The final paper in this volume, by Jovan Kurbalija, is based on the experience of ten years of research and development work in the field of information technology and diplomacy. Kurbalija explains the relevance and potential of hypertext software tools for the field of diplomacy. With a number of case studies drawn from the hypertext system developed by Diplo and illustrated with screen shots, Kurbalija illustrates exactly why diplomatic activities are so well suited to hypertext.

Source: 
Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
Author: 
Jovan Kurbalija
Year: 
2001

Conference interpreters Vicky Cremona and Helena Mallia outline the different types of conference interpretation, difficulties in interpretation, preparation and techniques, and team work. On the topic of diplomatic conferences they point out that "confidence in the interpreters is essential.

Source: 
Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
Author: 
Vicky Ann Cremona, Helena Mallia
Year: 
2001

Dr Donald Sola asks whether software innovation can make a contribution to the needs of those learning the world "languages of wider communication". He presents his work in developing computer-assisted language learning software, a multi-disciplinary activity not based simply on technology but also on the theory and practice of education and linguistics.

Source: 
Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
Author: 
Donald Sola
Year: 
2001

Dr Francisco Gomes de Matos applies what he calls the "Pedagogy of Positiveness" to diplomatic communication. He proposes a checklist of tips for diplomats to make their communication more positive, emphasising respect and understanding of the other side, and keeping in mind the ultimate goal of avoiding conflict. Gomes de Matos finishes with a number of pleas, including one for the adoption of the study of human linguistic rights and the pedagogy of positiveness into the education of diplomats.

Source: 
Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
Author: 
Francisco Gomes de Matos
Year: 
2001

In his examination of the languages used by the Knights of St John in Rhodes and Malta during the 14th to 16th centuries, Professor Joseph Brincat applies the methodology of historical linguistics. As an international and multi-lingual entity, the Order faced difficulties with its administrative methods intimately linked to linguistic issues. Brincat follows the transition in the official written language of the knights through French, Latin and Italian, examining the social, political and linguistic reasons for these changes.

Source: 
Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
Author: 
Joseph M. Brincat
Year: 
2001

Ivan Callus and Ruben Borg apply a very different set of tools to the analysis of diplomatic discourse. Their paper applies the discourse of deconstruction, a form of literary criticism, to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. The purpose and function of deconstruction, and its potential contribution to diplomatic language, is "to force the discipline to which it applies itself to look at its own language and to develop an almost pathological awareness of its own linguistic strategies."

Source: 
Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
Author: 
Ivan Callus, Ruben Borg
Year: 
2001

Edmond Pascual interprets diplomatic communication with the linguistic tools of pragmatics. He begins by reminding us that while the diplomat is a "man of action," the particular nature of the diplomat's action is that it consists of speech. Pascual applies three concepts of pragmatics to diplomatic discourse: speech as an intentional act; the effects of the act of speech; and the role of the unsaid in the act of speech.

Source: 
Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
Author: 
Edmond Pascual (Translation from French by Helena Mallia)
Year: 
2001

Rather than individual documents, Dr Keith Hamilton looks at the process and purpose of compiling collections of documents. He focuses on his own experience as the editor of Documents on British Policy Overseas, and particularly on his work publishing a collection of documents concerning the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe from 1972 until 1975.

Source: 
Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
Author: 
Keith Hamilton
Year: 
2001

Professor Dietrich Kappeler provides an overview of the various types of formal written documents used in diplomacy, pointing out where the practices surrounding these documents have changed in recent years. He also discusses multi-language treaties, including the difficulties of translation and interpretation. Kappeler concludes with an examination of the impact of information technology: its use in the preparation and preservation of documents, its effect on the form of documents, and the problems it brings for guaranteeing the authenticity of texts.

Source: 
Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
Author: 
Dietrich Kappeler
Year: 
2001

Drazen Pehar looks specifically at the use of ambiguities in peace agreements. Pehar explains why ambiguities are so often used and why diplomats and others involved in international relations may think it best to eliminate ambiguities from peace agreements altogether. He goes on to demonstrate, however, with numerous examples, that while ambiguities have led to a continuation or re-starting of hostilities in some cases, in many other cases they have provided the only bridge between conflicting parties and allowed for a cessation of violence.

Source: 
Language and Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija and H. Slavik (2001)
Author: 
Drazen Pehar
Year: 
2001

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