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Classical rhetoric is defined as “the art of speaking or writing effectively: as a: the study of principles and rules of composition formulated by critics of ancient times b: the study of writing or speaking as a means of communication or persuasion.” (Merriam-Webster Online) However, people often think first of a definition more like this: “empty words, meaningless speech: The prime minister's speech was pure political rhetoric.” (The Newbury House Online Dictionary) These definitions seem at odds with each other: effective and persuasive speech compared to empty, meaningless speech. But whether one considers rhetoric in a positive or negative way, the common factor is that it is speech aiming to persuade.
Diplomats can benefit from studying both the positive and negative aspects of rhetoric. World events are triggered by the words and actions of national leaders and politicians. Diplomats need to pay careful attention to political speech in order to gain clues about the concerns, intentions, and agendas of national leaders and political figures. At the same time, the work of diplomats is based largely on their ability to use language well - to convince and persuade. Diplomats need to be aware and in control of the power and effect of their words. As Drazen Pehar, researcher on language and diplomacy, writes: “…when it comes to the use of language and its many styles, diplomats must bear in mind that they have a choice. They may choose one or more among many styles of language. This freedom of choice of an instrument of expression is particularly important because plurality of such instruments makes diplomats aware of their own responsibility in verbally expressing their attitudes towards international developments.” ("Historical Rhetoric and Diplomacy," Language and Diplomacy, Malta: DiploProjects, 2001)
To end on a comic note, visit “An English primer (a glossary translating political rhetoric into plain English),” created by Thomas Sowell. The glossary offers definitions such as:
Demonstration: A riot by people you agree with.
Mob violence: A riot by people you disagree with.
While the intent is comic, the glossary makes the point that most of us believe politicians to be hiding behind their rhetoric as a way to avoid direct communication. And most of us have accepted this practice as simply the way politicians work.
Mr Jean-Christophe Nothias, Ambassador Francois Nordmann, Dr Jovan Kurbalija, Amb. Petru Dumitriu, Dr Aldo Matteucci
On 30 January 2015, the Zimbabwean president Robert G. Mugabe was appointed chairperson of the African Union (AU) for the year. As chairperson, Mugabe divides the audience: some perceive him as a nationalistic hero and true pan-Africanist, while others see him as a dictator and gross human rights violator. To have such a divisive chairperson can be seen as a disadvantage for the AU, which often