo Matteucci explores the relevance of social context for persuasion. Since persuasion leads to change, we should look into the mechanisms of change in society. Change is a social phenomenon. Change occurs when the intentionalities of individuals transmute into ‘collective intentionalities’. In this process, enablers play a key role. Enablers emerge in a wide variety of forms from invention (the wheel, horse-riding) to social processes (educating women leads towards a drop in fertility). Persuasion is an important enabler of social change. Social media is an example where persuasion evolves from the individual to the collective. Through social media and crowd sourcing, collective intentionality can emerge. New forms of social, instead of individual, persuasion will emerge. The key criterion for their success is whether they facilitate adaptation to the fast pace of change in modern society.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Aldo Matteucci , 2013

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Ambassador Kishan Rana indicates the cultivation of relations and the credibility of diplomats as the basis for persuasion in diplomacy. He provides an initial taxonomy of the type of relations that diplomats should cultivate. When it comes to credibility, Ambassador Rana presents the main ways of developing and maintaining credibility in diplomatic relations. The more credible the diplomat, the more likely it is that their persuasion with local interlocutors will be successful.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Kishan Rana , 2012

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Ambassador Victor Camilleri argues that the essence of diplomacy is a search for a point of convergence. Persuasion is one of the methods through which a point of convergence can be reached. He gives central relevance in diplomacy to the firm grasp of the essential points of negotiation, including assessment of balance of force. This article analyses persuasion in multilateral diplomacy through a case study the Maltese initiative on the ‘Common heritage of mankind’.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Victor Camilleri , 2013

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Persuasion is a very relative concept. Like beauty, persuasion is the eye of the beholder. Admittedly, persuasion does not exist in the absence of results. One can say that persuasion can be defined as such, if and only if it is effective and reaches its goals. If we accept this prerequisite, we may find persuasion where we least expect it.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Petru Dumitriu , 2013

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Genuine, honest persuasion cannot be rhetoric, cannot be show, and cannot be theatrics. It has to be something that you genuinely believe in, and people sense this. I can say from my experience that whenever you try to put on a show, people can pay you lip service. Whenever, you try to impress them with fantastic words they might be impressed for a moment, but then they will call your bluff when the true test comes.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Joe Borg , 2013

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Dr Alex Sceberras Trigona stresses that not only persuasion but also resisting persuasion is highly important for small states, which tend to be seen as the ‘diplomatic prey’ of great powers. He analyses three examples of successful persuasion from Maltese diplomatic history. First were the negotiations on Maltese neutrality, which required a lot of persuasion of two major Cold War powers and numerous regional players in the Mediterranean. Second was Malta’s successful lobbying for membership at the United Nations Security Council (1983/1984). The third example is bilateral negotiations with the United Kingdom for the removal of unexploded ordinances in 1984. Dr Trigona explains how these three instances used a wide range of persuasive and diplomatic tools.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Alex Sceberras Trigona , 2013

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In our families, in our jobs, in our political dynamic at a national level, we always try to persuade others, first and foremost. Since, diplomacy is part of the global human existence, it is natural that persuasion is an essential part and an essential tool of diplomacy … as much it is in your family life, in my family life, when you try to sort out trouble within your family, between your brothers and sisters, between your children and between your grandchildren at my age.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Joseph Cassar , 2012

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Throughout its history, humankind has been motivated to war, terrorism, ethnic cleansing, genocide, racist hysteria, religious intolerance and extremism, mass suicide and many other forms of irrational and pathological behaviour. The problem arises as Milan Kundera defines it, when we ask that terrible anthropological question – ‘What are people capable of’?

In order to give answers to why these atypical behaviors occur, and to understand the motivation behind people’s social or political behavior, we need to tap into the fields of social and political psychology.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Milos Radakovic , 2010

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As ancient rhetoricians believed that language was a potent force for persuasion, they insisted that their students develop copia in all spheres of their art. Copia denotes an abundant and ready supply of language in any situation that arises. Why did ancient teachers of rhetoric insist on this practice? Well, they knew that training their students in different rhetorical arts prepared them for the multitude of communicative and persuasive possibilities that exist in language.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Milos Radakovic , 2010

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The under-investigation in diplomatic studies of processes of persuasion in explaining diplomatic outcomes needs to be addressed in the interests of better scholarly explanations and diplomatic practice. Although such processes are implicit in nearly all concepts and practice of diplomacy, neither scholars nor practitioners explicitly investigate them. Yet other related fields of study and disciplines examine persuasion and demonstrate its explanatory value. Drawing on this literature, but also bearing in mind the nature of outcomes that diplomatic studies seeks to understand, this article offers a model of processes of persuasion and illustrates its potential for explaining a 2003 peace process negotiation in the Solomon Islands.

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Persuasion, The Essence of Diplomacy
 Pauline L. Kerr , 2010
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