This dissertation examines IOs (IOs) as emerging stars in the constellation of diplomatic actors, as extra-state and supra-state entities that do not replace, but rather complement, align with and encourage states. Specifically focusing on humanitarian - those attentive to the needs of people - international organisations, the paper explores their use of calls to action as a public diplomacy tool that both activates the public and reflects the needs and desires of individuals and their communities, translated to policy context. Calls to action should be strategic, well-researched, authoritive, targeted, coalition-based, innovative and engaging, sustainable and measured.
Humanitarian diplomacy practitioners, grounded in classic diplomacy concepts and skills, are a powerful force. Using best practice-based calls to action that engage meaningful global community participation and that harness the potential of ICT, they are formidable and growing presence within the constellation of diplomatic actors in a less hierarchical and more complex, but exciting, network era.