Victor Shale's paper refers to a specific time period: the post-Cold War period which brought about new forms of conflicts, and high levels of terrorism. In the light of the change in traditional diplomacy, his paper examines multistakeholder diplomatic training and its importance as an approach in penetrating different cultures, and examines whether this approach could be used to minimise intractable conflicts.

Multistakeholder Diplomacy - Challenges and Opportunities. Ed by J. Kurbalija and V. Katrandjiev (2006)
 Victor Shale, 2006
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