Part of the Advanced Diplomatic Webinars series.

  1. Amarna diplomacy (Ancient Egypt) – the first full diplomatic system with diplomatic archive (Amarna letters), elaborate communication system, diplomatic protocol and diplomatic envoys
  2. Hittiti era – the first written international treaty
  3. Ancient Greece – Advanced use of cipher protection, emergence of public diplomacy
  4. Byzantine diplomacy – use of elaborate protocol and rituals
  5. Papal diplomacy (Middle Ages) – use of parchment for diplomatic communication
  6. Renaissance diplomacy – first resident mission between Milan and Genoa (1455), well-developed cipher protection for diplomatic messages
  7. Reformation era – the end of the ‘parchment era’ and the start of the ‘printed documents era’ in diplomatic communication (invention of the Guttenberg press)
  8. Pavel Schilling (Russian diplomat) conducts an early successful experiment in electric telegraphy (1835)
  9. Lord Palmerston receives first diplomatic note by electric telegraph and reacts: ‘My God, this is the end of diplomacy’ (1860s)
  10. International Telegraph Union (ITU) established (1868)
  11. Three important telegrams in the history of diplomacy: Ems Telegram –  1870 (French-Prussian War and German Unification); Kruger Telegram – 1896 (Germany’s role in South Africa and start of Anglo-German antagonism);  Zimmerman Telegram (United States enters the First World War)
  12. Regulation radio communication  – first conventions adopted after the sinking of the Titanic
  13. Red phone – hot-line between Moscow and Washington during the Cold War, more direct lines between capitals
  14. Radio broadcasting – extensive use during the Second World War by Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin
  15. Tele-conferencing by the ITU between New York and Geneva (1963)
  16. CNN effect – the Impact of TV on global public opinion during the Gulf War (1990/1991)
  17. Mailing lists used in multilateral meetings at the Rio Earth Summit (1992)
  18. Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) established (1998)
  19. Diplomatic services websites start to appear (1990s)
  20. World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) (2003-2005)
  21. Social media used in diplomacy (2010+)

Please comment on this list and let us know if any milestone is missing!

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